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기호학적 분석을 통한 영상애니메이션 연구

  • Lee Jong-Han
    • Broadcasting and Media Magazine
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.85-98
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    • 2005
  • About the phenomenon of being imaged of everything, the scholars of the humanities who had studied on the simple reason structure in a text have been in a big agony how accept it. Especially, semiologists have studied about this for a long time and the points at issues of Saussure, Peirce as well as Umbeto Eco are more outstanding. Being based upon his philosophic interesting from medieval esthetics to modern semiotics, Eco was very concerned about the field of general esthetics and poputar arts like television and cartoons. He connected the mutual open-relations between 'signifier' and 'signified' debated in Semiotics with the open and vague modern arts and regarding it as a deviation from the custom, intensively studied the film-media. Saussure is a representative figure of semiotics and explained Sign and the character of semiotics as the division into two parts such as signifier/ signified, form/ substance, langue/ parole, synchrony/ diachrony. The triadic semiotics (the theory that Sign is composed of the triadic structure like sign, referent and interpretant) of Peirce put the new item- 'interpretant' in sign and referent to connect them and open the possibility to introduce time in to the Sign. In this paper, I try to analyze a cartoon film in the semiotic structure with the systemic, reasonable and logical approach and analysis as as possible. While the images shown through a film were depended on the romantic and impressional judge in the past, due to semiotics, it' s quite possible to correlate the procedure of symbolization to social coherence so that we analyze the incredible power of images to suck audiences with the systemetic Sign. I accept all ot film-images including a cartoon film as not the simple esthetic arts but a social custom and system, want to serve as a aid to properly understand world and humanbeings and prevent the film-image from being mystic. A cartoon and a cartoon film which were begun with the link of a text and an illustration give shape to all of images such as materials, places and even thoughts with a cartoon icon existed in only a cartoon. A cartoon and a cartoon film simply and exquistely conceptualize the complex and vague attribute of an organic creature and extend them infinetly beyond language. However, it can be exploited as a mysticism to temptate the general public and a faking material. In addition to that, it can distort our world-knowledge engaging a political power and the massive power of mass media. In this paper, being based on semiotics to approach a cartoon film in a scientific and organic system, I conclude that a non-linguistic cartoon expression is entangled with the manifold signs and implies the supplementary meanings just like a regular linguistic expression. It remarks that the iconic images of a cartoon film are composed of the social codes and can be analyzed on grounds of a linguistic system.

A study on the cooperation of Air Transport between South - North Korea (남북한 항공운송협력에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Woong-Yi;Lee, Kang-Seok;Kim, Do-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.143-209
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    • 2005
  • In 1994, the North Korea indicated their intention to open up airspace. The air route passing through from Daegue FIR to Pyungyang FIR has established in 1996. The air transport cooperation between South and North Korea seemed to be reinforced at the event of President Kim, Dae-Jung's visit to North Korea by passing through a temporarily established Yellow Sea Airway in the year of 2000. The nature characteristics of air transport burdening of many circumstantial situations, however, have kept cooperation between South and North Korea from being facilitated till now. Recently as the more exchange between North and South Korea, the more frequent opportunities to discuss economic cooperation, which in sequence increased political credibility has been increased. The rail, road, and port reconnecting has realized which have been regarded impossible. Furthermore, it is expected to transport personnel and goods through South-North direct connected routes in the near future This study shows several meanings of air transport cooperation between South and North Korea. It will be far beyond simply partial air route connecting in this region, it gives great significance to realize economic cooperation and Northeast hub through air transport industry sector. This will be an exit for air transport industry have suffered limits derived from North Korea troubles and difficulties in growing as Northeast air hub. Namely, South-North air connection denote its meaning in providing opportunities Korea to be Northeast Hub and advanced country having globally competitive air transport industry To develop strategy for air transport cooperation between South and North Korea. they were developed by SWOT analysis on the basis of circumstantial analysis. These strategy need to be commanded properly to the changes of surrounded circumstances. The study result show it is desirable to apply phasal strategies by using strengths, weaknesses, threats and opportunities factors underlying analysis of inner and outer circumstances to cooperate in air transport sector.

