• Title, Summary, Keyword: 생물

Search Result 44,840, Processing Time 0.149 seconds

Effect of Solid $CO_2$ Generator Treatment on Fruit Yield and Quality of Korean Melon(Cucumis melo var. hybrida) (탄산가스 발생제 처리가 참외의 품질 및 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Yong Seub;Lee, Ji Eun;Kim, Min Ki;Cheung, Joung Do;Do, Han Woo;Park, Jong Uk;Kim, Jwoo Hwan;Park, Jong Tae;Lee, Soo Tak;Suh, Jun Kyu
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.83-87
    • /
    • 2014
  • The objective of this study was to examine the changes in carbon dioxide ($CO_2$) concentration due to application of solid $CO_2$ generator (Tansansol) in plastic greenhouses during winter cultivation of Korean melon. The experimental treatments consisted of four levels, namely, 0 (control) 10, 20 and 30bags with solid $CO_2$ generator per $600m^2$ of plastic greenhouse. $CO_2$ concentration in plots with solid gas generators was higher by 3.0-3.2% compared to control. Fruit weight, sugar content and color parameter were also enhanced due to application of solid $CO_2$ generator. The fraction of fermentated and unmarketable fruits were decreased by 2.9-3.9% and 5.4-7.3%, respectively, in plots where solid $CO_2$ generators were applied. The marketable yield increased by 10.3, 14.8 and 16.2% in plots with 10, 20 and 30bags with $CO_2$ generators, respectively. As a result, $CO_2$ concentration within the greenhouses was increased by applying $CO_2$ generators and it is positively affected the rate of photosynthesis.

Fruit Characteristics of Gaeryangmeoru Grapes According to Gibberellic Acid and Thidiazuron Treatments (Gibberellic acid와 thidiazuron 처리에 의한 개량머루의 과실 특성)

  • Kwon, YongHee
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.77-82
    • /
    • 2014
  • The present study was conducted to establish an effect and a proper concentration for treatment with gibberellic acid ($GA_3$) and thidiazuron (TDZ), resulting with increase berry size and yield in Gaeryangmeoru grapes. Berry size was increased by treatment with $GA_3$, and the fruit clusters obtained for the groups treated with $GA_3$ concentrations of 100 and $200mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ were bigger. The berry number was also enhanced in $GA_3$ treated groups, but the soluble solid content and acidity was not significantly different. Damage caused by $GA_3$ treatment, such as peel pollination and berry shatter, was observed in the group with $200mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$. The berry size was larger in group treated with a high concentration of $GA_3$ and TDZ respectively than in those treated with low concentrations in the treatment mixed $GA_3$ and TDZ; however, fruit with low soluble solid content and high acidity was harvested after $GA_3$ and TDZ treatment due to delay of berry ripening. The pericarp tissue layers were not changed, but the distance from the epidermis layer to vascular bundle tissue was increased as a result of $GA_3$ and TDZ treatment. Therefore, $GA_3$ and TDZ did not affect an cell division but not cell size, resulting in an enlarged berry size. It is necessary to treat plant growth regulators 2~3 times and immediately after berry set to enhance berry set rate, because the period of berry set is short. This study suggests that the proper concentration for enhancing berry size and set were up to $100mg{\cdot}L^1$ $GA_3$ or $50mg{\cdot}L^{-1}GA_3+1.25mg{\cdot}L^{-1}$ TDZ, and it is necessary to pay attention to harvest mature fruits because of the delay of ripening caused by the usage of TDZ.

