• Title, Summary, Keyword: 압전소자

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Fabrication and Evaluation of High Frequency Ultrasound Receive Transducers for Intravascular Photoacoustic Imaging (혈관내 광음향 영상을 위한 고주파수 초음파 수신 변환기 제작 및 평가)

  • Lee, Jun-Su;Chang, Jin Ho
    • The Journal of the Acoustical Society of Korea
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.300-308
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    • 2014
  • Photoacoustic imaging is a useful tool for the diagnosis of atherosclerosis because it is capable of providing anatomical and pathological information at the same time. A photoacoustic signal detector is a pivotal element to achieve high spatial resolution, so that it should have broadband spectrum with a high center frequency. Since a photoacoustic imaging probe is directly inserted into blood vessel to diagnose atherosclerosis, the total size of the photoacoustic signal detector should be less than 1 mm. The main purpose of this paper is to demonstrate that PVDF can be used as an active material for the photoacoustic signal detector with a high frequency and broadband characteristic. The photoacoustic signal detector developed in this study was a single element ultrasound transducer with an aperture of $0.5{\times}0.5mm$ and the total size of 1 mm. In the design stage, the natural focal depth was adjusted for an effective focal area to cover the region of interest, i.e., 1~5 mm in depth. This was because geometrical focusing could not be used due to the small aperture. Through a pulse-echo test, it was ascertained that the developed photoacoustic signal detector has the -6 dB bandwidth ranging between 40.1 and 112.8 MHz and the center frequency of 76.83 MHz.

Analysis of Acoustic Reflectors for SAW Temperature Sensor and Wireless Measurement of Temperature (SAW 온도센서용 음향 반사판 분석 및 무선 온도 측정)

  • Kim, Ki-Bok;Kim, Seong-Hoon;Jeong, Jae-Kee;Shin, Beom-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Nondestructive Testing
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.54-62
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    • 2013
  • In this study, a wireless and non-power SAW (surface acoustic wave) temperature sensor was developed. The single inter-digital transducer (IDT) of SAW temperature sensor of which resonance frequency is 434 MHz was fabricated on $128^{\circ}$ rot-X $LiNbO_3$ piezoelectric substrate by semiconductor processing technology. To find optimal acoustic reflector for SAW temperature sensor, various kinds of acoustic reflectors were fabricated and their reflection characteristics were analyzed. The IDT type acoustic reflector showed better reflection characteristic than other reflectors. The wireless temperature sensing system consisting of SAW temperature sensor with dipole antenna and a microprocessor based control circuit with dipole antenna for transmitting signal to activate the SAW temperature sensor and receiving the signal from SAW temperature sensor was developed. The result with wireless SAW temperature sensing system showed that the frequency of SAW temperature sensor was linearly decreased with the increase of temperature in the range of 40 to $80^{\circ}C$ and the developed wireless SAW temperature sensing system showed the excellent performance with the coefficient of determination of 0.99.

극성 (0001) 및 반극성 (11-22) n-ZnO/p-GaN 이종접합 발광 다이오드의 광전 특성 분석에 대한 연구

  • Choe, Nak-Jeong;Lee, Jae-Hwan;Han, Sang-Hyeon;Son, Hyo-Su;Lee, Seong-Nam
    • Proceedings of the Korean Vacuum Society Conference
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    • pp.310-310
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    • 2014
  • ZnO박막은 넓은 밴드갭 (3.37 eV), 높은 여기 결합 에너지 (60 meV)를 가지는 육방정계 우르자이트(hexagonal wurtzite) 결정구조를 가지는 II-VI족 화합물 반도체로, 가시광선 영역에서의 높은 광학적 투과도 특성과 자외선 파장에서 발광이 가능한 장점을 가진다. 최근, ZnO박막 성장 기술이 상당히 발전하였지만, 아직까지도 p-형 ZnO박막 성장 기술은 충분히 발전하지 못하여 ZnO의 동종접합 LED는 아직 상용화되지 않고 있는 실정이다. 따라서, 많은 연구 그룹에서 p-GaN, p-SiC, p-diamond, p-Si 등과 같은 p-type 물질 위에 n-type ZnO를 성장시킨 이종접합 다이오드가 연구되고 있다. 특히, p-GaN의 경우 ZnO와의 격자 불일치 정도가 1.8 % 정도로 작다는 장점이 있어 많은 연구가 이루어 지고 있다. 일반적으로 c-축을 기반으로 한 극성ZnO 발광다이오드에서는 자발 분극과 압전 분극 현상에 의해 밴드 휨 현상이 발생하고, 이로 인해 전자와 정공의 공간적 분리가 발생하게 되어 발광 재결합 효율이 제한되고 있다는 문제가 발생한다. 따라서, 본 연구에서는 극성 (0001) 및 비극성 (10-10) n-ZnO/p-GaN 발광다이오드의 성장 및 발광 소자의 전기 및 광학적 특성에 대한 비교 연구를 진행하였다. 금속유기 화학증착법을 이용하여 c-면과 m-면 위에 각각 극성 (0001) 및 반극성 (11-22) GaN박막을 $2.0{\mu}m$ 성장시킨 후 Mg 도핑을 한 p-GaN을 $0.4{\mu}m$ 성장시켜 각각 극성 (0001) 및 반극성 (11-22) p-GaN템플릿을 준비하였다. 이후, N2분위기 $700^{\circ}C$에서 3분동안 열처리를 통하여 Mg 도펀트를 활성화시킨 후 원자층 증착법을 이용하여 동시에 극성 및 반극성 p-GaN의 위에 n-ZnO를 $0.11{\mu}m$ 성장시켜 이종접합구조의 발광소자를 형성하였다. 이때, 극성 (0001) p-GaN 위에는 극성의 n-ZnO 박막이 성장되는 반면, 반극성 (11-22) p-GaN 위에는 비극성 (10-10) n-ZnO 박막이 성장됨을 HR-XRD로 확인하였다. 극성 (0001) n-ZnO/p-GaN이종접합 발광다이오드의 전계 발광 스펙트럼에서는 430 nm 와 550 nm의 두 피크가 동시에 관찰되었다. 430 nm 대역의 파장은 p-GaN의 깊은 준위에서 발광하는 것으로 판단되며, 550 nm 피크 영역은 ZnO의 깊은 준위에서 발광되는 것으로 판단된다. 특히, 10 mA 이하의 저전류 주입시 550 nm의 피크는 430 nm 영역보다 더 큰 발광세기를 나타내고 있다. 하지만, 10 mA 이상의 전류주입 하에서는 550 nm의 영역보다 430 nm의 발광세기가 더욱 증가하는 것을 확인할 수 있었다. 이것은 ZnO의 밴드갭이 3.37 eV로 GaN의 밴드갭인 3.4 eV다 작기 때문에 우선적으로 ZnO의 깊은 준위에서 발광하는 550 nm가 더욱 우세하지만, 지속적으로 전류주입 증가에 따른 캐리어 증가시 n-ZnO에서 p-GaN로 전자가 넘어가며 p-GaN의 깊은 준위인 430 nm에서의 피크가 우세해지는 것으로 판단된다. 반면에, 비극성 (10-10) n-ZnO/반극성 (11-22) p-GaN 구조의 이종접합 발광다이오드로 전계 발광 스펙트럼에서는 극성 (0001) n-ZnO/p-GaN에 비하여 매우 낮은 전계 발광 세기를 나타내고 있다. 이는, 극성 n-ZnO/p-GaN에 비하여 비극성 n-ZnO/반극성 p-GaN의 결정성이 상대적으로 낮기 때문으로 판단된다. 또한, 20 mA 영역에서도 510 nm의 깊은 준위와 430 nm의 발광이 관찰되었다. 동일한 20 mA하에서 두 피크의 발광세기를 비교하면 430 nm의 영역은 극성 n-ZnO/p-GaN에 비하여 매우 낮은 값을 나타내고 있다. 이는 반극성 (11-22) p-GaN의 경우 극성 (0001) p-GaN에 비하여 우수한 p-형 특성에 기인한 것으로 판단된다.

