• Title, Summary, Keyword: 손해액

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The Liability for Space Activity of Launching State of Space Object and Improvement of Korea's Space Policy (우주물체 발사국의 우주활동에 대한 책임과 우리나라 우주정책의 개선방향)

  • Lee, Kang-Bin
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.28 no.2
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    • pp.295-347
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    • 2013
  • Korea launched the science satellite by the first launch vehicle Naro-ho(KSLV-1) at the Naro Space Center located at Oinarodo, Cohenggun Jellanamdo in August, 2009 and October, 2010. However, the first and second launch failed. At last, on January 30, 2013 the third launch of the launch vehicle Naro-ho has successfully launched and the Naro science satellite penetrated into the space orbit. Owing to the succeed of the launch of Naro-ho, Korea joined the space club by the eleventh turn following the United States, Russia, Japan and China. The United Nations adopted the Outer Space Treaty of 1967, the Rescue Agreement of 1968, the Liability Convention of 1972, the Regislation Convention of 1976, and Moon Agreement of 1979. Korea ratified the above space-related treaties except the Moon Agreement. Such space-related treaties regulate the international liability for the space activity by the launching state of the space object. Especially the Outer Space Treaty regulates the principle concerning the state's liability for the space activity. Each State Party to the Treaty that launches or procures the launching of an object into outer space is internationally liable for damage to another State Party or to its natural or judicial persons by such object or its component parts on the earth, in air space or in outer space. Under the Liability Convention, a launching state shall be absolutely liable to pay compensation for damage caused by its space object on the surface of the earth or to aircraft in flight. The major nations of the world made national legislations to observe the above space-related treaties, and to promote the space development, and to regulate the space activity. In Korea, the United States, Russia and Japan, the national space-related legislation regulates the government's liability of the launching state of the space object. The national space-related legislations of the major nations are as follows : the Outer Space Development Promotion Act and Outer Space Damage Compensation Act of Korea, the National Aeronautic and Space Act and Commercial Space Launch Act of the United States, the Law on Space Activity of Russia, and the Law concerning Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency and Space Basic Act of Japan. In order to implement the government's liability of the launching state of space object under space-related treaties and national legislations, and to establish the standing as a strong space nation, Korea shall improve the space-related policy, laws and system as follows : Firstly, the legal system relating to the space development and the space activity shall be maintained. For this matter, the legal arrangement and maintenance shall be made to implement the government's policy and regulation relating to the space development and space activity. Also the legal system shall be maintained in accordance with the elements for consideration when enacting the national legislation relevant to the peaceful exploration and use of outer space adopted by UN COPUOS. Secondly, the liability system for the space damage shall be improved. For this matter, the articles relating to the liability for the damage and the right of claiming compensation for the expense already paid for the damage in case of the joint launch and consigned launch shall be regulated newly. Thirdly, the preservation policy for the space environment shall be established. For this matter, the consideration and preservation policy of the environment in the space development and use shall be established. Also the rule to mitigate the space debris shall be adopted. Fourthly, the international cooperation relating to the space activity shall be promoted. For this matter, the international cooperation obligation of the nation in the exploration and use of outer space shall be observed. Also through the international space-related cooperation, Korea shall secure the capacity of the space development and enter into the space advanced nation.

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A Comparative Analysis on the Methods of Quantifying Damages - Focused on the CISG - (손해배상액(損害賠償額) 산정방식(算定方式)에 관한 비교연구(比較硏究) - CISG를 중심으로 -)

  • Bae, Jun-Il
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
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    • v.16
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    • pp.59-81
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    • 2001
  • There are two methods of quantifying the damages when the contract is avoided. One is 'concret' assessment, the other is 'abstract' assessment. The former looks to the actual cost incurred by the aggrieved party in concluding a contract for the substitute transaction, while the latter is based on the market price. The concrete method of assessment forms the starting point in the Civil Law systems. In the Common Law systems, it is likewise available. The aggrieved party is entitled to recover the difference between the cost of cover or (as the case may be) the proceeds of resale and the contract price. Both systems also recognize the abstract method of assessment. If the aggrieved party does not resell or cover, damages are equal to the difference between the price fixed by the contract and the market price. The CISG and the UNIDROIT Principles recognize expressly both concrete and abstract methods. Under the relevant articles, the aggrieved party can recover the damages assessed by one of the methods as well as any further damages such as loss of profit, incidental and consequential damages.

