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Exploring the Creativity of the Scientific Gifted from Analyzing Descriptive Experiment-Design (서술적 실험 설계분석을 통한 과학 영재 창의성 탐색)

  • Kim, Se-Mi;Cho, Mi-Young;Kim, Sung-Won
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.129-145
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    • 2012
  • This study investigated factors of creativity and interaction between factors that are revealed when gifted students designed scientific experiments. For this, we firstly developed items which required the written process of designing experiments to explore creativity factors. Then, we used these items as a part for letters of self-introduction to students who applied for 2011 correspondence education of general physics for the Korea Physics Olympiad. 513th letters of self-introduction which were analyzed to investigate factors of creativity in view of creativity definition after researchers' consultation, which specifically means a combination of divergent and convergent thinking. The results were as follows; (1) in the step of hypothesis building, we could not only find Originality and the Flexibility & Fluency, which were factors of divergent thinking, but also Coherency and Elaborateness, which were factors of convergent thinking. (2) in the step of the hypothesis testing, we could explore Originality, Flexibility & Fluency in divergent thinking and Coherency, Reliability, Clarity, Elaborateness in convergent thinking. (3) we also figured out three creativity types of gifted students from the viewpoint that creativity is a consequence of interaction between divergent thinking and convergent thinking; a) Type A showed divergent and convergent factors of creativity in the step of hypothesis building. However, type A did not include divergent factors of creativity on the process of the hypothesis testing. b) Type B had divergent and convergent factors of creativity on the process of the hypothesis testing, but it had not convergent factors of creativity on the step of hypothesis building. c) Finally, in Type C, only divergent factors of creativity appeared on the process of the hypothesis testing, but convergent factors of creativity could be found on the step of hypothesis building and hypothesis testing.

Transfer and Validation of NIRS Calibration Models for Evaluating Forage Quality in Italian Ryegrass Silages (이탈리안 라이그라스 사일리지의 품질평가를 위한 근적외선분광 (NIRS) 검량식의 이설 및 검증)

  • Cho, Kyu Chae;Park, Hyung Soo;Lee, Sang Hoon;Choi, Jin Hyeok;Seo, Sung;Choi, Gi Jun
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.18 no.sup
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    • pp.81-90
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    • 2012
  • This study was evaluated high end research grade Near infrared spectrophotometer (NIRS) to low end popular field grade multiple Near infrared spectrophotometer (NIRS) for rapid analysis at forage quality at sight with 241 samples of Italian ryegrass silage during 3 years collected whole country for evaluate accuracy and precision between instruments. Firstly collected and build database high end research grade NIRS using with Unity Scientific Model 2500X (650 nm~2,500 nm) then trim and fit to low end popular field grade NIRS with Unity Scientific Model 1400 (1,400 nm~2,400 nm) then build and create calibration, transfer calibration with special transfer algorithm. The result between instruments was 0.000%~0.343% differences, rapidly analysis for chemical constituents, NDF, ADF, and crude protein, crude ash and fermentation parameter such as moisture, pH and lactic acid, finally forage quality parameter, TDN, DMI, RFV within 5 minutes at sight and the result equivalent with laboratory data. Nevertheless during 3 years collected samples for build calibration was organic samples that make differentiate by local or yearly bases etc. This strongly suggest population evaluation technique needed and constantly update calibration and maintenance calibration to proper handling database accumulation and spread out by knowledgable control laboratory analysis and reflect calibration update such as powerful control center needed for long lasting usage of forage analysis with NIRS at sight. Especially the agriculture products such as forage will continuously changes that made easily find out the changes and update routinely, if not near future NIRS was worthless due to those changes. Many research related NIRS was shortly study not long term study that made not well using NIRS, so the system needed check simple and instantly using with local language supported signal methods Global Distance (GD) and Neighbour Distance (ND) algorithm. Finally the multiple popular field grades instruments should be the same results not only between research grade instruments but also between multiple popular field grade instruments that needed easily transfer calibration and maintenance between instruments via internet networking techniques.

