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Study on Body Mass Index (BMI), Dietary Intake Attitudes, and Nutrient Intake Status according to Sugar-Containing Food Intake Frequency of College Students in Gyeonggi-do (경기지역 일부 대학생의 가당식품 섭취빈도에 따른 BMI, 식이섭취태도 및 영양소 섭취상태에 관한 연구)

  • Ahn, Sun-Choung;Kim, Yoon-Sun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.45 no.11
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    • pp.1649-1657
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the body mass index (BMI), dietary intake attitudes, and nutrient intake status according to sugar-containing food intake frequency of 409 college students in Gyeonggi-do. Subjects were categorized into three groups according to sugar-containing food intake frequency: rare intake group (n=113), average intake group (n=195), and frequent intake group (n=101). The average height and weight (P<0.001) of each group were $163.8{\pm}0.11cm$ and $52.9{\pm}8.6kg$, $164.4{\pm}0.1cm$ and $56.2{\pm}6.4kg$, and $167.9{\pm}0.1cm$ and $68.0{\pm}15.7kg$, respectively. The average BMIs of the groups were $19.6{\pm}2.3$, $20.7{\pm}0.8$, and $24.0{\pm}2.7$, respectively (P<0.001). Dietary intake attitude scores of the groups were $30.73{\pm}5.68$, $30.11{\pm}5.51$, and $28.00{\pm}5.31$, respectively (P<0.001). As a result of nutrient intake status, daily averages of energy and carbohydrate intake of the frequent intake group were significantly higher than those of the rare intake group (P<0.05). On the other hand, vitamin A, vitamin $B_1$, and vitamin C intakes of the rare intake group were significantly higher than those of the frequent intake group (P<0.05). Using multiple regression analysis, we found that BMI was the most significant variable affecting sugar-containing food intake. Therefore, nutrition education is necessary to improve nutrient intake while considering sugar intake for maintenance of healthy weight.

A Research on Investigation Results of Teenagers' Civic and Ethic Awareness - Confucian values and a Treatise of Human Nature (유교사상을 통한 청소년의 시민윤리의식 실증조사연구)

  • Moon, Ki-young;Lee, In-young
    • The Journal of Korean Philosophical History
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    • no.52
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    • pp.393-424
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    • 2017
  • This study investigates the relationship between South Korean youths' Confucian values and sense of citizen ethics while presenting outlook on the sense of citizen ethics based on the theory of human nature. The purpose of this study, by doing so, is to present educational measures. For this purpose, empirical research method was applied in this study. In the empirical study, youths were surveyed and the answers were statistically analyzed and discussed with a view to achieve the study purpose. In the empirical research part of the study, Korean youths' awareness on Confucian values was examined along with its relationship with the sense of citizen ethics. The effect of Confucian values on sense of citizen ethics and their relationship were analyzed to evaluate the receptivity of youths on Confucian ideas and usefulness of sense of citizen ethics. This study investigated a total of final 311 sets of data from male and female students at middle and high schools located in Seoul, Gyeonggi, South Korea. First, to identify the youths' Confucian values and level of sense of citizen ethics, descriptive statistical analysis was conducted. As a result, the survey subjects were found to have, concerning the Confucian values, world view M=3.54, human relations view M=3.66, morality cultivation M=3.76, and social order M=3.45, higher than 3.0 to represent positive levels. The morality cultivation, in particular, was recorded the highest among all whereas the social order was relatively lower, which represents the degree of relying on Confucian values to establish social order. Second, the sub-variables of Confucian values were verified according to the personal characteristics of the surveyed youths and differences in their entire perception was investigated. As a result, according to gender, morality cultivation was found higher in female students (M=3.85) than in male students (M=3.64). According to the subjective economic level of their household, world view was found higher in upper class (M=3.98) than middle-low class (M=3.25) and low class (M=3.22) while human relations view was found higher in middle-upper class (M=3.79) than low class (M=3.46). As for the family type, morality cultivation was found higher in extended family (M=3.83) than nuclear family (M=3.62); and social order was higher in extended family (M=3.54) than nuclear family (M=3.36). Third, to verify the study theme of identifying the effects of youths' Confucian values on sense of citizen morality, hierarchical regression analysis was employed in this study, which used the multi-level model of multiple regression analysis. As a result, the Confucian values was found to have significant positive (+) correlations with the entire sense of citizen ethics in order of human relations view(${\beta}=.499$), world view(${\beta}=.412$), social order(${\beta}=.341$), and morality cultivation(${\beta}=.241$). Confucian value showed significant positive (+) correlations with autonomy in order of morality cultivation(${\beta}=.458$), human relations view(${\beta}=.454$), social order(${\beta}=.362$), and world view(${\beta}=.158$). Confucian values was found to have significant positive (+) correlations with community spirit in order of human relations view(${\beta}=.295$), social order(${\beta}=.281$), and morality cultivation(${\beta}=.232$). As shown in the findings above, youths' Confucian values was found to have significant positive (+) effects on the sense of citizen ethics. It is noted that the higher the Confucian values, the more positive the sense of citizen ethics would be. Consequentially, the Confucian values was identified to play an important role in the sense of citizen ethics in the modern society. Based on this analysis, this study presented specific measures - the necessity and possibility of education on sense of citizen ethics under the theory of human nature. To this end, this study proposed to find an optimal interface between the contemporary sense of citizen ethics and Confucian ethics through the respect for human life and nature, man of virtue as the ideal human model, and united society as a desirable society model.