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A Study for Estimating the Compensation to Homemaker in Accident (주부의 사고발생시 손해배상액 산정에 관한 연구)

  • 문숙재
    • Journal of the Korean Home Economics Association
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.131-150
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    • 1991
  • The purpose of this study is to provide the basic data to measuring proper compensation for the homemakers. For this purpose, the value of household work is measured by variables and methods: overall substitute(OSE), specialised substitute (SSE), opportunity cost(OCE), reservation wage(RWE), subjective evaluation(SE). The Main Results are as follows: 1. The values by OSE, SSE, OCE, RWE and SE are respectively 497, 996, 676, 847, 616, 683, 707, 601 and 540, 366 won. 2. The values of homemakers are calculated individually by her demographic characteristics. 3, The values by SSE and OSE are increased in the order of type I.IV.III.II which are divided by the number of family member and age of homemaker.

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The Trend of Precedents about Calculation of Damage Compensation for Last Decade (손해배상액 산정에 관한 최근 10년간 판례의 동향 하(下))

  • Park, Young-Ho
    • The Korean Society of Law and Medicine
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.397-445
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    • 2010
  • This thesis introduces the trends of korean courts' ruling on damages in medical malpractice cases for past 10 years. First of all, Korean courts' ruling have had a tendency to pay only non-economic damages for not taking the informed consent. If a doctor cannot get the informed consent from a patient, he compensate only non-economic damages for the infringement of self-determination rights of patient. It's enough for the plaintiff to prove the infringement of self-determination rights, if the plaintiff just want to get non-economic damages. The Korean Supreme court have ruled that if plaintiffs want to get economic damages for the infringement of self-determination rights or informed consent, plaintiffs must prove that the infringement of self-determination rights is the proximate cause of the economic damages of patient. There is another tendency for the Korean Supreme court to limit the damages in medical malpractice cases on the ground of patient's diseases' dangerousness or patient's idiosyncrasy. In the past courts often limit the damages only to 70~80% of total damages, but now a days courts mostly limit the damages to 20~30%. This thesis also introduce the Korean courts' trends about Valuing damages in personal injury actions awarded for gratuitously rendered nursing and medical care.

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Various modeling approaches in auto insurance pricing (다양한 모형화를 통한 자동차 보험가격 산출)

  • Kim, Myung-Joon;Kim, Yeong-Hwa
    • Journal of the Korean Data and Information Science Society
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.515-526
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    • 2009
  • Pricing based on proper risk has been one of main issues in auto insurance. In this paper, we review how the techniques of pricing in auto insurance have been developed and suggest a better approach which meets the existing risk statistically by comparison. The generalized linear model (GLM) method is discussed for pricing with different distributions. With GLM approach, the distribution of error assumed plays an main role for the best fit corresponding to the characteristics of dependent variables. Tweedie distribution is considered as one of error distributions in addition to widely used Gamma and Poisson distribution. With these different types of error assumption for estimating the proper premium in auto insurance, various modeling approaches are possible. In this paper, various modeling approaches with different assumptions for estimating proper risk is discussed and also real example is given by assuming different.

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The Duty and Liability of the Carrier in Relation to Cargo Delivery in the International Air Transport of Cargo (국제항공화물운송에 있어서 운송인의 화물인도 의무와 책임)

  • Lee, Kang-Bin
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.71-96
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    • 2006
  • This paper intends to describe the carrier's duty for the delivery of international air cargo and the carrier's liability for the illegal delivery of cargo under the Montreal Convention, lATA Conditions of Carriage for Cargo and judicial precedents. Under the Article 13 of Montreal Convention, the consignee is entitled, on arrival of the cargo at the place of destination, to require the carrier to deliver the cargo to it, on payment of the charge due and on complying with the conditions of carriage. And unless it is otherwise agreed, it is the duty of the carrier to give notice to the consignee as soon as the cargo arrives. Under the Article 18 of Montreal Convention, the carrier is liable for damage sustained in the event of the destruction or less of or damage to, cargo upon condition only that the event which caused the damage so sustained took place during the carriage by air. And the carriage by air comprises by the period during which the cargo is in the carriage of the carrier. Under the Article 11 of lATA Conditions of Carriage for Cargo, carrier is liable to shipper, consignee of any other person for damage sustained in the event of destruction of loss of, or damage to, or delay in the carriage of cargo only if the occurrence which caused to the damage so sustained took place during the carriage as defined under Article 1. According to the precedent of Korean Supreme Court sentenced on 22 July 2004, the freight forwarder as carrier was not liable for the illegal delivery of cargo to the notify party (actual importer) on the airway bill by the bonded warehouse operator because the freight forwarder did not designate the bonded warehouse and did not hold the position of employer to the bonded warehouse operator. In conclusion, the carrier or freight forwarder should pay always attention the movement and condition of the cargo not to be liable for the illegal delivery of cargo.