Effect of Cell Size on Growth and Development of Plug Seedlings of Three Indigenous Medicinal Plants (플러그 셀 크기가 세 가지 자생 약용식물 묘 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Hye Jin;Park, Yoo Gyeong;Park, Ji Eun;Jeong, Byoung Ryong
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.71-76
    • /
    • 2014
  • There have not been many studies conducted on the seedling production, especially in plug trays, of traditional medicinal plant species. In an effort to establish guide lines for seedling production, this study investigated the effect of plug cell size on the growth and development of plug seedling of three medicinal plant species. Seeds were sown in either 128, 200, or 288-cell plug trays, containing a commercial medium. Growth and development of individual seedling was generally promoted with increasing size of a plug cell in all of the three species. The greatest biomass of the seedlings gained in a plug tray was obtained in the 288-cell trays in Perilla frutescens var. acuta Kudo and Sophora tonkinensis, and the 200-cell trays in Angelica gigas Nakai. Overall growth and development of the shoot and root of a single seedling of Perilla frutescens var. acuta Kudo, except total chlorophyll and anthocyanin contents, was the greatest in the 128-cell tray. However, length of the longest root, length, width and area of the leaf, internode length, root fresh weight, and root ball formation in the 200- and 288-cell trays were not significantly different each other. In Sophora tonkinensis, although length of the longest root, stem diameter, leaf width, leaf area, shoot fresh weight, and root ball formation were not significantly different among the treatments, length of the longest root and root ball formation of a single seedling were the greatest in the 128-cell tray. Overall shoot and root growth, except total chlorophyll content, of a single seedling of Angelica gigas Nakai was the greatest in the 128-cell tray. Based on the total biomass, it is concluded that 288-cell trays are recommended for production of plug seedlings of medicinal plant species P. frutescens var. acuta Kudo and S. tonkinensis. In A. gigas Nakai, it would be more economical to use the 200-cell trays than 128-cell trays due to total biomass.

Selection of Non-Perforated Breathable Film to Enhance Storability of Cherry Tomato for Modified Atmosphere Storage at Different Temperatures (방울토마토의 MA 저장성 향상을 위한 비천공 breathable 필름 구명)

  • Islam, Mohammad Zahirul;Mele, Mahmuda Akter;Lee, Han Jong;Lee, Kyoung Soo;Hong, Sung Mi;Jeong, Min Jae;Kim, Il-Seop;Hong, Soon-Kwan;Choi, In-Lee;Baek, Jun Pill;Kang, Ho-Min
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.116-122
    • /
    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to find out the appropriate packaging materials to extend the storability and maintain the quality of cherry tomato for modified atmosphere (MA) storage. Tomatoes were grown by hydroponic at a plastic house in Gangwon Province. Light red maturity stage tomatoes were harvested and packed with MA condition (10,000; 20,000; 40,000; 60,000; 80,000; and $100,000cc/m^2.day.atm$ $O_2$ permeability film) and perforated film to store at $5^{\circ}C$, $11^{\circ}C$ and $24^{\circ}C$. The fresh weight loss was less than 0.6% in all non-perforated breathable films at $^5{\circ}C$, $11^{\circ}C$, and $24^{\circ}C$, but perforated film had less than 2.93% at $5^{\circ}C$, 13.29% at $11^{\circ}C$ and 27.24% at $24^{\circ}C$. The 20,000cc at $5^{\circ}C$ and $11^{\circ}C$, and the 40,000cc film at $24^{\circ}C$ balanced optimum carbon dioxide and oxygen concentration in the package to maintain quality. The 10,000cc film was appeared the significantly highest ethylene concentration at $5^{\circ}C$, $11^{\circ}C$, and $24^{\circ}C$, this film had the lowest $O_2$ permeability. Visual quality, firmness, and soluble solids were maintained in 20,000cc films both at $5^{\circ}C$ and $11^{\circ}C$, the 40,000cc film at $24^{\circ}C$. There was no any trend in titratable acidity and vitamin C content of treated packed film types and temperatures at cherry tomatoes packages. Therefore, the appropriate MA condition for $5^{\circ}C$ and $11^{\circ}C$ is $20,000cc/m^2.day.atm$ $O_2$ permeability film; for $24^{\circ}C$ it is $40,000cc/m^2.day.atm$ $O_2$ permeability film because those films extended the storability through the firmness, soluble solids as well as visual quality.