A Study on Snack Intake Behavior by the Stress Level of High School Students in Jeonnam Area (전남지역 고등학생의 스트레스 수준에 따른 간식 섭취 행태 연구)

  • Park, Hye Sook;Jung, Lan Hee
    • Journal of Korean Home Economics Education Association
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.141-164
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the stress perception, dietary habits, lifestyle and snack intake behaviors of students to help dietary education of high school students in Jeonnam area. The data were collected from high school students in Jeonnam area and 503 questionnaires were used for analysis. The main results of this study are as follows. First, the mean scores of high school students' perception of stress were 2.92 points for male students and 3.07 points for female students, and female students were statistically significantly higher than male students(p<.01). Stress perceptions showed significant differences in school stress(p<.001) and family stress(p<.05) according to gender, and female students gained more stressed than male students. Second, the dietary habits and lifestyle characteristics of high school students by gender showed significant difference between male students and female students at the one meal time(p<.001), the amount of meal(p<.05), the tendency of eating habits(p<.001), the salty taste of food(p<.05), the exercise frequency per week(p<.001) and the exercise time per day(p<.001), respectively. One meal time was shorter for male students than for female students, and the amount of meals was more suitable amount for female students than male students. Also, male students ate more regularly than female students and female students preferred more stimulating foods than male students. Male students ate slightly bland salty taste, and female students ate standard salty taste. The exercise frequency per week and the exercise time per day were more in male students than in female students. Third, the snack intake characteristics of high school students by gender showed significantly different between male students and female students at the cost of snack per day(p<.01), the time to eat snacks(p<.01) and the favorite snacks(p<.001), respectively. The cost of snack per day was higher for female students than for male students in case of less than 4,000 won. The time for eating snack showed that 'Irregularly' was high for male students and 'In the evening after lunch' was high for female students. The favorite snacks were cookies, candies and chocolates for male and female students. Forth, the dietary habits and lifestyle characteristics of high school students by stress level showed significantly different at the frequency of daily meals(p<.05), the tendency of eating habits(p<.01) and the salty taste of food(p<.05), respectively. The frequency of daily meals was more than four times in case of the 'High stress' and 'Low stress' groups. The tendency of eating habit was low in regular meal rate in 'High stress' group. Fifth, the snack intake characteristics of high school students by stress level showed significantly different in the frequency of snacks per day(p<.05) and the favorite taste of snacks(p<.05). In case of the frequency of daily snack intake, 'More than 4 times' was highest in 'High stress' group and 'Low stress' group. The favorite taste of snacks showed that the spicy taste was highest in the 'High stress' group and the 'Low stress' group.