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Can Lufthansa Successfully Limit its Liability to the Families of the Victims of Germanwings flight 9525 Under the Montreal Convention?

  • Gipson, Ronnie R. Jr.
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.279-310
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    • 2015
  • The Montreal Convention is an agreement that governs the liability of air carriers for injury and death to passengers travelling internationally by air. The Montreal Convention serves as the exclusive legal framework for victims and survivors seeking compensation for injuries or death arising from accidents involving international air travel. The Montreal Convention sets monetary liability caps on damages in order to promote the financial stability of the international airline transport industry and protect the industry from exorbitant damages awards in courts that would inevitably bankrupt an airline. The Convention allows a litigant suing under the Convention to avoid the liability caps in instances where the airline's culpability for the injury or death is the direct result of negligence, another wrongful act, or an omission of the airline or its agents. The Montreal Convention identifies specific locations as appropriate venues to advance claims for litigants seeking compensation. These venues are closely tied to either the carrier's business operations or the passenger's domicile. In March 2015, in an act of suicide stemming from reactive depression, the co-pilot of Germanwings flight 9525 intentionally crashed the aircraft into the French Alps killing the passengers and the remaining crew. Subsequent to the crash, there were media reports that Lufthansa made varying settlement offers to families of the passengers who died aboard the flight ranging from $8,300 USD to $4.5 Million USD depending on the passengers' citizenship. The unverified offers by Lufthansa prompted outcries from the families of the decedent passengers that they would institute suit against the airline in a more plaintiff friendly jurisdiction such as the United States. The first part of this article accomplishes two goals. First, it examines the Montreal Convention's venue requirement along with an overview of the recoverable damages from countries comprising the citizenship of the passengers who were not American. The intentional crash of Germanwings flight 9525 by its First Officer encompasses the possibility that Lufthansa may be exposed to unlimited compensatory damages beyond the liability caps contained in the Convention. The second part of this article explores the application of the Convention's liability limits to the Germanwings flight to demonstrate that the likelihood of escaping the liability limits is slim.

A Study on Improvement on National Legislation for Sustainable Progress of Space Development Project (우주개발사업의 지속발전을 위한 국내입법의 개선방향에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Kang-Bin
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.97-158
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this paper is to research on the contents and improvement of national legislations relating to space development in Korea to make the sustainable progress of space development project in Korea. Korea has launched its first satellite KITST-1 in 1992. The National Space Committee has established "The Space Development Promotion Basic Plan" in 2007. The plan addressed the development of total 13 satellites by 2010 and the space launch vehicle by 2020, and the launch of moon exploration spaceship by 2021. Korea has built the space center at Oinarodo, Goheng Province in June 2009. In Korea the first small launch vehicle KSLV-1 was launched at the Naro Space Center in August 2009, and its second launch was made in June 2010. The United Nations has adopted five treaties relating to the development of outer space as follows : The Outer Space Treaty of 1967, the Rescue and Return Agreement of 1968, the Liability Convention of 1972, the Registration Convention of 1974, and the Moon Treaty of 1979. All five treaties has come into force. Korea has ratified the Outer Space Treaty, the Rescue and Return Agreement, the Liability Convention and the Registration Convention excepting the Moon Treaty. Most of development countries have enacted the national legislation relating to the development of our space as follows : The National Aeronautic and Space Act of 1958 and the Commercial Space Act of 1998 in the United States, Outer Space Act of 1986 in England, Establishment Act of National Space Center of 1961 in France, Canadian Space Agency Act of 1990 in Canada, Space Basic Act of 2008 in Japan, and Law on Space Activity of 1993 in Russia. There are currently three national legislations relating to space development in Korea as follows : Aerospace Industry Development Promotion Act of 1987, Outer Space Development Promotion Act of 2005, Outer Space Damage Compensation Act of 2008. The Ministry of Knowledge Economy of Korea has announced the Full Amendment Draft of Aerospace Industry Development Promotion Act in December 2009, and it's main contents are as follows : (1) Changing the title of Act into Aerospace Industry Promotion Act, (2) Newly regulating the definition of air flight test place, etc., (3) Establishment of aerospace industry basic plan, establishment of aerospace industry committee, (4) Project for promoting aerospace industry, (5) Exploration development, international joint development, (6) Cooperative research development, (7) Mutual benefit project, (8) Project for furthering basis of aerospace industry, (9) Activating cluster of aerospace industry, (10) Designation of air flight test place, etc., (11) Abolishing the designation and assistance of specific enterprise, (12) Abolishing the inspection of performance and quality. The Outer Space Development Promotion Act should be revised with regard to the following matters : (1) Overlapping problem in legal system between the Outer Space Development Promotion Act and the Aerospace industry Development promotion Act, (2) Distribution and adjustment problem of the national research development budget for space development between National Space Committee and National Science Technology Committee, (3) Consideration and preservation of environment in space development, (4) Taking the legal action and maintaining the legal system for policy and regulation relating to space development. The Outer Space Damage Compensation Act should be revised with regard to the following matters : (1) Definition of space damage and indirect damage, (2) Currency unit of limit of compensation liability, (3) Joint liability and compensation claim right of launching person of space object, (4) Establishment of Space Damage Compensation Council. In Korea, it will be possible to make a space tourism in 2013, and it is planned to introduce and operate a manned spaceship in 2013. Therefore, it is necessary to develop the policy relating to the promotion of commercial space transportation industry. Also it is necessary to make the proper maintenance of the current Aviation Law and space development-related laws and regulations for the promotion of space transportation industry in Korea.

