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Improvement of Capturing Velocity in the Fume Hood using Computational Fluid Dynamics(I) - Uniform flow (전산유체역학을 이용한 흄후드 제어유속 개선(I) - 균일류)

  • Jung, Jong-Hyeon;Lee, Sang-Woon;Lee, Sang-Man;Shon, Byung-Hyun;Lee, Jung-Hee;Jung, Yu-Jin
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.962-969
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    • 2013
  • This study used Computational Fluid Dynamics(CFD) to assess the properties of the air current inflow and the flow velocity distribution in the fume hood. In order to verify the effect of improvement, it was also predicted the characteristics of the flow pattern in case the hood face is structurally improved. The assessment of the capture velocity with the existing fume hood confirmed maximum 23 to 30% difference as compared to the root mean square (RMS). And the hood face showed great difference in flow velocity, with the flow velocity in the upper part is 58 to 68% faster than that in the lower part of the hood. So, as a result of the improvement of the hood designed to maintain a steady exhaust at the hood face (that is, installing a baffle on the inner wall and designing the slot type face), a difference of maximum 7% as compared to RMS appeared while maximum 12% differentiation in flow velocity through sections was predicted, showing mitigation of much of the difference in control velocity as compared to the previous structure.

Optimum Design and Structural Application of the Bracing Damper System by Utilizing Friction Energy Dissipation and Self-Centering Capability (마찰 에너지 소산과 자동 복원력을 활용한 가새 댐퍼 시스템의 최적 설계와 구조적 활용)

  • Hu, Jong Wan;Park, Ji-Woong
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.377-387
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    • 2014
  • This study mainly treats a new type of the bracing friction damper system, which is able to minimize structural damage under earthquake loads. The slotted bolt holes are placed on the shear faying surfaces with an intention to dissipate considerable amount of friction energy. The superelastic shape memory alloy (SMA) wire strands are installed crossly between two plates for the purpose of enhancing recentering force that are able to reduce permanent deformation occurring at the friction damper system. The smart recentering friction damper system proposed in this study can be expected to reduce repair cost as compared to the conventional damper system because the proposed system mitigates the inter-story drift of the entire frame structure. The response mechanism of the proposed damper system is firstly investigated in this study, and then numerical analyses are performed on the component spring models calibrated to the experimental results. Based on the numerical analysis results, the seismic performance of the recentering friction damper system with respect to recentering capability and energy dissipation are investigated before suggesting optimal design methodology. Finally, nonlinear dynamic analyses are conducted by using the frame models designed with the proposed damper systems so as to verify superior performance to the existing damper systems.

Present Status of Domestic Air Transport Industry and Policy Proposal for National Carrier's Sustainable Development (국내 항공운송산업의 현황 및 지속발전을 위한 정책제언)

  • Choi, Doo-Hwan;Hwang, Ho-Won
    • The Korean Journal of Air & Space Law and Policy
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.3-34
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    • 2018
  • Korea's air transport industry has a 70-year history since Korea National Airline was establishment in October 1948. Korea has 9 airlines which have international air transport business licenses, and as of 2017, air transport performance(Domestic & International) is ranked 8th in the world. Through analysis of Korea's air transport industry, this paper examines the essential problems of the domestic air transport industry and what policies and laws should be supplemented, and presents an "Policy Directions for the Air Transport Industry" that can continue to grow into a global aviation leading country in the future. Analysis of aviation statistics shows that the nation's air transport industry has a very high growth rate, and national airlines continue to invest in sustainable growth. Furthermore, new companies are also trying to enter the market. As of November 2018, four companies applied for licenses for international air transport business, one for international air transport business (cargo) license, and the Ministry of Land, Infrastructure and Transport is expected to decide whether to issue the license by first quarter of 2019. While some expect price reductions and consumer benefits through competition promotion, others worry about worsening airline financial structures and reducing safety investment due to competition. To sum up the problems of the nation's air transport industry, first, low-cost airlines focus only on attracting domestic demand, and thus have a weak foundation for continued growth. Second, the rapid growth in recent years has led to the lack of aviation professionals such as pilots and technicians and the saturation of slots at major airports. Third, since the financial soundness of airlines is not systematically managed, the financial situation of airlines can quickly deteriorate and the damage can be attributed to consumers. In order for the national airlines to continue to develop, the first is to focus on the endless demand of the global aviation market and to secure international competitiveness. Second, the government should support the airline infrastructure according to the size of the air transport industry, third, we will systematically nurture aviation experts who will lead the future of the nation's air transport industry, and finally, the government will have to continuously manage the financial status of airlines to prevent consumer damage in advance. Nowadays the air transport industry has become very competitive. Not only do airlines have to work hard for the sustainable development of national airlines, but all government agencies must support our airline companies in policy to win international competition.

