• Title, Summary, Keyword: 시추공의 방향성분

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Visual Interpretation about the Underground Information using Borehole Camera (휴대용 시추공 카메라를 이용한 지하정보의 가시화 기법)

  • Matsui Kikuo;Jeong Yun-Young
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.28-38
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    • 2005
  • According to the recent development of measurement system utilizing one or a set of boreholes, visualization of the explored underground became to be a major issue. It induced even the introduction of monitoring apparatuses on the borehole wall with multi-function tool, but the usage of these was often limited by where is unfavorable rock condition and a few of engineers can approach. And so, a portable type of borehole camera with only the essential function has been investigated and a few of commercial models about this is recently being applied into the field condition. This paper was based on the monitoring results obtained using a commercial model by Dr. Nakagawa. Discontinuities in rock mass were the topic for the visualization, and it was studied how can visualize their three dimensional distribution and what a numerical formulation is needed and how to understand the visualization result. The numerical formulation was based on the geometric correlation between the dip direction / dip of discontinuous plane and the trend / plunge of borehole, a set of the equation of a plane was induced. As field application of this into two places, it is found that the above visualization methodology will be especially an useful geotechlical tool for analyzing the local distribution of discontinuities.

Field Experiment Generating Shear Waves by Using french Method (트렌치를 이용한 S 파 발생 현장실험)

  • Lee, Doo-Sung;Kim, Hyoun-Gyu
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.2 no.4
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    • pp.209-214
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    • 1999
  • A field experiment generating shear waves by trench method was conducted at two places in Taejun area. We were able to separate the P- and S-waves by summing and subtracting the vertical and horizontal component of the data recorded at a three component downhole geophone in the borehole. The analysis of the records revealed that the shear waves were polarized to NS and EW directions. The faster shear waves were polarized to NS direction. The NS direction generally agrees with the dominant joints direction observed from the cores collected from the borehole.

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Study on the Current Horizontal Stress Characteristics of the Tertiary Rock Formations in the Pohang Basin by Integrated Analysis with In-situ Rock Stress Measurement and Borehole Scanning Data Set (현장 초기응력 측정과 시추공 이미지 스캐닝 자료의 통합 분석을 통한 포항분지 제 3기 지층 내 수평응력 분포 특성 연구)

  • Bae, SeongHo;Jeon, Seokwon;Kim, Jangsoon;Park, Kwongyu
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.304-315
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    • 2016
  • In this study, the current horizontal stress characteristics of the Tertiary rock formations in the Pohang Basin are investigated on the basis of the in-situ rock stress measurements at depths from 75 m to 716 m of the 3 test boreholes in the Doumsan area, Pohang. The deep hydraulic fracturing stress measurement results indicated that the horizontal stress components in the test site appear far lower than the average ones by the linear fit for the data set measured from the other domestic sites. But, borehole scanning revealed clearly that lots of small and large scale borehole failures occurred due to the low strength characteristics of the existing rocks. To obtain more accurate and overall information on the horizontal stress direction, the integrated analysis combining the hydraulic fracturing stress measurement and borehole scanning data set were additionally carried out. The analysis results showed that in the upper sedimentary and the lower volcanic rock formation, the dominant orientations of the current maximum horizontal stress components were appeared in the range of $80^{\circ}{\sim}100^{\circ}$ (N80E~N80W) and $120^{\circ}{\sim}140^{\circ}$ (N60W~N40W), respectively. From this study result it was found that the maximum horizontal stress directions have a tendency to rotate in a clockwise direction as the rock formation changes with depth in the test site.

A Study on the Improvement of Microseismic Monitoring Accuracy by Borehole 3-Component Measurement Field Experiments (시추공 3성분 계측 현장실험을 통한 미소지진 모니터링 정확도 향상 연구)

  • Kim, Jungyul;Kim, Yoosung;Yun, Jeumdong;Kwon, Sungil;Kwon, Hyongil;Park, Seongbin;Park, Juhyun
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2017
  • In order to improve the accuracy of microseismic epicenter location through the inversion techniques using P and S wave first arrivals, field experiments of microseismic monitoring were performed using borehole 3-component geophones. The direction of epicenter was estimated from the hodograms of P-wave first arrivals through the weight drop experiments in which the $\times$ component of 3-component geophone was aligned to the magnetic north. The picking of S wave first arrival was possible in the polarization filtered data even if S waves are difficult to be identified in raw data. The inversion technique using only P wave first arrival times can often converge to the local minimum when the initial values for epicenter are largely apart from the true epicenter, so that the correct solution can not be found. To solve this problem, the epicenter determination method using differences between P and S wave arrival times was used to estimate proper initial values of epicenter. The inversion result using only P-wave first arrival times which started from the estimated initial values showed the improved accuracy of the epicenter location.

