• Title, Summary, Keyword: 손해액

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A Study on the Determination of Applicable law to Liability for the compensation of Damage in a plane accident (항공기사고 손해배상청구에 있어서 준거법의 결정에 관한 소고)

  • So, Jae-Seon
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.25 no.2
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    • pp.3-42
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    • 2010
  • This study shows that the Warsaw Convention in Article 1 is not an international transport, origin, destination and all the Contracting Parties is not a purely domestic shipping does not apply to this Treaty. Therefore, in this case, liability and damages for the governing law is selected according to international law should be. In addition, in the case of international shipping and passenger air carrier of this treaty to govern the relationship, not all of which aim is the unification of certain rules. Product liability is the most important thing of all. As for the aircraft manufacturer's responsibility according to international law also does not select the applicable law is not. The Warsaw Convention Article 17 apply for the passenger's personal damages Article 2 Section 2 leads to the most prestigious type of damages, and subjective and objective with regard to the scope of international law are being committed. In this regard, Governing Law-related aircraft accidents leading to serious accidents in China of an aircraft crash in Nagoya, Japan, the airport can be. China Airlines accident of the aircraft are operated for the unification of the rules for international air transport on the Warsaw Convention as amended by Article 17, Article 18 of damages by the tort claims and claims based on damages caused by, or this cause of aircraft accidents air bus maker by the Corporation for damages in tort claims for damages claimed on the basis of solidarity is the case. In the case of these grand scale claim responsibility for the airline, air transport agreements to determine the applicable law of the contract is very complex. There for the contracts based on individual circumstances or origin, and by considering because each must be determined.

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김현회의 자재칼럼(36) - 설비건설 회사의 보안

  • Kim, Hyeon-Hoe
    • 월간 기계설비
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    • pp.82-83
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    • 2011
  • 국내 굴지의 금융 기관들이 해킹에 따른 전산 사고 등으로 홍역을 치르고 있다. 특히 고객 정보가 유출되거나 멸실된 경우는 상당액의 금전적 보상도 따를 것으로 보아 회사의 손해도 만만치 않을 것이다. 더 큰 문제는 고객들의 불신에 따른 기업 이미지 손상이다. 이것은 돈으로 환산할 수 없는 가치로 오랜 기간 악 영향을 끼칠 수밖에 없다. 우리 협회 회원사의 경우 개인 고객의 정보를 직접 취급하는 일이 거의 없어 걱정이 덜되지만 대부분의 기업 정보가 전산으로 처리되고 있는 만큼 그 보안 상태를 점검해 볼 필요가 있다.

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제조물책임법(製造物責任法) 도입(導入)의 경제적(經濟的) 효과(效果)와 입법방향(立法方向)

  • Sin, Gwang-Sik;Gu, Bon-Cheon
    • KDI Journal of Economic Policy
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    • v.18 no.3_4
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    • pp.3-61
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    • 1996
  • 소비자 보호 및 효율적 자원배분, 기업의 안전증진 유인제공, 제도의 국제적 조화를 위하여 제조물책임법(製造物責任法) 제정의 필요성이 제기되고 있다. 현재 제조물로 인한 사고는 민법(民法)에 의하여 보상받고 있으나 그 입증책임이 과중하고, 현재 우리나라 생산물배상책임보험(生産物賠償責任保險)이 전체 손해보험에서 차지하는 비중은 0.1%에 불과(미국 10%)하여 그 비용이 아직 미미하므로 제조물책임법제(製造物責任法制) 도입의 안전증진효과가 경제적 손실보다 클 것으로 예상된다. 법제정시의 기본방향은 소비자에게 단순히 보상을 제공하는 법제가 아닌, 기업의 책임과 제품결함이 밀접히 연관되어 배상(賠償) 및 사고억제(事故抑制)의 유인과 효과를 극대화하는 것이어야 한다. 추정규정의 도입은 소비자(消費者) 피해구제(被害救濟)를 용이하게 하지만, 디자인 및 경고결함(警告缺陷)과 결합되면 제조자가 제품사고의 모든 가능성에 대해 완벽한 정보를 가지지 않는 한 제조자의 책임이 되어 제조물책임(製造物責任)의 불확실성(不確實性)을 높이고, 결과적으로 기업에게 절대책임(絶對責任)을 부과하게 되어 제품개발과 혁신을 위축시키는 등의 부정적(否定的) 영향을 초래할 위험이 크다. 따라서 결함의 추정은 인정하지 않아야 하며, 제품개발 및 혁신을 도모하기 위해 개발위험항변(開發危險抗辯)은 인정되어야 한다. 손해배상액(損害賠償額) 상한(上限)을 두지 않는 것이 경제적으로 효율적이고 연대책임을 인정하여 유통업자의 안전제고유인(安全提高誘因)도 강화하는 것이 효과적이다. 중소기업을 포함한 모든 기업에게 입법후 1년 정도의 준비기간(準備期間)을 주는 것이 바람직할 듯하며, 배상책임보험(賠償責任保險)은 의무화하지 않는 것이 경제적으로 효율적이다. 기계, 전자, 운송용기기, 건설, 화학, 식 의약품, 가스제품, 완구, 운동용구 등이 영향을 크게 받을 것으로 예상되지만 법제이용(法制利用)의 편의가 개선되기 전에는 소송의 증가는 미미하리라 예상된다.