Problem-Finding Process and Effect Factor by University Students in an Ill-Structured Problem Situation (비구조화된 문제 상황에서 이공계 대학생들의 문제발견 과정 및 문제발견에 영향을 미치는 요인)

  • Kang, Eu-Gene;Kim, Ji-Na
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.570-585
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    • 2012
  • The Korean national curriculum for secondary school emphasizes scientific problem solving. In line with the national curriculum, many educational studies have been conducted in relation to science education. The objects of these studies were well-defined and well-structured problems. The studies were criticized for overlooking ill-defined and ill-structured problems. Some research has dealt with problem finding in ill-structured problems, which is related to creativity. There is a need for a study of scientific problem finding process in an ill-structured problem situation, because this study will help teachers wanting to teach scientific problem-finding in an ill-structured problem situation. The objective of this study was to conduct an empirical study on the scientific problem finding process in an ill-structured problem situation. One task of scientific problem finding in an ill-structured problem situation was assigned to 92 university students; thereafter, 32 of them participated in the research through interviews. Results indicated that the scientific problem finding process depended on initial clues and tentative solutions. Initial clues were affected by students' experiences, such as major classes, films, and novels. Tentative solutions were influenced by background knowledge of the tasks. Students screened information browsed on the Internet. They applied some standards for selection, particularly emphasized reliability standards, which are supposed to be studied in other contexts. All the students used assumptions to make their problems appear probable, which could be a useful tool to articulate.

Assessing the Benefits of Incorporating Rainfall Forecasts into Monthly Flow Forecast System of Tampa Bay Water, Florida (하천 유량 예측 시스템 개선을 위한 강우 예측 자료의 적용성 평가: 플로리다 템파 지역 사례를 중심으로)

  • Hwang, Sye-Woon;Martinez, Chris;Asefa, Tirusew
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
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    • v.54 no.4
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    • pp.127-135
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    • 2012
  • This paper introduced the flow forecast modeling system that a water management agency in west central Florida, Tampa Bay Water has been operated to forecast monthly rainfall and streamflow in the Tampa Bay region, Florida. We evaluated current 1-year monthly rainfall forecasts and flow forecasts and actual observations to investigate the benefits of incorporating rainfall forecasts into monthly flow forecast. Results for rainfall forecasts showed that the observed annual cycle of monthly rainfall was accurately reproduced by the $50^{th}$ percentile of forecasts. While observed monthly rainfall was within the $25^{th}$ and $75^{th}$ percentile of forecasts for most months, several outliers were found during the dry months especially in the dry year of 2007. The flow forecast results for the three streamflow stations (HRD, MB, and BS) indicated that while the 90 % confidence interval mostly covers the observed monthly streamflow, the $50^{th}$ percentile forecast generally overestimated observed streamflow. Especially for HRD station, observed streamflow was reproduced within $5^{th}$ and $25^{th}$ percentile of forecasts while monthly rainfall observations closely followed the $50^{th}$ percentile of rainfall forecasts. This was due to the historical variability at the station was significantly high and it resulted in a wide range of forecasts. Additionally, it was found that the forecasts for each station tend to converge after several months as the influence of the initial condition diminished. The forecast period to converge to simulation bounds was estimated by comparing the forecast results for 2006 and 2007. We found that initial conditions have influence on forecasts during the first 4-6 months, indicating that FMS forecasts should be updated at least every 4-6 months. That is, knowledge of initial condition (i.e., monthly flow observation in the last-recent month) provided no foreknowledge of the flows after 4-6 months of simulation. Based on the experimental flow forecasts using the observed rainfall data, we found that the 90 % confidence interval band for flow predictions was significantly reduced for all stations. This result evidently shows that accurate short-term rainfall forecasts could reduce the range of streamflow forecasts and improve forecast skill compared to employing the stochastic rainfall forecasts. We expect that the framework employed in this study using available observations could be used to investigate the applicability of existing hydrological and water management modeling system for use of stateof-the-art climate forecasts.