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Landscape Composition Based on Placement and Harmony in the Namgea Suhwon (치(置)와 화(和)의 개념으로 분석한 남계서원의 경관짜임)

  • Rho, Jae-Hyun;Shin, Sang-Sup
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.37 no.4
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    • pp.72-85
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    • 2009
  • This study attempts to examine the principles of landscape composition for a 'Suhwon(書院)' and the meaning and value of its traditional landscape architecture, in order to apply the results to the design of modern landscape architecture. A 'Suhwon' is a vital space containing the form and meaning of human activity. This study analyzes the characteristics of landscape composition in the construction of the Namgea Suhwon, located in Hamyang, by examining the form and meaning of its area and composition. The Namgea Suhwon was constructed with a suitable configuration and harmony in a good location, neither field nor mountain, and which encompasses transcendence and a return after passage through a period of birth and abundance. Its appearance means 'life existence and hidden death(生居死幽)'. Its spatial system is a reflection of the idea of Samshinoje(三神五帝: The three abilities of Providence and its five subjects) connected with Ilsangje -Samshin -Ohje. It was built based on the idea of Biryebudong(非禮不動) meaning that one should follow only good decorum and avoid discourtesy, complying with "the frame of decorum" developed by the family rites of Chu Hsi. The environmental design of the Namgea Suhwon was interrupted by the material confrontation between mountains and water and a binary code system, such as front to rear, length to breadth, and movement to stillness. The design did not adhere to stiff axes, but pursued the harmonic principles of asymmetric balance in the building and the yard, which are very naturalistic. The name 'Namgea Suhwon' is closely related with the view of placement(置) and harmony(和), which are unified with the function and meaning formed by connecting Sung Confucianism with the Pungsu-Sasinsa structure in the layout of the grounds. When examining the D/H ratio of the building and yard, it can be seen that the spaces of Ganghak, Yusang and Jehyang were built appropriately, according to the natural characteristics of each space, such as a sense of openness, enclosure, tension, relief, enhancement, and hierarchical order. The spaces also reflect human scale concepts that take advantage of auditory features. The transition process after the construction of 'Namgea Suhwon' reveals the intentions of the builder to create an ecological landscape composition based on Placement and Harmony. Placement embodies' a purposeful space in which nature and the building are connected naturally, 'incomplete open space pursuing completion', and 'potential beauty in which tension and relaxation are repeated'. Harmony embodies 'order and continuity having a sense of unity with the natural environment' and the 'sharing of daily life and memory'. 'Namgea Suhwon' contains many ideas for landscape planning, land use and the design of a campus environment.

Effect of Vinclozolin Administration on the Gene Expressions in Hypothalamus-Pituitary Axis of Immature Female Rats (미성숙 암컷 흰쥐 시상하부-뇌하수체 축 상의 유전자 발현에 미치는 Vinclozolin 투여 효과)

  • Lee, Woo-Cheol;Lee, Sung-Ho
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.97-105
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    • 2008
  • Vinclozolin (VCZ) is a systemic fungicide commonly used in fruits, vegetables and the wine industry. VCZ and its metabolites, butenoic acid (M1) and enanilide (M2) derivatives, act as anti-androgens through actions on the androgen receptor. Although there is growing body of evidence that VCZ's action as an endocrine disrupting chemical (EDC) in male reproductive physiology and pathphysiology, no evidence on the VCZ's EDC action in female is available yet. Previously we found that the prepubertal VCZ exposures could effectively delay the onset of puberty in female rats, suggesting the postponed or weakened activities of hypothalamus-pituitary-ovary (H-P-O) reproductive hormonal axis. The present study was performed to examine whether the VCZ administration affects the transcriptional activities of reproductive hormone-related genes in the same animal model. VCZ (10 mg/kg/day) was administered daily from postnatal day 21 (PND 21) through the day when the first vaginal opening (V.O.) was observed. To determine the transcriptional changes of reproductive hormone-related genes in hypothalamus and pituitary, total RNAs were extracted and applied to the semiquantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). As a result, treatment with VCZ significantly lowered the transcriptional activity of nitric oxide synthase-2 (NOS-2) which is known to adjust gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) secretion in the hypothalamus (p<0.01). Similarly, the mRNA levels of KiSS-1, G protein-coupled receptor 54 (GPR54) and GnRH were significantly decreased in hypothalamus (p<0.01) from VCZ-treated group. As expected, the transcriptional activities of luteinizing hormone-${\beta}$ (LH-${\beta}$) and follicle stimulating hormone-${\beta}$ (FSH-${\beta}$) in the anterior pituitary from VCZ-treated group were also significantly lower than those from the control group. The present study indicates that(i) the inhibitory effect of VCZ exposure on the onset of puberty in immature female rats could be derived from the reduced transcriptional activities of gonadotropin subunits and their upstream modulators such as GnRH and KiSS-1 in hypothalamus-pituitary neuroendocrine axis, and (ii) these inhibitory effects could be mediated by NO signaling pathway.