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A Study on the Use of LD Clause against the Seller's Breach of Delivery of Goods in the Contract for the International Sale of Goods (국제물품매매계약에서 매도인의 물품인도의무 위반에 대비한 손해배상액의 예정조항 (Liquidated Damage Clause: LD조항)의 활용에 관한 연구 - ICC Model International Sale Contract를 중심으로)

  • Oh, Won-Suk;Youn, Young-MI;Li, Jing Hua
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
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    • v.50
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    • pp.3-25
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    • 2011
  • The purpose of this paper is to examine the use of LD Clause against the seller's breach of contract in connection with delivering the goods in the international sales contract, and international guarantee system using standby L/C or demand guarantee. For this purpose, the author, first, considered the outline of the buyer's remedies in cases that the seller had not performed his obligations in contract and the difficulties in the buyer's remedies. As alternatives for overcoming the difficulties, this author recommended the LD Clauses (Liquidated Damage Clauses) based on ICC Model International Sales Contract, and explained each Model Clause. To enhance the feasibility of LD Clause, this author suggested the guarantee system, like the standby L/C or demand guarantee. But these guarantee systems have several limitations in practical use. Thus, these guarantee systems would greatly contribute to Korean exportation in the future. The reason is that the Korean export structure would be more complex and the period of sales contract would be longer and longer, which result to in long-terms supply contracts. These changes would require the guarantee much urgently.

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The Trend of Precedents about Calculation of Damage Compensation for Last Decade (손해배상액 산정에 관한 최근 10년간 판례의 동향 (상)(上))

  • Park, Young-Ho
    • The Korean Society of Law and Medicine
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.11-36
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    • 2009
  • This thesis introduces the trends of korean courts' ruling on damages in medical malpractice cases for past 10 years. First of all, Korean courts' ruling have had a tendency to pay only non-economic damages for not taking the informed consent. If a doctor cannot get the informed consent from a patient, he compensate only non-economic damages for the infringement of self-determination rights of patient. It's enough for the plaintiff to prove the infringement of self-determination rights, if the plaintiff just want to get non-economic damages. The Korean Supreme court have ruled that if plaintiffs want to get economic damages for the infringement of self-determination rights or informed consent, plaintiffs must prove that the infringement of self-determination rights is the proximate cause of the economic damages of patient. There is another tendency for the Korean Supreme court to limit the damages in medical malpractice cases on the ground of patient's diseases' dangerousness or patient's idiosyncrasy. In the past courts often limit the damages only to 70~80% of total damages, but now a days courts mostly limit the damages to 20~30%. This thesis also introduce the Korean courts' trends about Valuing damages in personal injury actions awarded for gratuitously rendered nursing and medical care.

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The Economic Assessment of Claims for Oil Pollution Damages : The Canadian Experience (유류해양오염으로 인한 환경피해에 대한 경제적 가치평가: 캐나다의 유류해양오염에 대한 사례연구)