Negative Apparent Resistivity in Resistivity Method (전기비저항탐사에서 음의 겉보기 비저항)

  • Cho In-Ky;Kim Jung-Ho;Chung Seung-Hwan;Suh Jung-Hee
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.5 no.3
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    • pp.199-205
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    • 2002
  • In the resistivity method, the potential difference between two grounded electrodes is measured and this can be positive or negative. The apparent resistivity and the potential difference have the same polarity. Since the electric field is the gradient of the potential, the polarity of the potential difference depends on the direction of the electric field. If the direction of the vector connecting two grounded electrodes is the same to that of the electric field, the measured potential difference and the apparent resistivity become positive. If the opposite is the case, they become negative. In general, the primary electric field and the vector connecting two potential electrodes have the same direction in a surface resistivity method. In this case, the measured potential difference is always positive because the primary electric field is greater than the secondary field. Therefore, the apparent resistivity is always positive if noise is free and topography is flat. The secondary field component, however, can be greater than the primary field component along the vector connecting two potential electrodes in the cross-hole resistivity method. Furthermore, if the secondary electric field and the vector connecting two potential electrodes have an opposite direction, the apparent resistivity become negative. Consequently, the apparent resistivity may be negative in the region where the primary electric field component along the vector connecting two potential electrodes is very small.

Program Development to Evaluate Permeability Tensor of Fractured Media Using Borehole Televiewer and BIPS Images and an Assessment of Feasibility of the Program on Field Sites (시추공 텔리뷰어 및 BIPS의 영상자료 해석을 통한 파쇄매질의 투수율텐서 계산 프로그램 개발 및 현장 적용성 평가)

  • 구민호;이동우;원경식
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.187-206
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    • 1999
  • A computer program to numerically predict the permeability tensor of fractured rocks is developed using information on discontinuities which Borehole Televiewer and Borehole Image Processing System (BIPS) provide. It uses orientation and thickness of a large number of discontinuities as input data, and calculates relative values of the 9 elements consisting of the permeability tensor by the formulation based on the EPM model, which regards a fractured rock as a homogeneous, anisotropic porous medium. In order to assess feasibility of the program on field sites, the numerically calculated tensor was obtained using BIPS logs and compared to the results of pumping test conducted in the boreholes of the study area. The degree of horizontal anisotropy and the direction of maximum horizontal permeability are 2.8 and $N77^{\circ}CE$, respectively, determined from the pumping test data, while 3.0 and $N63^{\circ}CE$ from the numerical analysis by the developed program. Disagreement between two analyses, especially for the principal direction of anisotropy, seems to be caused by problems in analyzing the pumping test data, in applicability of the EPM model and the cubic law, and in simplified relationship between the crack size and aperture. Aside from these problems, consideration of hydraulic parameters characterizing roughness of cracks and infilling materials seems to be required to improve feasibility of the proposed program. Three-dimensional assessment of its feasibility on field sites can be accomplished by conducting a series of cross-hole packer tests consisting of an injecting well and a monitoring well at close distance.

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Simultaneous traveltime inversion of surface and borehole seismic data in Pungam basin (풍암분지 시험시추공 주변에서의 지표 및 시추공 초동주시 동시역산)