Measuring Water Content Characteristics by Using Frequency Domain Reflectometry Sensor in Coconut Coir Substrate (FDR(Frequency Domain Reflectometry)센서를 이용한 코코넛 코이어 배지내 수분특성 측정)

  • Park, Sung Tae;Jung, Geum Hyang;Yoo, Hyung Joo;Choi, Eun-Young;Choi, Ki-Young;Lee, Yong-Beom
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.158-166
    • /
    • 2014
  • This experiment has investigated suitable methods to improve precision water content monitoring of coconut coir substrates to control irrigation by frequency domain reflectometry(FDR) sensors. Specifically, water content changes and variations were observed at different sensing distances and positions from the irrigation dripper location, and different spaces between the FDR sensors with or without noise filters. Commercial coconut coir substrates containing different ratios of dust and chips(10:0, 7:3, 5:5, 3:7) were used. On the upper side and the side of the substrates, a FDR sensor was used at 5, 10, 20, 30cm distances respectively from the irrigation dripper point, and water content was measured by time after the irrigation. In the glass beads, sensors were installed with or without noise filtering. Closer sensing distance had a higher water content increasing rate, regardless of different coir substrate ratios. There were no differencies of water content increasing rates in 10:0 and 3:7 substrates between the upper side and the side. Whereas, 7:3 and 5:5 substrates showed higher increasing rates on the upper side measurements. Substrates with higher ratios of chip(3:7) had lower increasing rates than others. And, with noise filters, the exatitude of measurement was improved because the variation and deviation were reduced. Therefore, in coconut coir with FDR sensors, an efficient water content measurment to control irrigations can be achieved by installing sensors closer to an irrigation point and upper side of substrates with noise filters.

The Effect of Nutrient Solution Concentration on Growth of Potato Plantlet in Microponic System (Microponic system에서 배양액의 농도변화가 감자 소식물체 생육에 미치는 영향)

  • Ko, Sun A;Choi, Ki Young;Lee, Yong-Beom
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.144-147
    • /
    • 2014
  • It was intended to closely examine an effect that a change in the concentration of culture medium had on the potato(Solanum tuberosum L.) plantlet growth in the microponic system so as to mass-produce the virus-free plant of new variety 'Saebong' for potato processing. The adjusted concentration of potato culture medium was 0.2, 0.6, 1.0, 1.4, 1.8, and $14.0dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$. And potato seedling was cut into pieces of 1.5 cm in length, which included 2 growth points and leaves. And each was explanted in glass vial of 50 mL. And experiments were carried out twice for 18 days or 21days. Culture medium of 2ml was put in the container respectively. And 1 mL was added after 10 days. And in terms of cultivation environment, the experiment was carried out at the day length of 16 hours at the temperature of $23{\pm}1^{\circ}C$ under the white LED light of $40{\mu}mol{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}s^{-1}$. The concentration of culture medium in the experiment I was EC 0.2, 1.0, $14dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$ and was adjusted to 0.6, 1.0, 1.4, $1.8dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$ in the experiment II. The results showed that the survival rate of plantlet was 90% at $0.2dS^2m^{-1}$, 100% at $0.6dS^2m^{-1}$, 100% at $1.0dS^2m^{-1}$. 0% at $1.4dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$, 0% at $1.8dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$. and 0% at $14.0dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$ after 7 days. With regard to the explanted potato seedling, in case of the treatment where the electrical conductivity of culture medium was adjusted to $1.0dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$, root developed 2 days after transplantation. And the plantlet vigorously grew into strong plant that had 7 leaves, length of 5cm, and fresh weight of 0.5 g after 18 days. In case of the treatment where the concentration of culture medium was adjusted to $0.6dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$, the root plantlets developed 4 days after transplantation. And those grew into plant that had 7 leaves and fresh weight of 0.2 g after 21 days. Therefore, we found that it is effective to control potato culture medium by adjusting its electrical conductivity to $0.6{\sim}1.0dS{\cdot}m^{-1}$ for the mass production of virus-free potato seedling in the microponic system.

