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Evaluation of Applicability of Food and Nutrition Standards for Child Care Setting in the Seoul Metropolitan Government (서울시 영유아 공공급식 식품영양관리 기준의 적용 가능성 평가)

  • Jeon, Hye-Min;Kim, Kirang;Yi, Hae-Yeon;Hwang, Ji-Yun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.8
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    • pp.997-1011
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    • 2017
  • This study aimed to evaluate the applicability of "food and nutrition standards for child care setting in the Seoul Metropolitan Government" using quantitative and qualitative surveys and lay the groundwork for future expansion. To evaluate the understanding and applicability of each item of the standards and utilize goodness of fit as an evaluation item to improve practicality of the child care center's health foodservice, we surveyed 82 child care centers, kindergartens, and community children centers in Seoul by e-mail through the Seoul Metropolitan Government in November 2015. Using focus group interviews with directors of child care centers and kindergartens as well as dieticians of child care support centers who had conducted public foodservice in Seoul, the appropriateness of each standard was finally reviewed, and amendments to extend this standard were derived. Results of the survey show an understanding of 86.9% and an applicability of 80.7%. Moreover, the applicability of the evaluation items for assessing improvement of health foodservice practices at the child care center was 82.6%. Qualitative evaluation of the applicability of standards through focus group interviews identified four factors for extended application: necessity of a guideline for separate food ingredient suppliers, conformity of the basis and purpose of the item, consideration of contextual situations, and necessity of establishing a Seoul-level foundation. Therefore, guidelines for the standards should be suggested for those providing public food services for children. Furthermore, separate guidelines categorized by items that food ingredient suppliers need to provide should be mandatory or recommended. Evaluation of the applicability of the standards suggests that revising and supplementing the guidelines in order to extend the standards can contribute to health promotion and a sustainable environment for children using public foodservice. Follow-up studies and supports are needed for sustainable food and nutrition management programs.

Study on Factors Determining Labor Force Participation Rate of Older males : The Elderly Poverty Labor Hypothesis and Skill-Biased Technological Change Hypothesis (고령남성의 경제활동참가 결정요인 연구 - 노후빈곤노동가설 및 숙련편향기술진보설을 중심으로 -)

  • Ji, Eun-Jeong
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.60 no.3
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    • pp.31-58
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    • 2008
  • This study examines applying the elderly poverty labor hypothesis and skill-biased technological change hypothesis to labor force participation rate(LFPR) of older males in Korea. These hypotheses have hardly been examined on the this group. The analysis is based on the data "Summary of economically active population($1965{\sim}2007$)", "Population projection($1965{\sim}2007$)", "Report on wage structure survey($1993{\sim}2005$)" and "Korea Labor and Income Panel Study($1998{\sim}2006$)". The method employed for this study is logistic regression. The main results from this analysis are summarized in five points. Firstly, Korean older males' LFPR have been increasing since 1965 when industrialization was expanding at full steam. This trend has been different from the decreasing trend of industrialized countries. The second finding is that poor older males' LFPR is, on the average, 5.2% higher than that of non-poor older males from 1998 to 2005. The third result is that the non-elderly man has been increasingly positioned at higher grade occupations, while the elderly man has been held at lower grade occupations. The fourth is that labor demand for highly educated workers has exceeded the increased labor supply of the group, while the demand for low educated workers has decreased far beyond the declined labor supply. As a result, college premium has increased from 139% in 1993 to 157.8% in 2005. The final main implication of this study is that the industrialization theory and modernization hypothesis still holds for the LFPR of Korean older males. However, the elderly affluence hypothesis of the LFPR of older males are hardly persuasive in explaining Korean phenomenon. Especially, we find that the elderly poverty is the main mechanism in determining the Korean LFPR in old ages. This supports the elderly poverty labor hypothesis presented in this study. Skill-biased technological change hypothesis partially explains the LFPR of older man. However, we believe that other factors; human capital specially high school education rather than university education and skill required in less skill biased occupations or the poverty; also have taken effect.