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Study on the establishment of an efficient disaster emergency communication system focused on the site (현장중심의 효율적 재난통신체계 수립 방안 연구)

  • Kim, Yongsoo;Kim, Dongyeon
    • Journal of the Society of Disaster Information
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.518-527
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    • 2014
  • Our society is changed and diversified rapidly and such tendency is accelerated day after day and has made a lot of problems in the many fields. The important thing we have to recognize is such tendency has a bad effect recently on the safety system in Korea. So it is time to enhance the national safety system and moreover recently Sewol-ho(passenger ship) went down in the sea, it made people remind the importance of national safety system. With this incident, Korean government decided to establish the national safety communication network against the disaster. At this time, I will propose several ideas about the national safety communication network. 1. It must to be established an unified network to contact people who is on a disaster site anytime and anywhere. This is most important element on all disaster sites. 2. PS-LTE technology must to be adopted to the network because it has many advantages including various multimedia services compared to the TETRA in the past. 3. 700MHz is the most efficient band for the network because it has wide cell sites coverage compared to 1.8GHz. 4. Satellite communication system is needed to the network for back-up. 5. It will be effective to adopt Social Media to the communication network system like a Twitter or Facebook for sharing many kinds of information and notifying people of warning message. 6. It can make the network more useful to introduce the latest technology like a sensor network. And Korean government has to improve the system related to the disaster including law and operating organization.

Effect of Visual Sensory Improvement by Amblyopia Treatment on Improvement of Ocular Functions (약시 치료에 의한 시감각 개선이 안기능 향상에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Jae-Do
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.551-555
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study is to investigate if the improvement of visual sensory (VS) by amblyopia treatment affects the ocular functions in refractive errors, accommodative errors and phoria at distance and near. Methods: 10 subjects (17 eyes, mean age of $10.7{\pm}2.9$ years) who treated amblyopia completely, were participated for this study. Refractive errors, accommodative errors, and distance and near phoria were compared between before and after treatments of amblyopia. Refractive errors and accommodative errors at 40 cm were measured using openfield auto-refractor (NVision-5001, Shin Nippon, Japan) and using monocular estimated method (MEM) respectively. Phoria was determined at 3 m for distance and at 40 cm for near using Howell phoria card, cover test or Maddox rod. Results: Mean corrected visual acuity (CVA) significantly increased from $0.46{\pm}0.11$ (decimal notation) for before amblyopia treatment to a level of $1.03{\pm}0.13$ for after amblyopia treatment (p < 0.001). For spherical refractive error, hyperopia significantly decreased from $+2.29{\pm}0.86D$ to a level of $+1.1{\pm}2.38D$ (p < 0.05) but astigmatism did not significantly change; $-1.80{\pm}1.41D$ for before treatment and $-1.65{\pm}1.30D$D for after treatment (p > 0.05). Accommodative error significantly decreased from accommodative lag of $+1.1{\pm}0.75D$ to a level of $+0.5{\pm}0.59D$ (accommodative lag) (p < 0.05). Distance phoria significantly changed from eso $2.9{\pm}6.17PD$ (prism diopters) to a level of eso $0.2{\pm}3.49PD$ (p < 0.05), and near phoria also significantly changed from eso $0.4{\pm}2.32PD$ to level of exo $2{\pm}4.9PD$ (p < 0.05). There was a high correlation (r = 0.88, p < 0.001) between improvement of visual acuity and decrease of accommodative lag. Conclusions: Hyperopic refractive error decreased with improvement of CVA or VS by amblyopia treatment. And the improvement of VS by amblyopia treatment also improved accommodative error, and changed phoria coupled with accommodation.