  • Kim, Ki-Yeong;Hong, Myung-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Geophysical Society
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.37-45
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    • 2006
  • Velocity structures were defined in the vicinty of the 140-m deep test borehole in the pungam basin through simultaneous inversion of surface seismic refraction and far-ofset VSP traveltime data. Seismicenergy generated at the surface by a seisgun was recorded both at 42 surface locations at 3-m intervalsalong the profiles in the N20E and its orthogonal directions and at 71 m depth in the borehole. Forthe ofset VSP study, seismic energy was generated by a 5 kg sledgehamer at the surface in the horizontal ofset range of -19.5∼+19.5 m from the borehole. The seismic signals were detected at 9∼99 m depths with 1∼2 m intervals and recorded for 204 ms per shot. After shot static corrections,first-arrival times picked from both the surface refraction and borehole records were simultaneouslyinverted to yield velocity tomograms. The tomograms indicate that a 1.5 m thick soil layer with velocities les than 500 m/s overlies basements having a velocity range of 3,067 ∼5,717 m/s. Within the basements,∼4 m and deeper than 71 m. The high-velocit yzones may be due to conglomerates intercalated with sandstones and siltstones. No evidence for large-scale fracture zones or faults is detected near the borehole

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Turbulence Properties in the Near-Wake of a Circular Cylinder Using Power Spectral Estimation and Singular Spectral Analysis (PSE와 SSA를 이용한 원형 실린더 근접 후류 지역의 난류 특성 연구)

  • Bang, Joo Young;Seo, Il Won
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.136-136
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    • 2019
  • 원형 실린더를 주변 흐름에 관한 연구는 오랜 기간 유체역학 전 영역에서 모형실험이나 수치모형으로 광범위하게 연구되었다. 이 흐름은 하천의 교각이나, 바다의 시추선과 같은 수공구조물 주변에서 관측된다. 난류와 와류가 공존하는 복잡한 특성 때문에, 이 흐름은 수공학에서 유사이송, 세굴, 오염물 확산 등에 영향을 준다. 본 연구는 실험실 수로에 설치된 원형 실린더(D=9cm) 후방의 근접 와류 구간에서(x/D<5) 유속을 ADV로 측정한 후, 난류 특성을 Power Spectral Estimation(PSE)와 Singular Spectral Analysis(SSA) 방법으로 연구하였다. PSE는 샘플 스펙트럼의 한계를 보완하고자 자료를 분할하고, window 함수를 적용하여 ensemble 평균을 구하는 경험적 방법이다. PSE를 이용하여 스펙트럼을 계산한 결과, 주 흐름 및 횡방향 흐름은 Inertial subrange에서 Kolmogorov의 가정과 일치하는 추세를 보였다. 그러나 수심방향 흐름의 스펙트럼은 -5/3보다 빠르게 감소하는 추세를 보였다. Inertial subrange 스펙트럼에서 난류 에너지 소산율은 원형 실린더에서 멀어짐에 따라 감소하는 추세를 보였고, 주 흐름방향과 횡방향 흐름은 비슷한 크기를 보였다. 난류 에너지 소산율과 동점성계수를 이용하여 Kolmogorov 길이, 유속, 시간 스케일을 계산했다. 난류의 운동에너지를 계산하기 위해 Triple decomposition 방법 중 하나인 SSA를 적용하였다. SSA는 유속행렬을 이용하여 고윳값과 고유벡터를 계산하고, 유속에서 기여도가 큰 부분을 추출하는 방법이다. SSA를 통해 실린더 후방 흐름에서 와류 성분과 난류 성분을 나누었다. 횡방향 흐름은 강한 와류로 큰 기여도를 갖는 고유벡터가 나타났지만, 주 흐름과 수심방향 흐름은 상대적으로 낮은 기여도를 갖는 고유벡터가 나타났다. 와류를 제외한 흐름에서 난류 운동에너지는 실린더와 멀어짐에 따라 감소하고, 흐름 중앙에서(y/D=0) 가장 큰 값을 보였다.

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Microseismic Monitoring for KAERI Underground Research Tunnel (KURT 미소진동 모니터링)

  • Kim, Kyung-Su;Bae, Dae-Seok;Koh, Yong-Kwon;Kim, Jung-Yul
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.139-144
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    • 2009
  • The microseismic monitoring system with wide range of frequency has been operating in real time and it is remotely monitored at indoor and on-site for one year. This system was constructed and established in order to secure the safe and effective operation of the KAERI Underground Research Tunnel(KURT). For one year monitoring work, total 14 events were recorded in the vicinity of the KURT, and the majority of events are regarded as ultramicroseismic earthquake and artificial impacts around the tunnel. The major event is the magnitude 3.4 earthquake which was centered around Gongju city, Chungnam Province. It means that there is no significant evidence of high frequency microseismic event, which is associated with fracture initiation and/or propagation in the rock mass and shotcrete. Three components sensor was applied in order to analyze and define the direction of vibration as well as an epicenter of microseismic origin, and also properly designed and installed in a small borehole. This monitoring system is able to predict the location and timing of fracturing of rock mass and rock fall around an undreground openings as well as analysis on safety of various kinds of engineering structures such as nuclear facilities and other structures.

