• Title, Summary, Keyword: 실험 계획법

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Efficiency Study of 2D Diode Array Detector for IMRT Quality Assurance (2D 어레이 다이오드 검출기를 통한 IMRT 계산선량의 정확성 평가 및 효용성 연구)

  • Kim, Tae-Ho;Oh, Seung-Jong;Kim, Min-Joo;Jung, Won-Gyun;Chung, Jin-Beom;Kim, Jae-Sung;Kim, Si-Yong;Suh, Tae-Suk
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.61-66
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    • 2011
  • In this study, we evaluated the effect of grid size on dose calculation accuracy using 2 head & neck and 2 prostate IMRT cases and based on this study's findings, we also evaluated the efficiency of a 2D diode array detector for IMRT quality assurance. Dose distributions of four IMRT plan data were calculated at four calculation grid sizes (1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 mm) and the calculated dose distributions were compared with measured dose distributions using 2D diode array detector. Although there was no obvious difference in pass rate of gamma analysis with 3 mm/3% acceptance criteria for the others except 10 mm grid size, we found that the pass rates of 2.5, 5 and 10 mm grid size were decreased 5%, 20% and 31.53% respectively according to the application of the fine acceptance criteria, 3 mm/3%, 2 mm/2% and 1 mm/1%. The calculation time were about 11.5 min, 4.77 min, 2.95 min, and 11.5 min at 1.25, 2.5, 5, and 10 mm, respectively and as the grid size increased to double, the calculation time decreased about one-half. The grid size effect was observed more clearly in the high gradient area than the low gradient area. In conclusion, 2.5 mm grid size is considered acceptable for most IMRT plans but at least in the high gradient area, 1.25 mm grid size is required to accurately predict the dose distribution. These results are exactly same as the precious studies' results and theory. So we confirmed that 2D array diode detector was suitable for the IMRT QA.

Optimization of Extraction Conditions for Dried Jujube by Response Surface Methodology (반응표면분석에 의한 건대추의 추출조건 최적화)

  • Woo, Koan-Sik;Lee, Sang-Hoon;Noh, Jin-Woo;Hwang, In-Guk;Lee, Youn-Ri;Park, Hee-Jeong;Lee, Jun-Soo;Kang, Tae-Su;Jeong, Heon-Sang
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.2
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    • pp.244-251
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    • 2009
  • Extraction characteristics of dried jujube and functional properties of corresponding extract were monitored by response surface methodology. Maximum extraction yield of 53.69% was obtained at extraction temperature of $50.35^{\circ}C$, extraction time of 16.69 hr, and ethanol concentration of 72.88%. At extraction temperature, extraction time, and ethanol concentration of $45.80^{\circ}C$, 15.47 hr, and 73.12%, respectively, maximum cyclic adenosine monophosphate content was 8.20 mg/100 g. Maximum total polyphenol content was 18.85 mg/g at extraction temperature, extraction time, and ethanol concentration of $64.91^{\circ}C$, 20.84 hr, and 66.91%, respectively. Maximum total flavonoid content was 0.48 mg/g at extraction temperature, extraction time, and ethanol concentration of $57.36^{\circ}C$, 15.14 hr, and 71.08%, respectively. $IC_{50}$ value of electron donating ability showed maximum level of 32.34 mg/mL at extraction temperature of $48.46^{\circ}C$, extraction time of 19.25 hr, and ethanol concentration of 65.36%. Maximum ascorbic acid equivalent antioxidant capacity was 3.58 mg ascorbic acid equivalent per gram sample at extraction temperature, extraction time, and ethanol concentration of $56.09^{\circ}C$, 21.86 hr, and 65.36%, respectively.