Review of 2011 Major Medical Decisions (2011년 주요 의료 판결 분석)

  • Yoo, Hyun-Jung;Seo, Young-Hyun;Lee, Jung-Sun;Lee, Dong-Pil
    • The Korean Society of Law and Medicine
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.199-247
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    • 2012
  • According to the review and analysis of medical cases that are assigned to the Supreme Court and all local High Court in 2011 and that are presented in the media, it was found that the following categories were taken seriously, medical and pharmaceutical product liability, the third principle of trust between medical institutions, negligence and causation estimation, responsibility limit, the meaning of medical records and related judgment of disturbed substantiation, Oriental doctors' duties to explain the procedures, IMS events, whether one can claim for each medical care operated by non-physician health care institutions to the nonmedical domain in the National Health Insurance Corporation, and the basis of norms for each claim. In the cases related to medical pharmaceutical product liability, Supreme Court alleviated burden of proof for accidents with medical and pharmaceutical products prior to the practice of Product Liability Law and onset the point of negative prescription as the time of damage strikes to condition feasibility of the specific situation. In the cases related to the 3rd principle of trust between medical institutions, the Supreme Court refused to sentence the doctor who has trusted the judgment of the same third-party doctors the violations of the care duty. With respect to proof of a causal relationship and damages in a medical negligence case, the Supreme Court decided that it is unjust to deny negligence by the materials of causal relationship rejecting the original verdict and clarified that the causal relationship shall not deny the reasons to limit doctors' responsibilities. In order not put burden on patients with disadvantages in which medical records and the description of the practice or the most fundamental and important evidence to prove negligence and causation are being neglected, the Supreme Court admitted in the hospital's responsibility for the case of the neonate death of suffocation without properly listed fetal heart rate and uterine contraction monitor. On the other hand, the Seoul Western District Court has admitted alimony for altering and forging medical records. With respect to doctors' obligations to description, the Supreme Court decided that it is necessary to explain the foreseen risks by the combination of oriental and western medicines emphasizing the right of patient's self-determination. However, questions have arisen whether it is realistically feasible or not. In a case of an unlicensed doctor performing intramuscular stimulation treatment (IMS), the Supreme Court put off its decision if it was an unlicensed medical practice as to put limitation of eastern and western medical practices, but it declared that IMS practice was an acupuncture treatment therefore the plaintiff's conduct being an illegal act. In the future, clear judgment on this matter should be made. With respect to the claim of bills from non-physical health care institutions, the Supreme Court decided to void it for the implementation of the arrangement is contrary to the commitments made in the medical law and therefore, it is invalid to claim. In addition, contrast to the private healthcare professionals, who are subject to redemption according to the National Healthcare Insurance Law, the Seoul High Court explicitly confirmed that the non-professionals who receive the tort operating profit must return the unjust enrichment and have the liability for damages. As mentioned above, a relatively wide range of topics were discussed in medical field of 2011. In Korea's health care environment undergoing complex changes day by day, it is expected to see more diverse and in-depth discussions striding out to the development in the field of health care.

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Comparing Prediction Uncertainty Analysis Techniques of SWAT Simulated Streamflow Applied to Chungju Dam Watershed (충주댐 유역의 유출량에 대한 SWAT 모형의 예측 불확실성 분석 기법 비교)

  • Joh, Hyung-Kyung;Park, Jong-Yoon;Jang, Cheol-Hee;Kim, Seong-Joon
    • Journal of Korea Water Resources Association
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    • v.45 no.9
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    • pp.861-874
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    • 2012
  • To fulfill applicability of Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) model, it is important that this model passes through a careful calibration and uncertainty analysis. In recent years, many researchers have come up with various uncertainty analysis techniques for SWAT model. To determine the differences and similarities of typical techniques, we applied three uncertainty analysis procedures to Chungju Dam watershed (6,581.1 $km^2$) of South Korea included in SWAT-Calibration Uncertainty Program (SWAT-CUP): Sequential Uncertainty FItting algorithm ver.2 (SUFI2), Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE), Parameter Solution (ParaSol). As a result, there was no significant difference in the objective function values between SUFI2 and GLUE algorithms. However, ParaSol algorithm shows the worst objective functions, and considerable divergence was also showed in 95PPU bands with each other. The p-factor and r-factor appeared from 0.02 to 0.79 and 0.03 to 0.52 differences in streamflow respectively. In general, the ParaSol algorithm showed the lowest p-factor and r-factor, SUFI2 algorithm was the highest in the p-factor and r-factor. Therefore, in the SWAT model calibration and uncertainty analysis of the automatic methods, we suggest the calibration methods considering p-factor and r-factor. The p-factor means the percentage of observations covered by 95PPU (95 Percent Prediction Uncertainty) band, and r-factor is the average thickness of the 95PPU band.