  • Jung, Hyung-Chan
    • The Journal of Fisheries Business Administration
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.157-183
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    • 2003
  • 유류오염 사고를 사전에 예방할 수 있는 정책 수단으로는 여러 가지가 있지만 주요한 것으로는 인센티브제의 활용을 들 수 있다. 유류오염 사고를 예방하고 관리하기 위한 인센티브는 유출 사고로 인해 발생한 해양자원의 피해에 대해 가해자에게 배상책임(liability for losses due to spills)을 부과함으로써 제공될 수 있다. 유류오염 사고로 인한 피해액을 실제 화폐단위로 계량화하는 작업은 배상책임 부과제도를 정책수단으로 활용하기 위해 해결해야 할 가장 어려운 과제이다. 따라서, 최근 미국과 캐나다를 중심으로 발전하고 있는 자연자원 피해에 대한 가치 평가법(Natural Resource Damage Assessment : NRDA)은 배상책임 부과제도를 정책적으로 보완할 수 있는 이론적 도구로 간주되고 있다. NRDA는 잠재적인 가해자들에게 그들이 자연환경을 보존해야 하는 사회적 의무를 이행하지 못하고 이를 훼손하게 될 때 이로 인해 발생하는 모든 사회적 비용을 직접 부담해야 한다는 명확한 재무적 인센티브(financial incentive)를 부여함으로써 가해자 보상 원칙 (polluter pays principle)을 실현 할 수 있게 한다. 본 연구는, 유류오염 사고로 인한 환경자원 피해의 경제적 가치를 추정하는 가장 중요한 이론적 모형으로 활용되고 있는 가상상황평가법(CVM)에 대한 기초 개념과 이론적 체계, 그리고 이를 실제 피해액 추정에 성공적으로 적용시키기 위해 해결해야 할 문제점 등을 다루었다. 이를 위해, 본 연구에서는 1988년 캐나다 북서부 연안에서 발생한 Nestucca 유류오염 사고를 사례연구의 대상으로 선정하고, 사고 당시 캐나다 연방정부와 British Columbia 주정부를 대신하여 해양오염에 의한 환경피해의 경제적 가치를 추정한 미국의 컨설팅 회사인 RCG/Hagler, Baily Inc.의 가상상황평가법(CVM) 적용 사례를 분석 검토하였다. Nestucca 사례연구에서는 이들 연구자들이 실제로 활용한 설문지 설계, 설문방법 및 표본설계 등을 분석하였으며, 또한 CVM이 본질적으로 갖고 있는 방법론적 문제점들을 연구자들이 어떻게 해결하려고 했는가를 고찰하였다. 그리고, WTP 추정을 위해 RCG 연구자들이 사용한 사전규제접근법(ex ante regulatory approach)으로 인해 야기될 수 있는 환경자원 피해액 추정 방법의 한계점도 함께 검토하였다. 캐나다 연방정부와 British Columbia 주정부는 Nestucca 유류오염 사고로 인한 자연 자원 피해에 대한 손해배상으로 $4.3 Million의 보상금을 지급 받게 된다. 캐나다 정부는 이 보상금으로 Nestucca Oil Spill Trust Fund를 설립하여 피해를 입은 자연자원의 원상회복(restoration)을 위한 다양한 연구 프로젝트에 자금을 지원하고 있다. Nestucca 유류오염 사고를 계기로 캐나다 정부와 학계는 해양자원의 피해에 대한 경제적 가치평가와 자원의 원상회복에 대한 체계적인 접근 방안을 처음으로 마련 시행하게 되었다는 점에서, Nestucca 유류오염 사고에 대한 사례연구는 캐나다의 해양환경 보존 정책을 연구하는 출발점으로 평가될 수 있을 것이다. 이에 비해, 우리나라에서 대표적인 유류오염사고로 알려져 있는 시프린스호 사고와 관련된 손해배상금은 주로 연안어민들의 어업피해 배상으로 이루어져 있으며, 간접피해에 대한 배상액 48억 5천만원도 대부분 치어방류, 여수대학교 종묘배양장건립 등 피해지역 연안어업 발전을 위한 사업에 투자되었다.