Estimation of Breed and Environmental Effects on Economic Traits of Performance-Tested Pigs (검정소 검정돈의 품종 및 환경요인의 효과 추정)

  • Park, J.W.;Kim, B.W.;Kim, H.C.;Lee, K.W.;Choi, C.S.;Kang, W.G.;Hong, S.K.;Ha, J.K.;Jeon, J.T.;Lee, J.G.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.923-932
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    • 2003
  • This study was carried out to estimate the effects of breed and environment such as sex, test station, test year, test season, parity, initial and final weight on average daily gain, age at 90kg, backfat thickness, feed efficiency, lean percent and selection index on the basis of the performance data collected from 25,790 pigs of Duroc, Yorkshire and Landrace breeds which were performance-tested at the Korea Swine Testing Station from 1991 to 2002. The results obtained in the study are summarized as follows; 1. The means of the major economic traits were estimated as 959.95${\pm}$0.699g for average daily gain, 138.36${\pm}$0.072days for age at 90kg, 1.41${\pm}$0.001cm for backfat thickness, 2.33${\pm}$0.001 for feed efficiency, 56.71${\pm}$0.018% for lean percent and 221.65${\pm}$0.113 for selection index. 2. The effect of breed was statistically significant for all studied traits. Briefly, Duroc showed the best performance for the average daily gain and age at 90kg. Landrace had the best performances for the backfat thickness and lean meat percent. In feed efficiency and selection index, Yorkshire had a better score than other breeds. 3. The least-squares means of female and male for the traits studied were 923.05${\pm}$1.289g and 974.53${\pm}$0.856g for average daily gain, 139.74${\pm}$0.145days and 137.21${\pm}$0.097days for age at 90kg, 1.49${\pm}$0.002cm and 1.39${\pm}$0.002cm for backfat thickness, 2.43${\pm}$0.002 and 2.28${\pm}$0.002 for feed efficiency, 56.43${\pm}$0.034% and 56.81${\pm}$0.023% for lean percent and 211.37${\pm}$0.194 and 224.61${\pm}$0.129 for selection index. Therefore, males were superior to females for all traits examined. 4. The effect of test station was statistically significant for all traits except for selection index. Performances for age at 90kg, backfat thickness, feed efficiency and lean meat percent collected from Test station 2 were higher than those from Test station 1. However, Test station 1 showed better average daily gain. 5. The initial weight and final weight included as a covariate in this study had a significant influence on average daily gain, age at 90kg, backfat thickness, feed efficiency and selection index. From the absolute values of the estimated regression coefficients, it was inferred that the final weight had greater effect for the investigated traits than the initial weight.

Rationalization of Fertilizing and Development of Fetilizer (시비(施肥)의 합리화(合理化)와 비종개발(肥種開發))

  • Lim, Sun-Uk
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.49-50
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    • 1982
  • The objective of this paper is to review the changes in fertilizer use pattern and to discuss some aspects of the fertilizer development in Korea. Fertilizer consumption in Korea have steadily increased to triple the application rates of N, P and K during the 15 years from 1965 to 1980, and Korea became one of the countries which apply fertilizers at the highest rate. The ratio of N: $P_2O_5$: $K_2O$ in fertilizer consumption changed from 55.4 : 31.4 : 13.1 in 1965 to 54.0 : 23.8 : 22.2 in 1980. It can be said that Korean farmers practise a balanced fertilization at least in view of fertilizer consumption as compared to other developing countries. However, differences in soil properties, crops, and climate varying as region were not reflected on fertilization. In the technological development of fertilizer, the chemical form and composition of the fertilizer as well as the suitability to the specific crops must be taken into consideration for the efficient use of fertilizers. Although organic fertilizers and manure are accepted as minor element suppliers, it is necessary to add minor elements into chemical fertilizers on the industrial process. Industrial waste may be used for the agricultural production as a measure of pollution control providing careful study on the waste.