Comparison of Central and Peripheral Refraction in Myopic Eyes after Corneal Refractive Surgery and Emmetropes (굴절교정수술을 받은 근시안과 정시안에서 중심부 및 주변부의 굴절력 비교)

  • Kim, Jeong-Mee;Lee, Koon-Ja
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.20 no.2
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    • pp.157-165
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: To evaluate changes in central and peripheral refraction along the horizontal visual fields in myopic corneal refractive surgery group compared with emmetropes. Methods: One hundred twenty eyes of 60 subjects ($23.56{\pm}2.54$ years, range: 20 to 29) who underwent myopic refractive surgery and 40 eyes of 20 emmetropes ($22.50{\pm}1.74$ years, range: 20 to 25) were enrolled. The central and peripheral refractions were measured along the horizontal meridianat $5^{\circ}$, $10^{\circ}$, $15^{\circ}$, $20^{\circ}$, $25^{\circ}$ in the nasal and temporal areas using an open-field autorefractor. For analysis of post-op group, the group was classified by pre-op spherical equivalents of < -6.00 D and ${\geq}-6.00D$ as two post-op groups. Results: Pre-op spherical equivalent was $-4.56{\pm}0.92D$ (rang: -2.50 to -5.58 D) in post-op group 1, and $-7.09{\pm}0.96D$ (rang: -6.00 to -9.00 D) in post-op group 2. Spherical equivalent (M) in the emmetropes ranged from $-0.20{\pm}0.22D$ at center to $-0.64{\pm}0.83D$ at $25^{\circ}$ in the temporal visual field and to $-0.20{\pm}0.67D$ at $25^{\circ}$ in the nasal visual field; M in post-op group 1 ranged from $-0.16{\pm}0.29D$ at center to $-5.29{\pm}1.82D$ at $25^{\circ}$ in the temporal visual field and to $-4.48{\pm}1.88D$ at $25^{\circ}$ in the nasal visual field; M in post-op group 2 ranged from $-0.20{\pm}0.32D$ at center to $-7.98{\pm}2.08D$ at $25^{\circ}$ in the temporal visual field and to $-7.90{\pm}2.26D$ at $25^{\circ}$ in the nasal visual field. Among the three groups, there was no significant difference in M at central visual field (p=0.600) and at $5^{\circ}$ in the temporal visual field (p=0.647), whereas, there was significant difference in M at paracentral and peripheral visual field (p=0.000). Conclusions: Emmetropes had relatively constant refractive errors throughout the central and peripheral visual field and showed myopic peripheral defocus along the horizontal visual field. On the other hand, in myopic corneal refractive surgery group, there were significant differences in refractive errors between the central and peripheral visual field compared with differences in the central and peripheral refraction patterns of emmetropes.

Comparison of Accommodative System according to the Material and Font Size of Near Visual Media (근거리 시각매체의 재질과 글자크기에 따른 조절시스템의 비교)

  • Ha, Na-Ri;Kim, Chang-Jin;Jung, Su A;Choi, Eun Jung;Kim, Hyun Jung
    • Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.217-224
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to compare and analyze the accommodative system (accommodative response and accommodative lag) according to the material and font size of near visual media that we often encounter in daily life. Methods: Forty adult men and women aged 20 to 30 who not had specific ocular diseases and refractive surgery experience were examined to measure and compare the accommodative response according to the material of near visual media (print paper, newspaper, magazine, the I-Phone, LCD monitor) and font size (6, 8, 10, 12) by using both eyes open-view auto-refractometer. Results: The accommodative stimulus was $2.28{\pm}0.11D$ and the accommodative response was $1.66{\pm}0.30D$. The accommodative lag namely the difference between accommodative stimulus and accommodative response was $0.62{\pm}0.28D$. The accommodative response according to material of visual media using LCD monitor was $1.35{\pm}0.26D$ (p=0.00) and using the I-Phone was $1.55{\pm}0.25D$ (p=0.04). Both of them were statistically significant lower. The accommodative lag using LCD monitor was $0.93{\pm}0.24D$ (p=0.00) and using the I-Phone was $0.73{\pm}0.25D$ (p=0.04) and they were statistically significant higher. The accommodative response and accommodative lag according to font size were not statistically significant (p>0.05). Conclusions: During near working, the accommodative system was more affected by material than font size of visual media. Especially, visual media of non-luminous material (print paper, newspaper, magazine) are considered fewer burdens on eyes than luminous material (I-Phone, LCD monitor) in terms of accommodative system.