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A Study on Intangible Impact of Personal Information Security Breach to Korean Firm's Value (개인정보 보안사고가 국내 기업의 가치에 미치는 비가시적 영향력에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, JongHyun;Kweon, SeongHo;Chang, Ik
    • Proceedings of the Korea Information Processing Society Conference
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    • pp.595-596
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    • 2009
  • 정보화의 발전에 비례하여 정보보호의 중요성도 높아지고 있다. 최근까지 정보보호에 대한 관심과 주요 연구의 흐름은 기술적인 보호조치(예: 암호화, 접근제어, 방화벽 등)와 관리적 관점의 행동연구였다. 최근에 들어서야 국내외적으로 정보보호 투자효과에 대한 연구가 활성화되기 시작했다. 정보보호 투자효과에 대한 계량적 산정이 필요한 이유는 정보보호의 중요성을 정확하게 인식할 수 있어 적정규모의 예산을 책정하고 효율적으로 예산을 투입할 수 있는 기초를 마련할 수 있기 때문이다. 정보보호 투자효과를 측정하기 위한 선행연구로 보안사고의 피해규모를 산정하는 연구가 필수적이다. 보안사고의 피해규모는 가시적 손실(피해복구, 생산성 저하, 손해배상 등)과, 비가시적 손실(고객 충성도 저하, 회사의 브랜드 이미지 하락 등) 규모의 합으로 구성된다. 그 동안 가시적 손실규모 측정에 관한 연구는 상대적으로 많았으나, 비가시적 손실규모 측정에 관한 연구는 상대적으로 미흡하였던 것이 사실이다. 이는 현실적으로 비가시적 손실규모를 측정할 수 있는 접근방법을 고안해내는 것이 어려웠기 때문이다. 이로 인해 막연히 비가시적 손실규모가 가시적 손실규모에 비해 대단히 클 것이라고 짐작해 올 수 밖에 없었다. 본 논문에서는 보안사고의 비가시적 손실규모를 측정하기 위해 대규모 개인정보 보안 사고가 발생한 기업의 매출액 증가율을 경쟁기업과 분석하는 연구방법을 제안한다. 매출액은 영업이익 및 순이익과는 달리 회사 내부적인 회계방침에 의해 규모의 조절이 불가능한 재무요소이면서 회사가 고객 충성도 저하와 회사의 브랜드 이미지 하락으로 인해 받게 되는 영향을 가장 정확하게 반영하는 재무요소이기도 하다. 연구방법에 따라 2008년 대규모 개인정보 보안사고가 발생한 국내기업을 선정하고 그 경쟁사와 매출액 변화추이를 비교 분석하였다. 분석결과 보안사고가 발생한 기업의 평균 매출액 증가율이 경쟁사 평균 매출액 증가율 보다 0.0225% 높다는 사실을 발견했다. 이 결과는 국내의 보안 사고가 기업 가치에 미치는 비가시적 영향이 거의 없거나 또는 발생하더라도 그 영향력이 미미하여 가격정책 및 광고 홍보를 통해 충분히 극복할 수 있다는 점을 대변한다. 본 논문의 결과는 역설적으로 국내 보안사고의 피해규모를 측정하는데 있어 가시적 손실규모의 정확한 측정이 무엇보다 중요함을 의미한다.

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A Comparative Analysis of Major Oil Spill Compensation Systems in France, Spain, and Korea - In the Case of M/T Erika, Prestige, and Hebei Spirit - (프랑스.스페인.한국의 대형유류오염손해배상제도에 관한 비교연구 -에리카호.프레스티지호.허베이스피리트호를 중심으로-)

  • Cho, Dong-Oh;Mok, Jin-Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.177-181
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    • 2008
  • In this study, the authors analyzed the limit of IOPC Fund system, such as limit of compensation, amount of FC, long period of assessment by IOPC Fund, issue of non verification by poor claimant or small business, issue of poor claimant subsistence in early stage of accidents, and comparatively analyzed how the three countries resolved these limits by enacting special laws and government policy. Until recently most governments have carried out prevention policy for maritime safety, oil spill response, investigation of maritime accidents, and restoration of marine environment when oil spill accidents happened. However, governments have not actively participated in the oil spill compensation process because it is a matter of private sectors between the polluter and claimant. The governments have only limited their role in ratifying Civil Liability Convention and Fund Convention and enacted relevant domestic laws. However, the governments of France, Spain, and Korea have actively participated in the compensation process of oil pollution incidents of M/T Erika, M/T Prestige, and M/T Hebei Spirit. This is because they had experiences of unsuccessful compensation in M/T Amoco Cadiz, M/T Agean Sea, and M/T Sea Prince.

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The Liability Regime of the Air Carrier under the National Legislation of Korea by Adopting the Montreal Convention (몬트리올 협약을 수용한 한국의 국내 입법상 항공운송인의 책임제도)

  • Lee, Kang-Bin
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.3-27
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    • 2012
  • The Warsaw Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules Relating to International Carriage by Air was adopted in 1929. In 1999, the ICAO adopted the Montreal Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air vastly modernizing the unification of private air law. The Montreal Convention replaced the instruments of the Warsaw system, and came into force on 4 November 2003. The Montreal Convention is not only an international convention. It has also exercised a considerable influence on national legislation. Korea has made the national legislation of the Part VI the Carriage by Air of Commercial Act on April 29, 2011, and it has brought into force on November 24, 2011. The national legislation of the Part VI the Carriage by Air of Commercial Act of Korea has the provisions on the liability for damage caused to passenger, the liability for damage caused to baggage, and the liability for damage caused to cargo. The main feature of the liability regime of the air carrier under the Montreal Convention is the two-tier liability system for death or injury of the passenger with strict liability up to 100,000 SDR and presumptive liability with a reversed burden of proof without any limit above that threshold. The national legislation of the Part VI the Carriage by Air of the Commercial Act of Korea has adopted the main principles of the liability of the air carrier under the Montreal Convention. In conclusion, the national legislation relating to the liability of the air carrier by the Korean government will contribute to settle efficiently the dispute on the carrier' liability in respect of the carriage of passengers, baggage and cargo by air, and to provide proper compensation to the passenger or consignor who has suffered damage, subject to the defenses and limitations it sets out.