Optimum Cultivation Period and Rockwool Block Size for Paprika Transplant Production using a Closed Transplant Production System (폐쇄형 육묘 시스템에서의 파프리카 묘 생산에 적합한 재배 기간 및 암면 블록의 크기)

  • Kwack, Yurina;Kim, Dong Sub;Chun, Changhoo
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
    • /
    • v.23 no.2
    • /
    • pp.139-143
    • /
    • 2014
  • This study was conducted to investigate the effect of cultivation period and rockwool block size on the growth and early yield of paprika transplants grown in a closed transplant production system. Paprika seeds were sown and germinated in three different size of rockwool blocks ($45{\times}40{\times}35$, $70{\times}70{\times}60$, $100{\times}100{\times}65mm$) and cultivated in a closed transplant production system for 23, 30, and 37 days after sowing. Paprika transplants were cultivated using $100{\times}100{\times}65mm$ rockwool blocks in a greenhouse following a conventional and typical production method for comparing with the growth of paprika transplants grown in a closed transplant production system. Also, we transplanted paprika transplants grown for 23, 30, and 37 days in a closed transplant production system and greenhouse to rockwool slabs and investigated fresh weight of fruits and yield 125 days after sowing. The growth of paprika transplants grown in $70{\times}70{\times}60mm$ rockwool blocks in a closed transplant production system was highest, and the quality of paprika transplant grown in a closed transplant production system was better than in a greenhouse. Rockwool block size and cultivation period in a closed transplant production system did not affect fresh weight of fruits, however, yield was largest when paprika transplants were cultivated using $70{\times}70{\times}60$ and $100{\times}100{\times}65mm$ rockwool blocks for 23 days in a closed transplant production system. These results suggest that decreasing rockwool block size and cultivation period can be strategically used to enhance transplant quality and yield of paprika, as paprika transplants were cultivated in a closed transplant production system.

Study of Animation Comicality, Characters in (<슈렉> 캐릭터에 나타난 애니메이션 희극성 연구)

  • Lee, Chae-Ron
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
    • /
    • /
    • pp.145-176
    • /
    • 2015
  • In animation, 'laughter' is an important factor for the fun. Dreamworks' animation is a successful popular animation. It has four series and spin-off animations, and settled as a successful case that created fun with strategic use of parody throughout the productions. Most preceding studies on this animation have focused on its humor, parody, and satire. However, not many studies have discussed its independent comedy as a piece of animation that satisfies the needs of public. This study considered that viewers' desire to watch an animation comes from their fantasies to discuss the comedy of based on its animated characters. Animated characters communicate with the public with wits that ignore the rules of reality. The characters that do not exist in reality are created and animated to turn the world of reality upside down. The comedy in comes from the entertaining deformation of the society's fixed ideas and prejudices. It is a fun variation of the ideology behind fairy tales created by the Disney animations to challenge Disney in the animation market in reality, and twisted the world of fairy tales in the story to quench the thirst of the public. 'Shrek', a monstrous character, stands in the center of the story. A monstrous character that always played an anti-role has become the main character to break the rule of fairy tales. This is the subjectivation of anti-character. Second, it is a new anti-character with an exaggerated and distorted body. Lord Farquad, who looks abject compared to the monstrous character for a person with so much power and ambition, brings laughter. Third, it is the variation of various characters from fairy tales. The conventional fairy tale characters, both animals and non-living things, come out of the box and appear as humorous characters that bring life to the story. uses comedy characters in the process of reinterpreting the fixed ideas, prejudices, and ideologies of the real world created by fairy tales. I hope that it helps Korean animations establish a successful format for creating characters that bring life to the stories.