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The Characteristics of Korean Smoker, Enrolled in '5 day Smoking Cessation School' and The Effect of Inpatient Smoking Cessation Program (서울 위생 병원 5일 금연 학교를 방문한 우리나라 흡연자의 특성 및 입원 금연 교육 프로그램의 효과)

  • Lee, Byung Soo;Kang, Ki Hoon;Chae, Eun Ha;Kim, Myung Chan;Jung, Jae Il;Chang, Hee Jong;Lee, Sang Hoon;Cho, Dong Sik;Shin, Jai Gyu;Kim, Hui Jung
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.57 no.5
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    • pp.411-418
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    • 2004
  • Background : Cigarette smoking is the single biggest avoidable cause of death and disability in most countries. Effective prevention of cigarette Smoking and help for those wishing to quit can therefore yield enormous health benefits for populations and individuals. Although most of smokers try to stop smoking for themselves, the success rate of quitting smoking is very low. Promoting and supporting smoking cessation should be an important health policy priority for healthcare professionals in all clinical settings. In this study, we tried to evaluate the effect of the educational program for smoking cessation of our hospital, the smoking pattern, and characteristics of adult smokers enrolled in the program. Methods : We enrolled 640 smokers, who has visited the '5 day stop smoking school' for smoking cessation from Jan 1998 to 2001. we evaluated the characteristics of the smokers based on the self report questionnaire at the beginning of the program and we also checked 100 smokers, enrolled in Inpatient Smoking Cessation Educational program, their smoking behavior and the cessation rate with postal questionnaire after finishing this program from Nov 2002 to Jan 2003. Results : The health was most common motivation for smoking cessation. The stress was the most important motivation of smoking. The overall smoking cessation rate of the smokers enrolled in inpatient smoking cessation school was 60%. The age of starting smoking and the kind of occupation have a significant difference between the success group and failure group of smoking cessation. Conclusion : The inpatient smoking cessation program was effective smoking cessation intervention in the adult smokers who enrolled in '5 day stop smoking school'.

Selection of Vegetables and Fertigation Methods for Veranda Gardening (베란다 재배에 적합한 채소작물 및 관비방법 선발)

  • Moon, Ji-Hye;Lee, Sang-Gyu;Jang, Yoon-Ah;Lee, Woo-Moon;Lee, Ji-Weon;Kim, Seung-Yu;Park, Hyun-Jun
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.314-321
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    • 2007
  • This study was conducted to select leaf vegetables suitable for cultivation in apartment verandas and simple and easy fertigation method for home gardening. In order to develop the convenient fertigation method, hydroponics, wick irrigation, and overhead irrigation methods were compared. For the wick irrigation, two types of nutrient sources were used; one was slow release fertilizers mixed with medium and the other one was nutrient solution filled in container located under pots. The growth of leafy lettuce, leaf mustard, and leaf beet was better in both of the wick irrigation methods rather than in overhead irrigation and hydroponics. The wick irrigation method is very easy, so that it is expected to bring a good result from the cultivating and managing point of view, if it brings with commercialized system along with slow release fertilizer. As a result of investigation of environment such as temperature, relative humidity, and irradiance level in apartment verandas in autumn the highest irradiance level during a day was just 48% and 35% in verandas facing south and feeing southeast, respectively, comparing to that in greenhouse. The light environment was investigated as a limiting factor for vegetable growing in verandas. Therefore, to select the vegetables showing good growth under low irradiance environment, nine leaf vegetables such as romaine lettuce, lent lettuce, head lettuce, endive, pak-choi, leaf mustard, garland chrysanthemum, leaf beet, and Chinese chive were grown under 0%, 50%, 70%, 90% shading. Among them, Chinese chive showed the best growth under low irradiance levels. Endive showed line growth reduction according to shading degree, however, even under 90% shading condition, it showed good growth. And then leafy lettuce, garland chrysanthemum, and pak-choi followed. Therefore, these results will be of help in selecting vegetables for veranda gardening with different light levels.