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Liability of the Compensation for Damage Caused by the International Passenger's Carrier by Air in Montreal Convention (몬트리올조약에 있어 국제항공여객운송인의 손해배상책임)

  • Kim, Doo-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.18
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    • pp.9-39
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    • 2003
  • The rule of the Warsaw Convention of 1929 are well known and still being all over the world. The Warsaw Convention is undoubtedly the most widely accepted private international air law treaty with some 140 countries. In the international legal system for air transportation, the Warsaw Convention has played a major role for more than half century, and has been revised many times in consideration of the rapid developments of air high technology, changes of social and economic circumstances, need for the protection of passengers. Some amendments became effective, but others are still not effective. As a result, the whole international legal system for air transportation is at past so complicated and tangled. However, the 'Warsaw system' consists of the Warsaw Convention of 1929 the Guadalajara Convention of 1961, a supplementary convention, and the following six protocols: (1) the Hague Protocol of 1955, (2) the Guatemala Protocol of 1971, (3) the Montreal Additional Protocols, No.1, (4) the Montreal Additional Protocol No.2, (5) the Montreal Additional Protocol No.3, and (6) the Montreal Additional Protocol No.4. of 1975. As a fundamental principle of the air carrier's liability in the international convention and protocols, for instance in the Warsaw Convention and the Hague Protocol, the principle of limited liability and a presumed fault system has been adopted. Subsequently, the Montreal Inter-carrier Agreement of 1966, the Guatemala City Protocol, the Montreal Additional Protocol No.3, and the Montreal Additional Protocol No. 4 of 1975 maintained the limited liability, but substituted the presumed liability system by an absolute liability, that is, strict liability system. The Warsaw System, which sets relatively low compensation limits for victims of aircraft accidents and regulates the limited liability for death and injury of air passengers, had become increasingly outdated. Japanese Airlines and Inter-carrier Agreement of International Air Transport Association in 1995 has been adopted the unlimited liability of air carrier in international flight. The IATA Inter-Carrier Agreement, in which airlines in international air transportation agree to waive the limit of damages, was long and hard in coming, but it was remarkable achievement given the political and economic realities of the world. IATA deserves enormous credit for bringing it about. The Warsaw System is controversial and questionable. In order to find rational solution to disputes between nations which adopted differing liability systems in international air transportation, we need to reform the liability of air carriers the 'Warsaw system' and fundamentally, to unify the liability system among the nations. The International Civil Aviation Organization(ICAO) will therefore reinforce its efforts to further promote a legal environment that adequately reflects the public interest and the needs of the parties involved. The ICAO Study Group met in April, 1998, together with the Drafting Committee. The time between the "Special Group on the Modernization and Consolidation of the 'Warsaw system'(SGMW)" and the Diplomatic Conference must be actively utilized to arrange for profound studies of the outstanding issues and for wide international consultations with a view to narrowing the scope of differences and preparing for a global international consensus. From 11 to 28 May 1999 the ICAO Headquarters at Montreal hosted a Diplomatic Conference convened to consider, with a view to adoption, a draft Convention intended to modernize and to integrate replace the instruments of the Warsaw system. The Council of ICAO convened this Conference under the Procedure for the Adoption of International Conventions. Some 525 participants from 121 Contracting States of ICAO attended, one non-contracting State, 11 observer delegations from international organizations, a total of 544 registered participants took part in the historic three-week conference which began on 10 May. The Conference was a success since it adopted a new Convention for the Unification of Certain Rules for International Carriage by Air. The 1999 Montreal Convention, created and signed by representatives of 52 countries at an international conference convened by ICAO at Montreal on May 28, 1999, came into effect on November 4, 2003. Representatives of 30 countries have now formally ratified the Convention under their respective national procedures and ratification of the United States, which was the 30th country to ratify, took place on September 5, 2003. Under Article 53.6 of the Montreal Convention, it enters into force on the 60th day following the deposit of the 30th instrument of ratification or acceptation. The United States' ratification was deposited with ICAO on September 5, 2003. The ICAO have succeeded in modernizing and consolidating a 70-year old system of international instruments of private international law into one legal instrument that will provide, for years to come, an adequate level of compensation for those involved in international aircraft accidents. An international diplomatic