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Estimation Method of the Competitive Bid-price in Bid-rigging of Public Construction (기댓값 분석에 따른 공공공사 입찰담합의 가상경쟁가격 산정방법)

  • Jeong, Kichang;Kim, Wooram;Kim, Namjoon;Lee, Jaeseob
    • Korean Journal of Construction Engineering and Management
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.52-60
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    • 2018
  • Korea's public construction projects are under construction through bidding, however, due to the nature of the bidding, collusion between participants can occur. The collusion of bids accordingly damages the client. So, it is necessary to calculate the appropriate fictitious competition price to compensate for this. In this regard, econometrics methods are generally used, but there are limitations and issues arising from the nature of construction, especially design-build bid. Therefore, this study proposes a method to estimate reasonable competitive bid-price in design-build bid. It derives the lowest bid-price from the design submitted by the proponent and estimates the competitive bid-price by examining the factors according to the penetration rate according to the technical level of the tester, the skill level of the competitor, and the type of tester. Based on the method proposed in this study, a reasonable price can be derived that reflects the characteristics of the design and construction bidding bidder selection method and also it can be used as a reference material in the actual bidding process as well as calculating the damage due to the answer.

A Study on the Problems in Exercising Buyer's Right to Claim Damages for the Breach of Contract by the Seller in International Sales Contract - Focusing on CISG and UNIDROIT Principles(2010) - (국제물품매매계약에서 매도인의 계약위반에 대한 매수인의 손해배상청구권 행사의 문제점 - CISG와 UNIDROIT Principles(2010)을 중심으로-)

  • Oh, Won Suk;Youn, Young Mi;Lim, Sung Chul
    • The Korean Research Institute of International Commerce and Law
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    • v.58
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    • pp.3-33
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    • 2013
  • The purpose of this paper is to examine the problems in exercising buyer's right to claim damages for the breach of contract by the seller in international sales contract and to suggest reasonable counter-measures. The main contents are as follows: First, this author analyzed the principles of the seller's liability for damages in detail and examined the methods for the calculation of damages on the basis of Arts.74~77. As these articles are found to be insufficient in practical application, this author further examined the UNIDROIT Principles(2004) to confirm whether these Principles can fill the gaps of CISG or not, which turned out their gap-filling functions. Second, this author tried to find any expected problems when the buyer resorts to the right to claim damages in case of the seller's breach of contract including the estimation of damages, the burden of proof, causation, the proof of appropriateness for avoidance, the proof of buyer's obligation to mitigate the loss and so on. The reason is that these problems may cause a lot of difficulties in real business. As result, many buyers have given up their reasonable rights to claim damages so far. Finally, from the buyer's perspective, this author would like to suggest a liquidated damage clause(LD Clause) which gives the buyer to received a specified sum in case of seller's non-performance and/or a demand guarantee(or standby L/C) which guarantees buyer to secure unconditional payment independent of the underlying contract. For these purposes, the buyer should try to insert the LD Clause and/or Guarantee Clause in the contract when the buyer and the seller negotiate the sales contract. Also there are a lot of considerations and limitations in using the LD Clause and the Guarantee Clause in their real business, mainly dependent up bargain power between the seller and the buyer, for which this author promise to examine in detail in the future.

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