Effect of Pulsatile Versus Nonpulsatile Blood Flow on Renal Tissue Perfusion in Extracorporeal Circulation (체외순환에서 박동 혈류와 비박동 혈류가 신장의 조직관류에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim Hyun Koo;Son Ho Sung;Fang Yang Hu;Park Sung Young;Kim Kwang Taik;Kim Hark Jei;Sun Kyung
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.13-22
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    • 2005
  • It has been known that pulsatile flow is physiologic and more favorable to tissue perfusion than nonpulsatile flow. The purpose of this study is to directly compare the effect of pulsatile versus nonpulsatile blood flow to renal tissue perfusion in extracorporeal circulation by using a tissue perfusion measurement system. Material and Method: Total cardiopulmonary bypass circuit was constructed to twelve Yorkshire swines, weighing 20$\~ $30 kg. Animals were randomly assigned to group 1 (n=6, non pulsatile centrifugal pump) or group 2 (n=6, pulsatile T-PLS pump). A probe of the tissue perfusion measurement system $(QFlow^{TM}-500)$ was inserted into the renal pa­renchymal tissue. Extracorporeal circulation was maintained for an hour at a pump flow of 2 L/min after aortic cross-clamping. Tissue perfusion flow of the kidney was measured at baseline (before bypass) and every 10 minutes after bypass. Serologic parameters were collected at baseline and 60 minutes after bypass. Result: Baseline parameters were not different between the groups. Renal tissue perfusion flow was substantially higher in the pulsatile group throughout the bypass (ranged 48.5$\~$ 64 in group 1 vs. 65.8$\~$88.3 mL/min/100 g in group 2, p=0.026$\~$ 0.45) The difference was significant at 30 minutes bypass $(47.5{\pm}18.3\;in\;group\;1\;vs.\;83.4{\pm}28.5$ mL/min/100 g in group 2, p=0.026). Serologic parameters including plasma free hemoglobin, blood urea nitrogen, and creatinine showed no differences between the groups at 60 minutes after bypass (p=NS). Conclusion: Pulsatile flow is more beneficial to tissue perfusion of the kidney in short-term extracorporeal circulation. Further study is suggested to observe the effects to other vital organs or long-term significance.

A Survey on the Perception of the Counterplans of Medical Accident and Dispute of Dental Hygienist (의료사고 및 의료분쟁에 대한 치위생사의 인식도 조사)

  • Oh, Jin-Ho;Kwon, Jeong-Seung;Ahn, Hyoung-Joon;Kang, Jin-Kyu;Choi, Jong-Hoon
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.9-33
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    • 2007
  • In the field of dentistry, there existed relatively few emergency patients or patients who need intensive care and thus had low medical dispute rates. However, these days, there is a general tendency of increased medical disputes. Although many medical disputes are caused by medical accidents of the dentists, because dental assistants are also lawfully involved in practicing dentistry, there is a possibility of medical disputes or medical accidents caused by dental assistants. Therefore, the role of the dental assistants cannot be ignored. This study consists of a survey given to dental hygienists currently working in general hospitals, dental hospitals and private dental clinics. Following is the results of the analysis of 275 respondents' backgrounds, medical disputes rates including patients' complaints, their understanding of medical regulations and their general understanding of overall dental practice and medical disputes. 1. 251 of 274(91.6%) respondents doubted the risk of medical accident and dispute. 2. 81(29.5%) dental hygienist experienced complaint from patients. They have been working in the private dental clinic, the rate of this experience was high. 3. 349 case of 1805(19.3%) the complaints by patients, highest percentage among its category, were those regarding dental fees and poor service. 4. 129 case of 1805(7.1%) patients' complaints, highest percentage among it's subcategory, were those regarding the absence of explanations of precautions or request of agreements before dental treatment. 5. 252 of 267 (94.4%) dental hygienists chart after a scaling treatment. However, only 55(20.7%) dental hygienists chart the fact of explaining the precautions. 6. 6(2.2%) dental hygienists do not inspect patients' medical history, if patients don't mention it. 7. 104 of 274(38.0%) dental hygienists responded to be capable of administering first aid treatment. 8. 115(41.8%) dental hygienists have a first aid kit and equipment. 9. In case of medical dispute, 268(97.8%) dental hygienists respond that, charting plays a big role in resolving the dispute. 10. In case of medical dispute, 272(93.3%) dental hygienists respond that, explanation and agreement before treatment have an important role in settlement of dispute 11. Only 160(58.4%) dental hygienists responded correct answer that the duration of keeping medical records is 10 years. 12. 124(45.3%) respondents thought that it is legal for a dental hygienist to take a panoramic dental X-ray, 71(25.9%) respondents thought that it is legal practice cervical resin treatment by dental hygienist, and 37(13.5%) respondents thought that it is legal extract primary teeth by dental hygienist. 13. 24(18.76%) respondents thought that it doesn't matter to tell patient's state to others 14. 272(99.27%) responded that receiving education for the prevention of medical disputes was needed and of them, 61.0% thought it was urgent. 15. 186(64.2%) has never had classes regarding the prevention of medical disputes while in school and 212(77.4%) has not had the same type of classes after graduating from school. 16. 256(93.4%) responded that there will be even more of an increased number of medical disputes. Among them, 83.3% of respondents though that due to the increased opportunity of acquiring information through the internet and mass media. The study shows that 29.5 percentage of dental hygienists have experienced the medical disputes and complaints and they are lack of recognition of medical regulations and dental hygienist's official duty. So, there is a big potential of the percentage to increase. Therefore, the correct understanding of explaining precautions and requesting agreement before dental treatments and performing them are mandatory. Moreover, classes regarding the prevention and counterplans of medical disputes need to be widely offered.