Improvement of the Fishing Gear and Fishing Method of the East-Sea Trawl Fishery (동해구 트롤 어구어법의 개량)

  • 권병국;이주희;이춘우;김형석;김용식;안영일;김정문
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.106-116
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    • 2001
  • A serious of studies on the fishing gear and system of the East Sea trawl fishery was carried out to improve the fishing efficiency and the working conditions. As the first step of these studies, the fishing gear and system of the traditional East Sea trawl were checked in order to solve the some problems, such as the poor sheering efficiency of net mouth, the inconvenient fishing system of the side trawl and etc. And then the fishing system was reorganized from the side trawl into the stern trawl by setting up the net drum system on the stern deck, and introduction of two types of new designed nets, one for mainly the midwater trawl and the other for the bottom trawl. The results of the field experiment on the modified system and nets can be summarized as follows : 1. the modified system was well worked and could save the man-labour by about 80%. 2. The sheering efficiency of the improved net, A type was improved to 20 m height and 30 m width in the net mouth, and that of B type net, to 10 m height and 33 m width, compared with 1.5 m height and 15 m width in the traditional net. 3. Catch efficiency of pink shrimp in A or B type net was better about 3 or 5 times than that of traditional net, and in B net, for herring and other bottom fishes is better about 2 times than that of the traditional net.

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Three-dimensional finite element analysis of initial tooth displacement according to force application point during maxillary six anterior teeth retraction using skeletal anchorage (골격성 고정원을 이용한 상악 6전치 후방 견인시 힘의 적용점 변화에 따른 치아 이동 양상에 관한 유한 요소법적 분석)

  • Kim, Chan-Nyeon;Sung, Jae-Hyun;Kyung, Hee-Moon
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.339-350
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the micro-implant height and anterior hook height to prevent maxillary six anterior teeth from lingual tipping and extruding during space closure. We manufactured maxillary dental arch form, bracket and wire, using the computer aided three-dimensional finite element method. Bracket was $.022'{\times}.028'$ slot size and attached to tooth surface. Wire was $.019'{\times}.025'$ stainless steel and $.032'{\times}.032'$ stainless steel hook was attached to wire between lateral incisor and canine. Length of hook was 8mm and force application points were marked at intervals of In. Four micro-implants were implanted on alveolar bone between second premolar and first molar. The heights of them were 4, 6, 8, 10mm starting from wire. We analyzed initial displacement of teeth by various force application point applying force of 150gm to each micro-implant and anterior hook. The conclusions of 4his study are as the following : 1. When the micro-implant height was 4m and the anterior hook height was 5mm and below, anterior teeth were tipped lingually. When the anterior hook height was 6mm and above, anterior teeth were tipped labially. 2. When the micro-implant height was 6mm and the anterior hook height was 6mm and below, the anterior teeth were tipped lingually. When the anterior hook height was 6m and above, the anterior teeth were tipped labially. But lingual tipping of anterior teeth decreased and labial tipping Increased when the micro-implant height was 6mm, compared with 4mm micro-implant height. 3. When the micro-implant height was 8mm and the anterior hook height was 2mm, the anterior teeth were tipped lingually. When the anterior hook height was 3mm and above, labial tipping movement of the anterior teeth increased proportionally. 4. When the micro-implant height was 10mm and the anterior hook height was 2mm and above, labial tipping of the anterior teeth increased proportionally. 5. As the anterior hook height increased, aterior teeth were tipped more labially. But extrusion occurred on canine and premolar area because of the increase of wire distortion. 6. Movement of the posterior teeth was tipped distally during maxillary six anterior teeth retraction using micro-im plant because of the friction between bracket and were Based on the results of this study, we could predict the pattern of the tooth movement according to position of micro-implant and height of anterior hook. It seems that we can find the force application point for proper tooth movement in consideration of inclination of anterior anterior teeth, periodontal condition, overjet and overbite

Change of physical properties after diameter increase by electroplating of orthodontic rectangular stainless steel wire (전기도금을 이용한 스테인레스 스틸 각형 선재의 굵기 증가 후 물성 변화)