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National Survey of Sarcoidosis in Korea (유육종증 전국실태조사)

  • 대한결핵 및 호흡기학회 학술위원회
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.453-473
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    • 1992
  • Background: National survey was performed to estimate the incidence of sarcoidosis in Korea. The clinical data of confirmed cases were analysed for the practice of primary care physicians and pulmonary specialists. Methods: The period of study was from January 1991 to December 1992. Data were retrospectively collected by correspondence with physicians in departments of internal medicine, dermatology, ophthalmology and neurology of the hospitals having more than 100 beds using returning postcards. In confirmed and suspicious cases of sardoidosis, case record chart for clinical and laboratory findings were obtained in detail. Results: 1) Postcards were sent to 523 departments in 213 hospitals. Internal medicine composed 41%, dermatology 20%, ophthalmology 20% and neurology 19%. 2) Postcards were returned from 241 departments (replying rates was 48%). 3) There were 113 confirmed cases from 50 departments and 10 cases. The cases were composed from internal medicine (81%), dermatology (13%), ophthalmology (3%) and neurology (3%). 78 confirmed cases were analysed, which were composed from department of internal medicine (92%), dermatology (5%), and neurology (3%). 4) The time span for analysed cases was 1980 to 1992. one case was analysed in 1980 and the number gradually increased to 18 cases in 1991. 5) The majority of patients (84.4%) were in the age group of 20 to 49 years. 6) The ratio of male to female was 1 : 1.5. 7) The most common chief complains were respiratory symptoms, dermatologic symptoms, generalized discomforts, visual changes, arthralgia, abdominal pains, and swallowing difficulties in order. 16% of the patients were asymptomatic. 8) Mean duration between symptom onset and diagnosis was 2 months. 9) The most common symptoms were respiratory, general, dermatologic, ophthalmologic, neurologic and cardiac origin in order. 10) Hemoglobin, hematocrits and platelet were in normal range. 58% of the patients had lymphopenia measuring less than 30% of white cell count. The ratio of CD4 to CD8 lymphocytes was $1.73{\pm}1.16$ with range of 0.43 to 4.62. ESR was elevated in 43% of the cases. 11) Blood chemistry was normal in most cases. Serum angiotensin converting enzyme (S-ACE) was $66.8{\pm}58.6\;U/L$ with the range of 8.79 to 265 U /L. Proteinuria of more than 150 mg was found in 42. 9% of the patients. 12) Serum IgG was elevated in 43.5%, IgA in 45.5%, IgM in 59.1% and IgE in 46.7%. The levels of complement C3 and C4 were in the normal range. Anti-nuclear antibody was detected in 11% of the cases. Kweim test was performed in 3 cases, and in all cases the result was positive. 13) FVC was decreased in 17.3%, FEV1 in 11.5%, FEV1/FVC in 10%, TLC in 15.2%, and DLco in 64.7%. 14) PaO2 was decreased below 90 mmHg in 48.6% and PaCO2 was increased above 45 mmHg in 5.7%. 15) The percentage of macrophages in BAL fluid was $51.4{\pm}19.2%$, lymphocytes $44.4{\pm}21.1%$, and the ratio of CD4 to CD8 lymphocytes was $3.41{\pm}2.07$. 16) There was no difference in laboratory findings between male and female. 17) Hilar enlargement on chest PA was present in 87.9% (bilaterally in 78.8% and unilaterally in 9.1%). 18) According to Siltzbach's classification, stage 0 was 5%, stage 158.3%, stage 228.3%, and stage 38.3%. 19) Hilart enlargement on chest CT was present in 92.6% (bilaterally 76.4% and unilaterally in 16.2%). 20) HRCT was done in 16 cases. The most common findings were nodules, interlobular thickening, focal patchy infiltrations in order. Two cases was normal finding. 21) Other radiologic examinations showed bone change in one case and splenomegaly in two cases. 22) Gallium scan was done in 12 cases. Radioactivity was increased in hilar and mediastinal lymph nodes in 8 cases and in parenchyme in 2 cases. 23) The pathologic diagnosis was commonly performed by transbrochial lung biopsy (TBLB, 47.3%), skin and mediastinal lymph nodes biopsy (34.5%), peripheral lymph nodes biopsy (23.6%), open lung biopsy (18.2%) and bronchial biopsy in order. 24) The most common findings in pathology were non·caseating granuloma (100%), multi-nucleated giant cell (47.3%), hyalinized acellular scar (34.5%), reticulin fibrin network (20%), inclusion body (10.9%), necrosis (9.1%), and lymphangitic distribution of granuloma (1.8%) in order. Conclusion: Clinical, laboratory, radiologic and pathologic findings were summarized. This collected data will assist in finding a test for detection and staging of sarcoidosis in Korea in near future.