A Study of the Reactive Movement Synchronization for Analysis of Group Flow (그룹 몰입도 판단을 위한 움직임 동기화 연구)

  • Ryu, Joon Mo;Park, Seung-Bo;Kim, Jae Kyeong
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.79-94
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    • 2013
  • Recently, the high value added business is steadily growing in the culture and art area. To generated high value from a performance, the satisfaction of audience is necessary. The flow in a critical factor for satisfaction, and it should be induced from audience and measures. To evaluate interest and emotion of audience on contents, producers or investors need a kind of index for the measurement of the flow. But it is neither easy to define the flow quantitatively, nor to collect audience's reaction immediately. The previous studies of the group flow were evaluated by the sum of the average value of each person's reaction. The flow or "good feeling" from each audience was extracted from his face, especially, the change of his (or her) expression and body movement. But it was not easy to handle the large amount of real-time data from each sensor signals. And also it was difficult to set experimental devices, in terms of economic and environmental problems. Because, all participants should have their own personal sensor to check their physical signal. Also each camera should be located in front of their head to catch their looks. Therefore we need more simple system to analyze group flow. This study provides the method for measurement of audiences flow with group synchronization at same time and place. To measure the synchronization, we made real-time processing system using the Differential Image and Group Emotion Analysis (GEA) system. Differential Image was obtained from camera and by the previous frame was subtracted from present frame. So the movement variation on audience's reaction was obtained. And then we developed a program, GEX(Group Emotion Analysis), for flow judgment model. After the measurement of the audience's reaction, the synchronization is divided as Dynamic State Synchronization and Static State Synchronization. The Dynamic State Synchronization accompanies audience's active reaction, while the Static State Synchronization means to movement of audience. The Dynamic State Synchronization can be caused by the audience's surprise action such as scary, creepy or reversal scene. And the Static State Synchronization was triggered by impressed or sad scene. Therefore we showed them several short movies containing various scenes mentioned previously. And these kind of scenes made them sad, clap, and creepy, etc. To check the movement of audience, we defined the critical point, ${\alpha}$and ${\beta}$. Dynamic State Synchronization was meaningful when the movement value was over critical point ${\beta}$, while Static State Synchronization was effective under critical point ${\alpha}$. ${\beta}$ is made by audience' clapping movement of 10 teams in stead of using average number of movement. After checking the reactive movement of audience, the percentage(%) ratio was calculated from the division of "people having reaction" by "total people". Total 37 teams were made in "2012 Seoul DMC Culture Open" and they involved the experiments. First, they followed induction to clap by staff. Second, basic scene for neutralize emotion of audience. Third, flow scene was displayed to audience. Forth, the reversal scene was introduced. And then 24 teams of them were provided with amuse and creepy scenes. And the other 10 teams were exposed with the sad scene. There were clapping and laughing action of audience on the amuse scene with shaking their head or hid with closing eyes. And also the sad or touching scene made them silent. If the results were over about 80%, the group could be judged as the synchronization and the flow were achieved. As a result, the audience showed similar reactions about similar stimulation at same time and place. Once we get an additional normalization and experiment, we can obtain find the flow factor through the synchronization on a much bigger group and this should be useful for planning contents.

Long-Term Result of Tricuspid Valve Replacement (삼첨판막 치환술의 장기성적)