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Development of a split beam transducer for measuring fish size distribution (어체 크기의 자동 식별을 위한 split beam 음향 변환기의 재발)

  • 이대재;신형일
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Fisheries and Ocean Technology
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.196-213
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    • 2001
  • A split beam ultrasonic transducer operating at a frequency of 70 kHz to use in the fish sizing echo sounder was developed and the acoustic radiation characteristics were experimentally analyzed. The amplitude shading method utilizing the properties of the Chebyshev polynomials was used to obtain side lobe levels below -20 dB and to optimize the relationship between main beam width and side lobe level of the transducer, and the amplitude shading coefficient to each of the elements was achieved by changing the amplitude contribution of elements with 4 weighting transformers embodied in the planar array transducer assembly. The planar array split beam transducer assembly was composed of 36 piezoelectric ceramics (NEPEC N-21, Tokin) of rod type of 10 mm in diameter and 18.7 mm in length of 70 kHz arranged in the rectangular configuration, and the 4 electrical inputs were supplied to the beamformer. A series of impedance measurements were conducted to check the uniformity of the individual quadrants, and also in the configurations of reception and transmission, resonant frequency, and the transmitting and receiving characteristics were measured in the water tank and analyzed, respectively. The results obtained are summarized as follows : 1. Average resonant and antiresonant frequencies of electrical impedance for four quadrants of the split beam transducer in water were 69.8 kHz and 83.0 kHz, respectively. Average electrical impedance for each individual transducer quadrant was 49.2$\Omega$ at resonant frequency and 704.7$\Omega$ at antiresonant frequency. 2. The resonance peak in the transmitting voltage response (TVR) for four quadrants of the split beam transducer was observed all at 70.0 kHz and the value of TVR was all about 165.5 dB re 1 $\mu$Pa/V at 1 m at 70.0 kHz with bandwidth of 10.0 kHz between -3 dB down points. The resonance peak in the receiving sensitivity (SRT) for four combined quadrants (quad LU+LL, quad RU+RL, quad LU+RU, quad LL+RL) of the split beam transducer was observed all at 75.0 kHz and the value of SRT was all about -177.7 dB re 1 V/$\mu$Pa at 75.0 kHz with bandwidth of 10.0 kHz between -3 dB down points. The sum beam transmitting voltage response and receiving senstivity was 175.0 dB re 1$\mu$Pa/V at 1 m at 75.0 kHz with bandwidth of 10.0 kHz, respectively. 3. The sum beam of split beam transducer was approximately circular with a half beam angle of $9.0^\circ$ at -3 dB points all in both axis of the horizontal plane and the vertical plane. The first measured side lobe levels for the sum beam of split beam transducer were -19.7 dB at $22^\circ$ and -19.4 dB at $-26^\circ$ in the horizontal plane, respectively and -20.1 dB at $22^\circ$ and -22.0 dB at $-26^\circ$ in the vertical plane, respectively. 4. The developed split beam transducer was tested to estimate the angular position of the target in the beam through split beam phase measurements, and the beam pattern loss for target strength corrections was measured and analyzed.

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