  • Lee, Jeong-Seok;Lee, Ki-Heon;Hwang, Hyeon-Shik
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.33 no.2
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    • pp.131-140
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    • 2003
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate clinical applications of electroplating method through investigation of the physical properties of orthodontic rectangular wires according to varying their cross section. For the study, it was accomplished to electroplate the 0.016-inched orthodontic rectangular stainless steel wire. The cross section of stainless steel orthodontic rectangular wire increased from $0.016{\times}0.016inch\;to\;0.017{times}0.017inch$ by electroplating. The wire was heat treated to improve an adhesion between the wire and electroplated metal. h three-point bending test and torsion test were conducted in order to compare physical properties among three wire groups; $0.016{\times}0.016wires(group 016),\; electroplated\;0.016{\times}0.016wires(group\;016P)\;and\;0.017{\times}0.017$ wires (group 017). Through the investigations of each wire group, following results were obtained 1. At three-point bending test, the group Ol6P showed higher tendency in the degree of stiffness, yield strength and ultimate tensile strength than the group 016. Stiffness and ultimate tensile strength showed statistically significant differences between two groups at three-point bending test (p<0.05). 2. Stiffness, yield strength, and ultimate tensile strength of the group 016P showed lower tendency than those of the group 017 Stiffness showed statistically significant differences between two groups at three-point bending test (p<0.05). 3. Torque/twist rate, yield torsional moment, and ultimate torsional moment of the group 016P showed higher tendency than those of the group 016. All measurements showed statistically significant differences between two groups alter torsion test (p<0.05). 4. Torque/twist rate, yield torsional moment, and ultimate torsional moment of the group 0166P showed lower tendency than those of the group 017. Yield torsional moment, and ultimate torsional moment showed statistically significant differences between two groups after torsion test (p<0.05).

Evaluation of frictional forces between orthodontic brackets and archwires (교정용 브라켓과 교정선 사이의 마찰력)

  • Jeong, Tae-Jong;Choie, Mok-Kyun
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.30 no.5
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    • pp.613-623
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study was to amount of the frictional forces with the brackets and wires, ligation methods, dry/wet, offsets, interbracket distances, velocity and to compare them each other by different conditions. This study tested 0.018'x0.025' slot sized 8 types of orthodontic bracket systems and 0.016', 0.016'x0.022' sized stainless steel, NiTi, Cu-NiTi orthodontic wires. One cuspid bracket were positioned on the slide glass and archwire was engaged into bracket and ligated with elastomeric modules. The values of frictional forces were measured with the instron universal testing machine. The results were as follows; 1. Polycrystalline ceramic bracket had the highest mean frictional forces and followed and by ceramic reinforced plastic bracket, metal bracket, plastic bracket with metal slot, monocrystalline ceramic bracket, single bracket, self-ligating bracket, friction free bracket in descending order. The self-ligating bracket showed low frictional forces in the round wires and high frictional forces in the rectangular wires. 2. Stainless steel wires had the least frictional forces and followed by NiTi, Cu-NiTi wires in descending order. Round wires had lower frictional forces then that of rectangular wires. 3. The stainless steel ligation method had significantly greater mean frictional forces them the elastomeric module ligation method. 4. Artificial saliva statistically increased the frictional forces in stainless steel wire, NiTi wire and Cu-NiTi wire. 5. There was a statistically significant difference with offset change 6. There was no statistically significant difference with interbracket distance in stainless steel wires but a significant difference in NiTi wires as the interbracket was decreased. 7 There was no statistically significant difference with velocity change. From the above findings, self-ligating bracket, stainless steel wires and the elastomeric module ligation method might be effective than any other materials to reduce the frictional forces in the orthodontic treatment and can be correlated to clinical situations seen in orthodontic patient care.

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THE EFFECT OF LIGATION METHOD ON THE FRICTIONAL FORGE BETWEEN ORTHODONTIC BRACKET AND ARCHWIRE (결찰양식이 교정용 브라켓과 교정선 사이의 마찰력에 미치는 영향)

  • Shin, Hyun-Jeong;Kwon, Oh-Won;Kim, Kyo-Han
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.813-823
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    • 1998
  • The frictional force has been considered as an harmful factor in an active unit where tooth movement occurs, but as an advantageous factor in anchor unit that resist tooth movement. That is, efficient tooth movement is planned by using ligation methods that have low levels of bracket-wire frictional force and the anchorage control can be achieved by using ligation methods that have high levels of bracket-wire frictional force that result in binding of the bracket accompanied by little or no tooth movement. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the frictional force generated between bracket and wire in accordance with the methods of ligation, the material of ligation and the passage of time under artificial saliva. Tested were 0.017x0.022 inch stainless steel wires in standard edgewise twin brackets for upper central incisors in a 0.018-inch slot. The wires were ligated into the brackets with elastomeric modules and stainless steel ligatures. Whole tie, half tie, twisting tie and double overlay tie were done with elastomeric modules. With 0.009-inch stainless steel ligature whole tie and half tie were done by needle holder and whole tie by ligature tying plier. With 0.012-inch stainless steel ligature whole ties were done by needle holder. Whole tie groups of elastomeric module were kept in artificial saliva bath at $37^{\circ}C$ for 28 days. The frictional force was recorded by means of an Instron universial testing instrument (4202 INSTRON, Instron Co., U.S.A.) at initial, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. The results for ligated samples in a simulated oral environment revealed the fellowing : ${\cdot}$In elastomeric module whole tie, 28 days group was significantly greater mean static frictional force than any other group but there were no significant differences among any other group (p>0.05). ${\cdot}$Elastomeric module twisting ties were significantly greater mean static frictional forces than any other ligation method but there were no significant differences between twisting tie and double overlay tie (p>0.05). Twisting tie, double overlay tie, whole tie, half tie showed differences in decreasing order. ${\cdot}$Stainless steel half tie produced lower mean static frictional force than whole tie, ligation by ligature tying plier produced greater mean static frictional force than by needle holder and ligation with 0.012-inch stainless steel ligature produced greater mean static frictional force than with 0.009-inch stainless steel ligature (p<0.05). ${\cdot}$There were no significant differences between the mean static frictional forces of elastomeric whole tie and stainless steel whole tie (p>0.05).