The Effects of Global Entrepreneurship and Social Capital Within Supply Chain on the Export Performance (글로벌 기업가정신과 공급사슬 내 사회적 자본이 수출성과에 미치는 영향)

  • Yoon, Heon-Deok;Kwak, Ki-Young;Seo, Ri-Bin
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.1-16
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    • 2012
  • Under the international business circumstance, global supply chain management is considered a vital strategic challenge to small and medium-sized enterprises(SMEs) suffering from deficient resources and capabilities to exploit overseas markets comparing with large corporations. That is because they can expand their business domains into overseas markets by establishing strategic alliances with global supply chain partners. Although a wide range of previous researches have emphasized the cooperative networks in the chain, most are ignoring the importance of developing relational characteristics such as trust and reciprocity with the partners. Besides, verifying the relational factors influencing firms' export performances, some studies proposed different and inconsistent factors. According to the social capital theory, which is the social quality and networks facilitating close cooperation of inter-individual and inter-organization, provides the integrated view to identify the relational characteristics in the aspects of network, trust and reciprocal norm. Meanwhile, a number of researchers shows that global entrepreneurship is the internal and intangible resource necessary to promote SMEs' internationalization. Upon closer examination, however, they cannot explain clearly its influencing mechanism in the inter-firm cooperative relationships. This study is to verify the effect of social capital accumulated within global supply chain on SMEs' qualitative and quantitative export performance. In addition, we shed new light on global entrepreneurship expected to be concerned with the formation of social capital and the enhancement of export performances. For this purpose, the questionnaires, developed through literature review, were collected from 192 Korean SMEs affiliated in Korean Medium Industries Association and Global Chief Executive Officer's Club focusing on their memberships' international business. As a result of multi-regression analysis, the social capital - network, trust and reciprocal norm shared with global supply chain partner - as well as global entrepreneurship - innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking - have positive effect on SMEs' export performances. Also global entrepreneurship affects positively social capital which has mediating effect partially in the relationship between global entrepreneurship and performances. These results means that there is a structural process - global entrepreneurship(input), social capital(output), and export performances(outcome). In other words, a firm should consistently invest in and develop the social capital with global supply chain partners in order to achieve common goals, establish strategic collaborations and obtain long-term export performances. Furthermore, it is required to foster the global entrepreneurship in an organization so as to build up the social capital. More detailed practical issues and discussion are made in the conclusion.

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Improvement of Analytical Method for Total Polysaccharides in Aloe vera Gel (알로에 베라(Aloe vera) 겔 중 총 다당체 시험법 개선)

  • Lee, Young-Joo;Kim, Yun-Je;Leem, Dong-Gil;Yoon, Tae-Hyung;Shin, Ji-Eun;Yoon, Chang-Yong;Kim, Jung-Hoon;Park, Mi-Sun;Kang, Tae-Seok;Jeong, Ja-Young
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.271-276
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    • 2012
  • This study intented to standardize the method for total polysaccharide, which is a functional marker for aloe vera gel in Korea. We used four lyophilized raw materials and commercial aloe gel products, certified as Health Functional Food by Korea Food and Drug Administration, including powder, solution, jelly, tablet and capsule, to optimize the analytical condition of dialysis and phenol-sulfuric acid reaction in polysaccharide analysis. The optimal conditions for polysaccharide analysis included 1 L water for dialysis and change 3 times for 24hr against 25 mL prepared sample solution. Validation test showed lower than 5% of coefficient of variation(CV) in intra-, interday validation in lyophilized raw materials and 4 types of commercial products. In inter-person and inter-laboratory validation with 4 persons from 4 different laboratories, CV(%) were 5.50 and 6.64 respectively. The linearity of polysaccharide analysis was assessed using 5 serial concentration of lyophilized raw materials(0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5%(w/v)). The results showed $R^2{\geq}0.995$ of high linearity. In the commercial aloe vera gel products, the results of reproductivity showed lower than 7.08% and revealed that the standardized method from this study ensured high precision for polysaccharide analysis.