Trend of the welding technology for surface modification (표면개질을 위한 오버레이용접 기술개발 현황)

  • 백응률
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • pp.19-20
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    • 1998
  • 오버레이용접에 의한 표면개질기술(Weld Surfacing or Hardfacing Technology)은 내식성, 내 마모성, 또는 내열성을 갖는 합금의 용접재료를 모재 표면에 균일하게 용착(오버레이:Ovedayer)시킴으로써 목적하는 재료의 표면성질을 향상시키는 표면처리의 한 방법이으로써 1922년 Stoody가 Steel Tube에 Cr합금 분말을 충진한 용접봉을 제조하여 석유시추용 회전드릴의 선단 표면을 오버 레이 용접시켜 내마모성을 획기적으로 개선시킴으로써 이루어 졌다. 초기 오버레이 용접기술은 발전설비I 제철설비I 시벤트설비, 그리고 제지설비 등 주로 설비 부품들의 표면부 내마모성을 개선시키는 방향으로 주로 연구 개발이 이루어졌으나, 기술개발의 진전으로 탈황설비 둥의 표면부 내식성 향상, 연속주조롤 표면부의 내산화성, 내열피로성, 내마모 성 향상 둥을 위해 점차 산업전반에 널리 이용되고 있으며, 설비의 고도화 및 장수명화가 요구되 면서 본 기술의 중요성 또한 점차 부각되고 있다. 그림 1은 연강의 모재 위에 셀프쉴드플럭스코어드와이어(Self-Shield Flux Cored Wire:SS-FCW, 이하 55-FCW라 기술함)를 사용하여 오버레이 용접올 하는 장면을 도식적으로 나 타낸 것이다. 모재와 전극재인 용접봉(S5-FCW) 사이에서 아크가 발생되고, 아크열에 의해서 용접 봉 및 모재 일부가 용융되면서 모재 표면에 새로운 오버레이 표면층이 형성된다. 통상 오버레이 층의 1층 두께는 2-6mm 내외이며, 단층 혹은 다충 오버레이를 자유롭게 실시한다. 오버레이층의 물성은 아크열에 의한 모재로의 용입정도에 따라 1층부에서는 모재의 영향을 크게 받지만 오버레 이충 수가 증가된 3층부에서 부터는 전적으로 용접봉의 성분에 좌우된다. 사진 1은 연강(55-41)의 모재위에 크롬탄화물이 다량 함유된 고크롬 탄화물형 내마모재가 오버 레이된 내마모 복합강판 (wear plate)의 단면 미세조직 사진으로써 모재부와 오버레이충을 함께 보여주고 있다. 모재와 오버레이 충간의 경계면은 모재 일부가 용융된 후 웅고하면서 형성됨으로 인해서 도금이나 용사층과는 달리 매우 견고하게 결합되어 있다. 따라서 계면부의 탈락이라는 문 제점은 거의 없어 심한 응력을 받는 기계구조물 및 부품에도 본 기술은 널리 적용되고 있다. 그리고 사진 1에서 알 수 있는 바와 같이 모재와는 전혀 상이한 재료를 자유로이 선택하여 표면 유효층 일부만 오버레이시키며I 주조 및 단조가 불가능한 재료까지도 표면부에 오버레이 시킴으로 서 부품 및 설비의 제조에 있어 재료비의 절감과 제품의 수명이 획기적으로 개선될 수 있다. 그리고 최근에는 도금 빛 용사 둥과 같은 표면처리를 할 경우임의 소재 표면에 도금 및 용 사에 용이한 재료를 오버레이용접시킨 후 표면처리를 함으로써 보다 고품질의 표면층을 얻기위한 시도가 이루어지고 있다. 따라서 국내, 외의 오버레이 용접기술의 적용현황 및 대표적인 적용사례, 오버레이 용접기술 및 용접재료의 개발현황 둥을 중심으로 살펴봄으로서 아직 국내에서는 널리 알려지지 않은 본 기 술의 활용을 넓이고자 한다.

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