A Study on the Improvement of Technology Balance of Payments to Enhance Global Technology Competitiveness in Korea: Based on the Surveys regarding Perception and Current State of Industry (우리나라의 글로벌 기술경쟁력 제고를 위한 기술무역수지 개선방안 연구: 산업계 인식 및 실태조사를 중심으로)

  • Lee, Jongmin;Noh, Meansun
    • Journal of Technology Innovation
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.1-31
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    • 2015
  • Korea has continuously increased investment on R&D to improve global technology competitiveness through technology innovation. Korea's R&D expenditure as a percent of GDP is world's No. 1 as 4.15 and it accomplished 1 trillion won trade volume for 4 consecutive years. However, despite these efforts, technology balance of payment, which is an important factor that can measure nation's technology competitiveness is in a state of chronic deficit and the lowest level among OECD countries. In this paper, we studied methods to improve Korea's technology balance of payment We figured out concept and current state of technology trade and examined the importance of technology trade through making a comparison between commodity trade and technology trade. There have been studies regarding technology trade, but there was no study which tried to figure out cognition on technology trade from the point of view of companies which plays an important role in technology trade. For this, this study distinguished companies with experience in technology trade and which have not and conducted a survey to figure out cognition and current state of companies. The survey result showed noticeable difference on cognition of top decision makers between companies with experience in technology trade and which have not and there are serious shortage in department and staff which is exclusively responsible for technology trade. Also, despite their needs for education regarding technology trade, the ratio of employees who received education is below 10 % of the total respondents. This study suggested improvement methods such as reforming survey methods of technology trade statistics, enhancing social cognition, supporting to vitalize technology export, building infrastructure regarding technology trade, and opening education programs for cultivating experts based on preceding research and industry survey.

A Study on Constituents of the New Apprenticeship Concept for the Promotion of Industrial Growth Potential (산업 성장잠재력 제고를 위한 신도제제도의 개념 요소에 대한 연구)

  • Yin, Zi Long;Rho, Tae Chun;Choi, Won Sik
    • 대한공업교육학회지
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.1-27
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this study was to find out the areas and their constitute elements of new apprenticeship through the expert of vocational education to improve the growth potential in the field of industry. Through the three times Delphi research process final composing areas and elements(total 6 areas and 41 sub-elements) of new apprenticeship were extracted. Followings are specific study results of 41 sub-elements for the 6 areas. In area A(Technology Skill aspect) total nine sub-elements were deducted as follows. Technology skill's field appling ability, new technology skill's acquisition, quality assurance ability, research development ability, material management using ability, problem solving ability, core technology skill understanding ability, idea's imagery expressing ability, creative design ability. In area B(Institutional aspect) total five sub-elements were deducted as follows. Flexible human material support, precise division of works, objective result assessment, institutionalization of responsibilities and liabilities between teacher and student, institutionalization of duty invention reward. In area C(Affective aspect) total eight sub-elements were deducted as follows. Manners and cooperation between teacher & student and peer, values for job, basic attitude for technology, job ethic sense, respect of other organization, active action to organization change, attitude of technology successor, service mind. In area D(Self-improvement aspect) total nine sub-elements were deducted as follows. Self evaluation and reflection, cultivate of organization understanding, career planning and developing ability, sound philosophy of life, communication ability, decision making ability, prepare of individual competence enhance system, self-control ability improvement, reaction of unexpected situation. In area E(Knowledge aspect) total four sub-elements were deducted as follows. Basic knowledge of relevant area, knowledge of new technology & preceding technology, fusion and relocation of knowledge, practical knowledge. In area F(Environmental aspect) total six sub-elements were deducted as follows. Awareness of business environment, understanding of education and practice environment, understanding of apprenticeship's business demand, connectivity of region community, adapt ability of labor market's change, awareness of society environment change.