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Once vs. Twice Daily Thoracic Irradiation in Limited Stage Small Cell Lung Cancer (국한성 병기 소세포폐암의 방사선치료시 분할 조사방식에 따른 치료성적)

  • Kim, Jun-Sang;Kim, Jae-Sung;Kim, Ju-Ock;Kim, Sun-Young;Cho, Moon-June
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.291-301
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    • 1998
  • Purpose : A retrospective study was conducted comparing single daily fraction (SDF) thoracic radiotherapy (TRT) with twice daily (BID) TRT to determine the potential benefit of BID TRT in limited-stage small cell lung cancer (SCLC). Endpoints of the study were response. survival, pattern of failure, and acute toxicity. Materials and Methods : Between November 1989 to December 1996, 78 patients with histologically proven limited-stage SCLC were treated at the Department of Therapeutic Radiology, Chungnam National University Hospital. Of these, 9 were irradiated for palliative intent, and 1 had recurrent disease. Remaining 68 patients were enrolled in this study. There were 26 patients with a median age of 58 years, and 22 (85$\%$) ECOG performance score of less than 1 in SDF TRT. There were 42 patients with a median age of 57 years, and 36 (86$\%$) ECOG performance score of less than 1 in BID TRT By radiation fractionation regimen, there were 26 in SDF TRT and 42 in BID TRT. SDF TRT consisted of 180 cGy, 5 days a week. BID TRT consisted of 150 cGy BID, 5 days a week in 13 of 42 and 120 cGy BID, in 29 of 42. And the twice daily fractions were separated by at least 4 hours. Total radiotherapy doses were between 5040 and 6940 cGy (median, 5040 cGy) in SDF TRT and was between 4320 and 5100 cGy (median, 4560 cGy) in BID TRT. Prophylactic cranial irradiation (PCI) was recommended for patients who achieved a CR. The recommended PCI dose was 2500 cGy/10 fractions. Chemotherapy consisted of CAV (cytoxan 1000 mg/$m^2$, adriamycin 40 mg/$m^2$, vincristine 1 mg/$m^2$) alternating with VPP (cisplatin 60 mg/$m^2$, etoposide 100 mg/$m^2$) every 3 weeks in 25 (96$\%$) of SDF TRT and in 40 (95$\%$) of BID TRT. Median cycle of chemotherapy was six in both group. Timing for chemotherapy was sequential in 23 of SDF TRT and in 3 BID TRT, and concurrent in 3 of SDF TRT and in 39 of BID TRT Follow-up ranged from 2 to 99 months (median, 14 months) in both groups. Results : Of the 26 SDF TRT, 9 (35$\%$) achieved a complete response (CR) and 14 (54$\%$) experienced a partial response (PR). Of the 42 BID TRT, 18 (43$\%$) achieved a CR and 23 (55$\%$) experienced a PR. There was no significant response difference between the two arms (p=0.119). Overall median and 2-year survival were 15 months and 26.8$\%$, respectively. The 2-year survivals were 26.9$\%$ and 28$\%$ in both arm, respectively (p=0.51). The 2-rear survivals were 35$\%$ in CR and 24.2$\%$ in PR, respectively. The grade 2 to 3 esophageal toxicities and grade 2 to 4 neutropenias were more common in BID TRT (p=0.028 0.003). There was no difference in locoregional and distant metastasis between the two arms (p=0 125 and 0.335, respectively). The most common site of distant metastasis was the brain. Conclusion : The median survival and 2-year survival were 17 months and 20.9$\%$ in SDF TRT with sequential chemotherapy, and 15 months and 28$\%$ in BID TRT with concurrent chemotherapy, respectively. We did not observe a substantial improvement of long-term survival in the BID TRT with concurrent chemotherapy compared with standard schedules of SDF TRT with sequential chemotherapy. The grade 2 to 3 esophageal toxicities and glade 2 to 4 neutropenias were more common in BID TRT with concurrent chemotherapy. Although the acute toxicities were more common in BID TRT with concurrent chemotherapy than SDF TRT with sequential chemotherapy, a concurrent chemotherapy and twice daily TRT was feasible. However further patient accrual and long-term follow up are needed to determine the potential benefits of BID TRT in limited-stage SCLC.