Determination of Types and Element on Parking Ramp (주차장 램프 형식 결정 및 제원 산정에 관한 연구)

  • Kwon, Sung-Dae;Kim, Yoon-Mi;Nam, Chang-Kyu;Ha, Tae-Jun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.2021-2031
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    • 2013
  • Due to the rapid economic growth within the nation, the quality of life of individuals have improved dramatically. The scope of living activities of individuals have also extended, resulting in a rapidly increasing demand for automobiles. The number of vehicles registered in Korea is rapidly increasing and will reach 188.71 million as of December 2012. Compared to the registered residents of 50.94 million provided by the Ministry of Public Administration and Security, the registered population reflects about 4 people per every automobile. Due to the high demands for vehicles, the demands for parking lots in collective housing and businesses are also increasing. In reality, the current state of expansion of parking lots are underground, due to the limited available space on ground level. Specifically, the slope of a parking lot cannot exceed 17% linear slope and 14% curved slope according to the 'parking lot laws', however studies show that the driver feels at risk for safety when stopped on the parking ramp while driving in the parking lot. This study seeks to examine the suitability of parking lot ramps, concerning the safety aspects of the driver. First, the ramp type was categorized as linear or curved, then test drives were performed based on variations of slopes, slant distances, directions and points. A survey was administered to the driver after the completion of the test drive, in order to element design for an ideal ramp. In the case of curved ramp, the results of the estimate suggests a counterclockwise, slope at a maximum of 12% incline. The maximum slope for a linear ramp was analyzed to be between 13~14%, suggesting that slope greater than 15% need to be eliminated. In conclusion, it is anticipated that the element design parking ramp reported in this study will help to serve as a reference for future parking lot related guidelines, and provide cost effective traffic safety mechanisms in future parking lot businesses to follow.

Exploration of optimum conditions for production of saccharogenic mixed grain beverages and assessment of anti-diabetic activity (잡곡당화음료 제조 최적 조건 탐색 및 항당뇨 활성 평가)

  • Lee, Jae Sung;Kang, Yun Hwan;Kim, Kyoung Kon;Yun, Yeong Kyeong;Lim, Jun Gu;Kim, Tae Woo;Kim, Dae Jung;Won, Sang Yeon;Bae, Moo Hoan;Choi, Han Seok;Choe, Myeon
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.12-22
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to establish the production conditions through optimization of the production process of beverages using Aspergillus oryzae CF1001, and to analyze volatile compounds and antidiabetic activity. Methods: The optimum condition was selected using the response surface methodology (RSM), through a regression analysis with the following independent variables gelatinization temperature (GT, $X_1$), saccharogenic time (ST, $X_2$), and dependent variable; ${\Delta}E$ value (y). The condition with the lowest ${\Delta}E$ value occurred with combined 45 min ST and $50^{\circ}C$ GT. The volatile compounds were analyzed quantitatively by GC-MS. Results: Assessment of antidiabetic activity of saccharogenic mixed grain beverage (SMGB) was determined by measurement of ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibition activity, and glucose uptake activity and glucose metabolic protein expression by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and western blot analysis. Results of volatile compounds analysis, 62 kinds of volatile compounds were detected in SMGB. Palmitic acid (9.534% ratio), benzaldehyde (8.948% ratio), benzyl ethyl ether (8.792% ratio), ethyl alcohol (8.35% ratio), and 2-amyl furan (4.826% ratio) were abundant in SMGB. We confirmed that ${\alpha}$-glucosidase inhibition activity, glucose uptake activity, and glucose-metabolic proteins were upregulated by SMGB treatment with concentration dependent manner. Conclusion: Saccharogenic mixed grain beverage (SMGB) showed potential antidiabetic activity. Further studies will be needed in order to improve the taste and functionality of SMGB.

Optimization of Encapsulation Conditions for Fermented Red Ginseng Extracts by Using Cyclodextrin (Cyclodextrin을 이용한 발효홍삼농축액 최적 포접 조건)