Control Activities of Fungicides Against Garlic White Rot Caused by Sclerotium cepivorum (마늘 흑색썩음균핵병에 대한 살균제의 작용 특성)

  • Kim, Heongjo;Kim, Heung Tae;Min, Yi Gi
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
    • /
    • v.19 no.1
    • /
    • pp.64-70
    • /
    • 2015
  • In order to control garlic white rot (Sclerotium cepivorum), which threatens garlic production in farmers fields, soil solarization (solar sterilization), sclerotia germination inducers and effective microorganisms as biological control agents, and chemical fungicides have been used. Among them, fungicide has been largely used to reduce garlic white rot. In this study, the antifungal activities of five fungicides, prochloraz(a.i. 25%, EC), tebuconazole (a.i. 25%, WP), flutolanil (a.i. 15%, EC), iminoctadine tris-albesilate (a.i. 40%, WP) and isoprothiolane (a.i. 40%, EC) with different mode of action, in mycelial growth, sclerotia germination and sclerotia production, were tested. The inhibitory effects of the 5 fungicides on the mycelial growth, and sclerotia germination and production of garlic white rot pathogen (S. cepivorum T11-2) were investigated on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and their control efficacies were evaluated on garlic flakes. There was no mycelial growth of S. cepivorum T11-2 on PDA amended with $0.8{\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$ of prochloraz or $100{\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$ of tebuconazole. Also prochloraz and tebuconazole inhibited perfectively the sclerotia germination of the pathogen at 10 and $1.0{\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$, respectively. In spite of a very low activity of isoprothiolane in mycelial growth and sclerotia germination of S. cepivorum T11-2, it showed a good inhibitory activity against sclerotia production of S. cepivorum T11-2 on PDA amended with $1.67{\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$. Prochloraz, tebuconazole and flutolanil showed above 70% of control value when they were treated at $100{\mu}g\;mL^{-1}$ using the garlic flake cutting-method.

Comparison between Single and Co-culture of Adipocyte and Muscle Cell Lines in Cell Morphology and Cytosolic Substances (지방과 근육 세포주의 단독 및 공동배양을 통한 세포형태학 및 세포물질 비교 연구)

  • Choi, Chang-Weon;Cho, Won-Mo;Yeon, Seong-Heum;HwangBo, Soon;Song, Man-Kang;Park, Sung-Kwon;Baek, Kyung-Hoon
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
    • /
    • v.54 no.2
    • /
    • pp.103-109
    • /
    • 2012
  • Present study was performed to investigate the effect of single and co-culture of adipocyte and muscle cell lines on cell differentiation. 3T3-L1 (adipocyte) and L6 (muscle) cell lines were single-cultured on the condition of 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS)/Dulbeco's modified eagle's medium (DMEM) for 48 h followed by culture within 5% FBS/DMEM as a growth media. Then, the growth media was replaced by differentiation media composed of 2% FBS/DMEM without additives in single- or co-culture of the 3T3-L1 and the L6 cells to induce differentiation of both cell types. In co-culture system, the 3T3-L1 and the L6 cells were grown in separated places by being seeded on a $0.4{\mu}m$ insert membrane and on the bottom of 6 well plate, respectively. Cell differentiation was measured using morphological investigation and cytosolic analysis of glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GPDH; for 3T3-L1) and creatine kinase (CK; for L6). Based on the GPDH results, the presence of L6 cells did not stimulate 3T3-L1 differentiation showing more differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells in the single-culture compared to the co-culture condition. In contrast, 3T3-L1 cells in the co-culture promoted differentiation of L6 cells. Enzymatic analysis supported this result showing that 3T3-L1 cells showed statistically (P<0.05) higher GPDH activity in the single-culture than the co-culture, whereas CK results of L6 cells were vice versa (P<0.05). Overall, present results may indicate that co-culture system is more reliable and precise technique compared to single-culture. Further studies on several co-culture trials including different media conditions, supplementation of differentiating substances, molecular biological analysis, etc. should be required to obtain practical and fundamental mass data.