conference on air law by ICAO of 1999 succeeded in adopting a new regime for air carrier liability, replacing the Warsaw Convention and five other related legal instruments with a single convention that provided for unlimited liability in relation to passengers. Victims of international air accidents and their families will be better protected and compensated under the new Montreal Convention, which modernizes and consolidates a seventy-five year old system of international instruments of private international law into one legal instrument. A major feature of the new legal instrument is the concept of unlimited liability. Whereas the Warsaw Convention set a limit of 125,000 Gold Francs (approximately US$ 8,300) in case of death or injury to passengers, the Montreal Convention introduces a two-tier system. The first tier includes strict liability up to l00,000 Special Drawing Rights (SDR: approximately US$ 135,000), irrespective of a carrier's fault. The second tier is based on presumption of fault of a carrier and has no limit of liability. The 1999 Montreal Convention also includes the following main elements; 1. In cases of aircraft accidents, air carriers are called upon to provide advance payments, without delay, to assist entitled persons in meeting immediate economic needs; the amount of this initial payment will be subject to national law and will be deductable from the final settlement; 2. Air carriers must submit proof of insurance, thereby ensuring the availability of financial resources in cases of automatic payments or litigation; 3. The legal action for damages resulting from the death or injury of a passenger may be filed in the country where, at the time of the accident, the passenger had his or her principal and permanent residence, subject to certain conditions. The new Montreal Convention of 1999 included the 5th jurisdiction - the place of residence of the claimant. The acceptance of the 5th jurisdiction is a diplomatic victory for the US and it can be realistically expected that claimants' lawyers will use every opportunity to file the claim in the US jurisdiction - it brings advantages in the liberal system of discovery, much wider scope of compensable non-economic damages than anywhere else in the world and the jury system prone to very generous awards. 4. The facilitation in the recovery of damages without the need for lengthy litigation, and simplification and modernization of documentation related to passengers. In developing this new Montreal Convention, we were able to reach a delicate balance between the needs and interests of all partners in international civil aviation, States, the travelling public, air carriers and the transport industry. Unlike the Warsaw Convention, the threshold of l00,000 SDR specified by the Montreal Convention, as well as remaining liability limits in relation to air passengers and delay, are subject to periodic review and may be revised once every five years. The primary aim of unification of private law as well as the new Montreal Convention is not only to remove or to minimize the conflict of laws but also to avoid conflict of jurisdictions. In order to find a rational solution to disputes between nations which have adopted differing liability systems in international air transport, we need fundamentally to reform their countries's domestic air law based on the new Montreal Convention. It is a desirable and necessary for us to ratify rapidly the new Montreal Convention by the contracting states of lCAO including the Republic of Korea. According to the Korean and Japanese ideas, airlines should not only pay compensation to passengers immediately after the accident, but also the so-called 'condolence' money to the next of kin. Condolence money is a gift to help a dead person's spirit in the hereafter : it is given on account of the grief and sorrow suffered by the next of kin, and it has risen considerably over the years. The total amount of the Korean and Japanese claims in the case of death is calculated on the basis of the loss of earned income, funeral expenses and material demage (baggage etc.), plus condolence money. The economic and social change will be occurred continuously after conclusion of the new Montreal Convention. In addition, the real value of life and human right will be enhanced substantially. The amount of compensation for damage caused by aircraft accident has increased in dollar amount as well as in volume. All air carrier's liability should extend to loss of expectation of leisure activities, as well as to damage to property, and mental and physical injuries. When victims are not satisfied with the amount of the compensation for damage caused by aircraft accident for which an airline corporation is liable under the current liability system. I also would like to propose my opinion that it is reasonable and necessary for us to interpret broadly the meaning of the bodily injury on Article 17 of the new Montreal Convention so as to be included the mental injury and condolence. Furthermore, Korea and Japan has not existed the Air Transport Act regulated the civil liability of air carrier such as Air Transport Act (Luftverkehrsgestz) in Germany. It is necessary for us to enact "the Korean Air Transport Contract Act (provisional title)" in order to regulate the civil liability of air carrier including the protection of the victims and injured persons caused by aircraft accident.

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