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Time Resolution Improvement of MRI Temperature Monitoring Using Keyhole Method (Keyhole 방법을 이용한 MR 온도감시영상의 시간해상도 향상기법)

  • Han, Yong-Hee;Kim, Tae-Hyung;Chun, Song-I;Kim, Dong-Hyeuk;Lee, Kwang-Sig;Eun, Choong-Ki;Jun, Jae-Ryang;Mun, Chi-Woong
    • Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2009
  • Purpose : This study proposes the keyhole method in order to improve the time resolution of the proton resonance frequency(PRF) MR temperature monitoring technique. The values of Root Mean Square (RMS) error of measured temperature value and Signal-to-Noise Ratio(SNR) obtained from the keyhole and full phase encoded temperature images were compared. Materials and Methods : The PRF method combined with GRE sequence was used to get MR temperature images using a clinical 1.5T MR scanner. It was conducted on the tissue-mimic 2% agarose gel phantom and swine's hock tissue. A MR compatible coaxial slot antenna driven by microwave power generator at 2.45GHz was used to heat the object in the magnetic bore for 5 minutes followed by a sequential acquisition of MR raw data during 10 minutes of cooling period. The acquired raw data were transferred to PC after then the keyhole images were reconstructed by taking the central part of K-space data with 128, 64, 32 and 16 phase encoding lines while the remaining peripheral parts were taken from the 1st reference raw data. The RMS errors were compared with the 256 full encoded self-reference temperature image while the SNR values were compared with the zero filling images. Results : As phase encoding number at the center part on the keyhole temperature images decreased to 128, 64, 32 and 16, the RMS errors of the measured temperature increased to 0.538, 0.712, 0.768 and 0.845$^{\circ}C$, meanwhile SNR values were maintained as the phase encoding number of keyhole part is reduced. Conclusion : This study shows that the keyhole technique is successfully applied to temperature monitoring procedure to increases the temporal resolution by standardizing the matrix size, thus maintained the SNR values. In future, it is expected to implement the MR real time thermal imaging using keyhole method which is able to reduce the scan time with minimal thermal variations.

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The effect of bracket width on frictional force between bracket and arch wire during sliding tooth movement (치아의 활주 이동시 브라켓 폭이 브라켓과 호선 사이의 마찰력에 미치는 효과)

  • Choi, Won-Cheul;Kim, Tae-Woo;Park, Joo-Young;Kwak, Jae-Hyuk;Na, Hyo-Jeong;Park, Du-Nam
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.253-260
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    • 2004
  • Frictional force between the orthodontic bracket and arch wire during sliding tooth movement is related to many factors, such as the size, shape and material of both the bracket and wire, ligation method and the angle formed between the bracket and wire. There have been clear conclusions drawn in regard to most of these factors, but as to the effect of bracket width on frictional force there are only conflicting studies. This study was designed to investigate the effect of bracket width on the amount of frictional forces generated during clinically simulated tooth movement. Three different widths of brackets $(0.018{\times}0.025'\;standard)$ narrow (2.40mm), medium (3.00mm) and wide (4.25mm) were used in tandem with $0.016{\times}0.022'$ stainless steel wire. Three bracket-arch wire combinations were drawn on for 4 minutes on a testing apparatus with a head speed of 0.5mm/min and tested 7 times each. To reproduce biological conditions, dentoalveolar models were designed with indirect technique using a material with similar elastic properties as periodontal ligament (PDL). In addition, to minimize the effect of ligation force, elastomer was used with added resin, which was attached to the bracket to make up for the discrepancies of bracket width. The results were as follows: 1. Maximum frictional force for each bracket-arch wire combination was: Narrow (2.40mm): $68.09\pm4.69gmf$ Medium (3.00mm): $72.75\pm4.98 gmf$ Wide (4.25mm): $72.59\pm4.54gmf$ 2. Frictional force was increased with more displacement of wire through the bracket slot. 3. The ANOVA psot-hoc test showed that the bracker width had no significant effect on frictional force when tested under clinically simulated conditions(p>0.05).