  • Shin, Myung-Gon;Lee, Gyu-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.11
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    • pp.1708-1714
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    • 2015
  • Fermented red ginseng concentrate is known as a healthy food source, whereas it has off-flavor such as bitterness and sour flavor based on fermentation. ${\beta}$- and ${\gamma}$-cyclodextrin (CD) were used to encapsulate the off-flavor of fermented red ginseng concentrate by using response surface methodology design on ${\beta}$- and ${\gamma}-CD$ combination. The reducing effects were analyzed by sensory evaluation for bitter and sour tastes, ginsenoside Rb1, and total acidity. The optimized mixing ratio of ${\beta}$- and ${\gamma}-CD$ for reducing bitterness was the least expected value of 2.07 at ${\beta}-CD$ 3.74% versus the soluble solid content of fermented red ginseng concentrate and the ${\gamma}-CD$ 20.63% mixture. The encapsulation effects of ginsenoside Rb1 were the most expected value of 96.75% at ${\beta}-CD$ 3.47% and ${\gamma}-CD$ 19.89% mixture. The encapsulation effects of sour taste were the least expected value of 5.63 at ${\beta}-CD$ 9.34% and ${\gamma}-CD$ 9.96% mixture. The encapsulation effects of lactic acid were the most expected value of 67.73% at ${\beta}-CD$ 16.0% and ${\gamma}-CD$ 13.18% mixture. Based on encapsulation and each optimized combination, the most effective entrapping ${\beta}$-and ${\gamma}-CD$ combination ratio was ${\beta}-CD$ 10% and ${\gamma}-CD$ 13%.

Gelatinization Properties of Starch Dough with Moisture Content, Heating Temperature and Heating Time (수분함량, 가열온도 및 가열시간에 따른 전분 반죽의 호화특성)

  • Lee, Boo-Yong;Lee, Chang-Ho;Lee, Cherl-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.428-438
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    • 1995
  • The gelatinization properties of corn and waxy corn starch doughs were examined at various moisture contents, heating temperatures and heating times. The onset temperatures of gelatinization with 1% CMC using Brabender Amylograph were $64^{\circ}C$ for both corn and waxy corn starch. In the gelatinization properties using DSC, onset temperature$(T_o)$, maximum peak temperature$(T_p)$, completion temperature$(T_c)$ and enthalpy of the corn starch were $68.15^{\circ}C,\;74.01^{\circ}C,\;85.65^{\circ}C$ and $3.2\;cal/gram$ respectively. While those of the waxy corn starch were $68.24^{\circ}C,\;75.43^{\circ}C,\;93^{\circ}C$ and $4.2\;cal/gram$ respectively. In enzymatic analysis, when the moisture content increased from 36% to 52% and heating temperature from $60^{\circ}C$ to $100^{\circ}C$, the gelatinization degree of starch dough increased from about 10% to about 62%. The gelatinization degree of waxy corn starch dough was $15{\sim}20%$ higher than that of corn starch dough under the same gelatinization conditions. The regression equations of gelatinization degree (Y) of starch dough in the range of $36{\sim}52%$ moisture content $(X_1)\;60{\sim}100^{\circ}C$ heating temperature $(X_2)\;and\;0{\sim}2.0$ min heating time $(X_3)$ were examined using response surface analysis. The regression equation of corn starch dough was: $Y=28.659+8.638\;X_}+15.675\;X_2+7.770\;X_3-1.620\;{X_1}^2+10.790\;X_1X_2-4.220\;{X_2}^2+0.510\;X_1X_3+1.980\;X_2X_3-6.850\;{X_3}^2\;(R^2=0.9714)$ and that of waxy corn starch dough was: $Y=32.617+12.535\;X_1+20.470\;X_2+8.608\;X_3+4.093\;{X_1}^2+13.550\;X_1X_2-4.467\;{X_2}^2+1.560\;X_1X_3+2.160\;X_2X_3-9.527\;{X_3}^2$\;(R^2=0.9621)$. As the moisture content, heating temperature and heating time increased, the reaction rate constant(k) of gelatinization increased. The greatest reaction rate constant was observed at initial 0.5 min heating time of 1st gelatinization stage. At the heating temperature of $90^{\circ}C$, gelatinization of starch dough was completed almost in the initial 0.5 min heating time. The reaction rate constant of waxy corn starch dough was higher than that of corn starch dough under the same gelatinization conditions. At the 52% moisture content, the regression equation between reaction rate constant(k) and heating temperature(T) for corn starch dough was $log\;k=11.1140-4.1226{\times}10^3(1/T)$ (r=-0.9520) and that of waxy corn starch dough was $log\;k=10.1195-3.7090{\times}10^3(1/T)$ (r=-0.9064).