  • Lim, Cheong;Kang, Moon-Chul;Kim, Kyung-Hwan;Kim, Ki-Bong;Ahn, Hyuk
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.34 no.9
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    • pp.680-685
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    • 2001
  • Background: Tricuspid valve replacement is very rarely performed procedure and its long-term result is not yet satisfactory. Moreover, it is not well known whether bioprosthesis or mechanical prosthesis is the best selection for artificial valve. We reviewed 72 cases of tricuspid valve replacements in 71 patients between January 1989 and December 1998, trying to analyze the overall results and risk factors for mortality and morbidity. Material and Method: Average age of the patients at the time of operation was 42$\pm$13 years(range 16 to 65 years) and the sex ratio of male versus female was 32/39. Primary diagnosis consisted of 50 cases of aquired valvular heart disease and 18 cases of congenital heart disease, such as Ebstein’s anomaly. 4 cases had isolated tricuspid valve regurgitation. Implanted valves were 69 mechanical prosthesis and 3 bioprosthesis. Concomitant mitral or aortic valve replacements were performed in 50 cases. One patient received concomittant pulmonary valve replacement. Result: There were 7(9.72%) operative deaths and 7(13.0%) late deaths. Actuarial survival at 10 years was 59.2$\pm$7.2%. Prosthetic tricuspid valve thrombosis occurred 11 times in 5 patients. Reoperation for prosthetic tricuspid valve failure was performed in 1 patient. In this case, examination of the explanted prostheses showed that the tricuspid stenosis was the result of valve thrombosis. Among the 47 survivors, 46 patients(98%) were in functional class I or II. Conclusion: In our ten-year experience of tricuspid valve replacement, mortality and morbidity were satisfactory. Mechanical prosthesis in tricuspid position showed comparable clinical results as bioprosthesis.

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Causes of Childhood Injuries Observed at the Emergency Rooms of Five Hospitals in Taegu (대구시내 종합병원 응급실에 찾아온 소아사고 환아의 사고원인)

  • Park, Jung-Han;Bae, Yeong-Sook
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.224-237
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    • 1988
  • To determine the causes of and related factors to childhood injuries, the emergency room records and inpatient medical records were reviewed for 4,849 injured children out of 15,790 pediatric patients(<15 years old) who visited the emergency rooms of 3 university hospitals and 2 general hospitals in Taegu from 1 January to 31 December 1987. Out of total injured children, 54.675 were 3-8 years old and the male to female ratio of the total injured children was about 2:1. The leading causes of injury were falls and slips (29.1%) and traffic accident(28.2%). The frequency of injury was higher in May-October than the rest of months and 51.6% of the injuries occurred between 15 and 20 o'clock. Falls and slips took place most frequently at the stairway(25.7%). The most common interpersonal violence was inflicted injuries(85.6%) and there were 11 child rapes. Dog bites accounted for 67.6% of all biting injuries and it occured 2.9 times more in male than in female. CO intoxication was the most common cause of poisoning (45.3%) and scalding accounted for 85.2% of all burns. Common places of drownings were river (32.2%), swimming pool (22.6%) and construction site(19.3%). To prevent childhood injuries, it is recommended to eliminate the hazardous environmental factors, to provide safe playgrounds, to educate the children for safety from kindergarten and the general public through mass communication, to establish a strict safety standard for houses, public buildings and facilities, and playgrounds.

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A Study on Seasonal Variation of Water Content under Highway Asphalt Pavements Using Neutron Moisture Meter (중성자 수분측정기를 이용한 고속도로 포장의 계절별 함수량 변화 측정에 관한 연구)

  • Song Kwan-Cheol;Lee Sang-Mo;Yoo Sun-Ho;Ryu Kwan-Sik;Park Moo-Eon
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.156-166
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    • 2000
  • This study was carried out to provide the information on seasonal variations of water content under highway asphalt pavements which influence on the dynamic behaviour and durability of pavements, and to assess the correlation between water content and soil or meteorological factors. Total eight sites for water content measurement which included fives sites in Kyungbu, two sites in Honam, and one site in Youngdong Highway were selected considering the variations in geology, topology and meteorology factors over all the country. Water contents under asphalt pavements were measured up to 170 cm depth every two week for total 13 months of August 1992 through September 1993 using neutron moisture meter(CPN-503DR). The range of water content ($\theta$$_{w}$) at the upper soils of above 50 cm depth was 7~12% and was not quite different regardless of sites, except for Iseo site. However, soil water contents below 60 or 70 cm depth were significantly different between the measurement sites, that is, the lowest water content was 5% at Kyungsan site and the highest water content was 20% at Iseo site. For all the sites, seasonal variations in water content during the experimental period were little, their range was within only 1 to 4%. Seasonal variations of water content in original or cutting area, which were 4% more or less, were slightly larger than in bedding areas, which were below 2%. Water contents under asphalt pavements had statistically significant positive correlations with silt and clay content in soil, but there were little correlations between water content and meteorological factors such as precipitation, relative humidity, mean air temperature, and wind velocity.

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