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Sasang Herb medicine, IRCT (InfraRed Computer Thermography), Yakchim (Korean herb-acupuncture) remedy (체통환자(體痛患者)의 사상의학적(四象醫學的) 사초(四焦)와 이목구비(耳目口鼻)를 중심(中心)으로 한 체열(體熱) 분석(分析))

  • Kim, Su-Beom;Song, Il-Byung
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.377-393
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    • 1996
  • Lumbago is the common disease in the human, many people have been sicked the Lumbago. As the traditional methods of Lumbago treatment, acupuncture, moxibustion, herb medicines have been applied to a patient, nowadays, new methods have been applied physical remedy, Yakchim (Korean herb acupuncture) remedy, Chuna remedy to. This report was collected 73 Lumbago patients by name, sex, age, motive, symptoms, X-ray, CT, MRI, lRCT, Sasang constitution type, Sasang herb medicine, Yakchim, Chuna, period of remedy, satisfaction of remedy, at the "WooRee Korean Medical Clinic" during 21 months from Sep. 14, 1994 to May 25, 1996. And this report was studied about the distribution of the Sasang constitution type, the Sasang herb medicine, the effect, the period. The results were as follows: 1. Lumbago patients were distributed like that; Taeum-ln (太陰人) 47 (66.3 %), Soyang-In 16 (21.9 %), Soum-In (13.7 %), Taeyang-In (太陽人) 0. This was different from distribution of Donguisuseibowon (東醫壽世保元), Taeum-In (太陰人) 50%, Soyang-In (少陽人) 30 %, Soum-In (少陰人) 20 %, Taeyang-In (太陽人) little, this report shows that the number of Taeum-In (太陰人) is more than that of Donguisuseibowon and the number of Soum-In is less than that of Donguisuseibowon. 2. The average satisfaction of remedy was 60.3 %, Taeum-In's satisfaction was 66.0 %, Soum-In's satisfaction was 56.3 %, Soyang-In's satisfaction was 60.0 %. 3. The effective herb medicines were as follows, Soyang-In used the Hyong Bang Ji Hwang Tang (荊防地黃湯), Yuk Mi Ji Hwang Tang (六味地黃樓), Soum-In used the Sib Yi Mi Goan Jung Tang (十二味寬中湯), Taeum-In used the Chung Sim Yon Ja Tang (淸心蓮子陽), Chung Pae Sa Gan Tang (淸師爾肝湯), Yeol Da Han So Tang (熱多寒少湯). 4. The period of remedy was about 6 weeks. The period of remedy of each types was as follows, Taeum-In was about 5.7 weeks, Soum-In was about 6.8 weeks, Soyang-In was about 4.2 weeks. 5. The method of Lumbago remedy is divided three types, sprain Lumbago, Pyobyong (表病 : outside Syndromes) Libyong (裡病 : inside symdromes). Soum-In's methods are Pyobyong's ascending the Yang (陽), adding the Gi (氣) [升陽益氣], and Libyong's descending the inside Yim (裡陰) [裡陰降氣], Soyang-In's methods are Pyobyongs's decending the outside-Yim [表陰降氣], and Libyong's ascending the cool Yang (濟陽) [淸陽上升]. Taeum-In's methods are Pyobyong's ascending the Lung's Yang (肺陽升氣), and Libyong's colding the dried hot liver (淸肝燥熱). Taeyang's methods are strong the liver and making Yim. (補r肝生陰) 6. There are two methods for using the YakChim (Korean herb-acupuncture) by Sasang constitution medicine, one is to select the Yakchim, the other is to choice the point for appling the Yakchim. The first, to select the Yakchim, the other is follows; Soum-In can select the bee Venom, Soyang-In can select the H.O. (Hong Whoa 紅花), Taeum-In can select the I (Hodo 胡挑), V, O.K. (Ungdarn, 薦膽), Uwhang 牛黃, Sa-Hyang 麝香, etc., Palgang Yakchim (eight principles Korean herb-acupuncture (八剛藥鐵)) could made by abstracted Sasang herb medicine. The second, to choice the points for applying the Yakchim are used in the TaeGiuk Acupuncture method (太梗針法), Sacho (四焦, four warmer) by Sasang constritutional physiology and pathology.