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A study on the case of education to train an archivist - Focus on archival training courses and the tradition of archival science in Italiy - (기록관리전문가의 양성교육에 관한 사례연구 -이탈리아의 기록관리학 전통과 교육과정을 중심으로-)

  • Kim, Jung-Ha
    • Journal of Korean Society of Archives and Records Management
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.201-230
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    • 2001
  • Conserving the recored cultural inheritance is actually the duty of all of us. Above all, the management and conservation of archives and documents is up to archivists who have technical knowledge about archival science. Archivists have to not only conserve archives and documents but also carry out classifying and appraising them in order to define them as current historic ones. The fundamental education about archival science is made up of history and law. Because Archive is the organisation which manage archives and documents produced by legal and administrative actions. Although there are still arguments about technical knowledge and degree archivists have to acquire, most of them prefer the studies related with history and emphasize legal studies to be the general boundary of archivits' ideology and trust. The training course about conservation of archives is conducted in about 9 National Archives of Torino, Milano, Venezia, Genova, Bologna, Parma, Roma, Napoli, Palermo. The training course in 19th was mostly based on the lectures of Phaleography, Diplomatics. There were not the education about archival science yet. Toward the end of 19th and 20th, people stressed the most basic subject in the training course of National Archive was not Phaleography and Diplomatics but archival science. The goal of archival science is to study the institution and organisation transferring archives and documents to Archive. And also it help archivists not wander about with ignorance of organisational and original procedures and divisions but know exactly theirs works. Like this, the studies on institution and organisation have got in the saddle as a branch of archival science since a few ten years. While archival science didn't evoke sympathy among people and experienced the tedious and difficult path in italy and other countries, Archive was managed by experts of other branches. As a result, there were a lot of faults in Archival Science. Specializing training course for Italian archivists came into being under the backdrop of Social Science Institute of Roma National University in 1925. The archival course of universities accomplished by the studies of history, law and economy. And such as Eugenio Casanova and Giorgio Cencetti were devoted archival science was abled to settle down in national archive. The training course for experts of 'archival science, 'Phaleography and Diplomatics' in National Archive of Bologna(Archivio di Stato di Bologna) is one of courses conducted in 17 National Archives in italy. This course is gratuitous and made up of 8 subjects(Archivistica, Paleografia, Diplomatica, Storia dell' Archivio, Notariato e documenti privati, istituzione medievale, istituzione moderna, istituzione contemporanea) students have to complete for two years. Students can receive the degree through passing twice written exam and once oral test. After department of Culture and education finally puts the marks of students, the chief Nationa Archive of Bologna confer the degree of 'archival science Phaleography and Diplomatics' on students passing the exams. This degree authenticates trainees' qualification which enables him to work at the archive in province, district and administrative capital city and archive of comunity and so on. Italian training course naturally leads archivists to keep in contact with valuable cultural inheritance through training in Archive. And it shows the intention to strengthen the affinity with each documents in the spot of archival management before training archivists. Also this is appraised as one of positive policies to conserve the local cultual inheritante in connection with the original qualitity of national archive with testify the history of each region. Traning course for archivist in Italy shows us the way how we have to prepare and proceed it. First, from producing documents to conserving than forever there has introduced 'original order that is to say a general rule to respect the first order given at the time producing documents'. Management of administrative documents is related consistently with one of historical documents. Second, the traning course for archivist is managing around 17 national archives. because italian national archive lay stress not or rducation of theory bus on train for archivest working in the first time of archival science. Third, diplomatics and phaleography for studies about historical document support archives. Forth, the studies on history id proceeding by cooperation between archivist and historian around archive. How our duties is non continuinf disputer who has to conserve and manage document and archives, but traing experts who having ability, vision and flexible thought, responsibility about archivals.