An Application of Generalizability Theory to Self-introduction Letter and Teacher's Recommendation Letter Used in Identification of Mathematical Gifted Students by Observations and Nominations (관찰.추천에 의한 수학영재 선발 시 사용되는 자기소개서와 교사추천서 평가에 대한 일반화가능도 이론의 활용)

  • Kim, Sung-Chan;Kim, Sung-Yeun;Han, Ki-Soon
    • Communications of Mathematical Education
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.251-271
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    • 2012
  • The purpose of this study is: 1) to determine error sources and the effects of each error source, 2) to investigate optimal measuring conditions from holistic and analytic scoring methods, and 3) to compare the value of reliability between Cronbach's alpha and the generalizability coefficient in self-introduction letter and teacher's recommendation letter based on the generalizability theory in identification of mathematical gifted students by observations and nominations. Data of this study were collected from the science education institute for the gifted attached to the university located within in a capital city for the 2011 academic year. Scores form two raters using holistic and analytic scoring methods in both assessment types were used. The results of this study were as follows. First, as to both assessment types, error sources for people were relatively large regardless of scoring methods. However, error sources for raters in holistic scoring methods had a more significant impact than those of analytic scoring methods. Second, to set optimal measuring conditions in the self-introduction letter and teacher's recommendation letter, if we fixed the number of raters into 2 based on holistic scoring methods, at least 5 and 10 content domains were needed, respectively. In addition, the number of items in teacher's recommendation letter should be more than 3 when we fixed the number of content domains into 4, and the number of items in self-introduction letter should be more than 8 when we fixed the number of content domains into 6 using analytic scoring methods. Third, Cronbach's alpha having only a single source of errors was higher than the generalizability coefficient regardless of assessment types and scoring methods. Hence we recommend that generalizability coefficient based on various error sources such as raters, content domains, and items should be considered to keep a satisfactory level of reliability in both assessment types.

Culture and Art Policies of Korean government for Traditional Dancing Digital Contents (전통춤 디지털 콘텐츠에 관한 문화예술정책 연구)

  • Kim, Ji-Won;Rhyu, Ji-Sung
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.12 no.9
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    • pp.156-171
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    • 2012
  • It is the time of the Korean Wave booming throughout the world, placing Korean culture in the center of the world and its added value is unaccountable. At this prosperity, the preserving of the archetype of Korean dancing and digital contents making is becoming a task not only for the government but also for the private sector because culture industry has enormous added values. To achieve such goals, contents development is an urgent matter but establishing the value of the archetype of Korean traditional dancing must have priority. The public has to take an active role in rediscovering the values of traditional culture, and as the representative of Korean identity traditional dancing must be the object of a systematic art policy. This study will review the current status of 'digital contents program of the archetype of culture' for traditional dancing and will reconsider the modern value of preserving the archetype of culture to make a suggestion to the direction of culture art policies in the near future. The study acknowledged the lack of technical personnel majoring in the archetype of traditional dancing and the need of reviewing the credibility of historical research procedures. Even with the studies by industry-university collaboration and positioning of specialists, effective policies that will form the foundation for private firms to train personnels is in urgent need. In other words, training personnels, allocation of resource, securing funds, policies promoting collaboration between private and individual businesses, and the commercial recognition at private firms are still far from establishing. This is due to the fact that archetype of culture is not a business that creates revenue immediately, therefore the recognition of traditional dancing as an investable item by business-oriented firms or movements are difficult to find. To overcome such situation, software oriented policies that establish open communication and sharing with the public should be done at first rather than the quantity oriented hardware policies of contents development. Through this process the public can change the attitude on traditional dancing and traditional dancing could be newly recognized as a creative repository of culture and as public businesses giving birth to economic value.