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The Clinical Characteristics of Lung Cancer in Patients with Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis (특발성 폐섬유화증에 동반된 폐암 환자의 임상적 특정)

  • Park, Joo-Hun;Lee, Jin-Seong;Song, Koun-Sik;Shim, Tae-Sun;Lim, Chae-Man;Koh, Youn-Suck;Lee, Sang-Do;Kim, Woo-Sung;Kim, Won-Dong;Kim, Dong-Soon
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.46 no.5
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    • pp.674-684
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    • 1999
  • Background : It has been generally known that the incidence of lung cancer is higher in the patients with idopathic pumonary fibrosis (IPF) than those in general population. The reported incidence was variable from 4.8 to 43.2%. There were controversies on the most frequent cell type (squamous cell carcinoma vs. adenocarcinoma) and no study was done about the real concordance of cancer and the fibrotic lesion. And the pulmonary fibrosis may influence not only the development of cancer but also the treatment and prognosis of the cancer, but there was no report on that point. Method : Total 63 patients ($66.8{\pm}7.8$ year, M : F=61 : 2) were diagnosed as IPF combined with lung cancer (IFF-CA) at Asan Medical Center. A retrospective analysis was done about the risk factors of the lung cancer, pulmonary function test, the site of cancer(especially the relationship of the cancer with the fibrotic lesion), the histologic types, and the stage of cancer. The histologic types were compared with those of 2,660 patients with lung cancer who were diagnosed at the same institute for the same period. The effect of IPF on the treatment of the cancer was evaluated with the survival time after the detection of lung cancer. Results : The lung cancer was found in 63(22.9%) out of 281 patients with IPF. But in most of them(45 patients), lung cancer was detected at the same time with IPF and only in 18 patients, the cancer was diagnosed during the follow-up($25.2{\pm}17.7$ months) of IPF. So in our study, 6.7% of patients with IPF developed lung cancer during the course of the disease. The age ($66.8{\pm}7.84$ vs. $63.4{\pm}11.1$ years), percentage of smoker (88.9 vs. 67.2%), and the male gender (96.8 vs. 67.6%) were significantly higher in IPF-CA compared with lone IPF (p<0.05). The odds ratio of smoking was 4.7 compared with non smoking IPF controls. The lung cancer was located more frequently in the upper lobe and 55.5% was in the periphery of lung. The cancer was developed in the fibrotic lesion in 23 patients (35.9%), and in the majority of the patients, the cancer was separated from the fibrosis. The cell type of the lung cancer in IPF-CA was squamous cell carcinoma 34.9%, adenocarcinoma 30.2%, small cell carcinoma 19.0%, large cell undifferenciated carcinoma 6.3%, and others 9.5%. No significant difference in the distribution of histologic type of the lung cancer was found between IPF-CA and lone lung cancer. There was no significant difference in demographic features, cell types, location and the stage of the cancer between the group with concurrent IPF-CA and the group with cancer diagnosed during the follow up of IPF. There was a tendency (but statistically not significant : p=0.081) of higher incidence of adenocarcinoma among the cancers developed in the fibrotic area(43.5%) (F-CA) than in the cancers in non-fibrotic area (22.5%) (NF-CA). The prognosis of the patients with F-CA was poor (median survival : 4 months) compared with the patients with NF-CA (7 months, p=0.013), partly because the prevalence of severe IPF (the extent of fibrosis in HRCT 50%) was higher in F-CA group. Conclusion : These data suggest that the lung cancer in the patients with IPF has similar features to the ordinary lung cancer.

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The study on the cleft lip and/or palate patients who visited Dept. of Orthodontics, Seoul National University Dental Hospital during last 11 years (1988.3-1999.2) (최근 11년간 서울대학교병원 교정과에 내원한 순구개열 환자의 내원 현황에 관한 연구(1988.3 - 1999.2))

  • Yang, Won-Sik;Baek, Seung-Hak
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.467-481
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    • 1999
  • Cleft lip and/or palate is one of the most common congenital craniofacial anomalies. According to previous epidemiologic studies, incidence of cleft lip and/or palate has been increasing nowadays. However, there is no report about epidemiologic study of cleft lip and/or palate patients who visited dept. of orthodontics in Korea. So the purpose of this study was to provide the epidemiological characteristics and important basic clinical data for the diagnosis and the treatment of the cleft lip and/or palate patients. With the orthodontic and cleft charts, diagnostic models and X-ray films from 250 patients with cleft lip and/or palate who visited Dept. of Orthodontics, Seoul National University Dental Hospital during the last 11 years, the authors investigated patient's visiting yew, types of cleft, patient's gender, and Angle's classification of malocclusion, and surgery timing. The results were as follows ; 1. The number of cleft patients who visited Dept. of Orthodontics, SNUDH increased during 1988-1990 and then it declined until 1992. From 1993 to 1996, it showed a stationary trend. After 1997 it showed an overwhelmingly increasing trend. 2. In the cleft type, the ratio of cleft lip cleft lip and alveolus cleft palate : cleft lip and palate was 7.6:19.2:9.6:63.6. In cleft position, unilateral clefts were more than bilateral ones (cleft lip 79:21, cleft lip and alveolus 77:23, cleft lip and palate 75.5:24.5). In cleft side, left clefts were mote than right clefts (cleft lip 53.3:46.7 cleft lip and alveolus 59.5:40.5, cleft lip and palate 59.2:40.8). 3. In gender ratio, males were more than females in cleft lip (57.9:42.1), cleft lip and alveolus (68.8:31.2) and cleft lip and palate (76.1:23.9). But in cleft Palate females were more than males as 41.7: 58.3. 4. In the age groups, 7-12 year group was the most abundant as $52\%$, and then 0-6 year group ($20.4\%$), 13-18 year group ($17.2\%$), more than 18 yew group ($10.4\%$) were followed as descending order. 5. Most of the cleft lip repair surgeries were operated in 0-3 month ($60.3\%$) and 4-6 month ($17.9\%$). 6. The cleft palate repair surgeries were done in 1-2 year ($31.7\%$), 0-1 year ($25.6\%$), 2-3 year ($12.1\%$), more than 5 year ($11.6\%$) as descending order. 7. The lip scar revision surgeries were done before admission at elementary school in $60\%$. (4-6 you ($27.5\%$), 6-8 year ($19.6\%$), more than 10 year ($19.6\%$), 2-4 year ($13.7\%$) as descending order) 8. The rhinoplasties were done before admission at elementary school in $51.7\%$. (0-2 year ($7.1\%$), 2-4 year ($14.3\%$), 4-6 year ($21.4\%$), 6-8 year ($14.3\%$)). 9. The pharyngeal flap were done at 6 Y (72.5 months) after birth on average and there was even distribution of surgery timing. 10. In relationship between Angle's classification of malocclusion and cleft types, Class I was most abundant and Class III, Class II were followed as descending order in cleft lip group. But Class III was most abundant and Class I, Class II were followed as descending order in cleft lip and alveolus group, cleft palate group, and cleft lip and Palate group. The percentage of frequency in Class III malocclusion was overwhelmingly higher in cleft lip and palate group than any other groups. 11. Because the frequency of class III malocclusion was most prevalent in all age groups, anterior crossbite was the most common chief complaint of cleft patients.

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