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A Study on the Shear Characteristics of the Decomposed Granite Soils Using Direct Shear Test (직접전단시험(直接剪斷試驗)에 의한 화강토(花崗土)의 전단특성(剪斷特性)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Dal Won;Kang, Yea Mook;Cho, Seong Seup
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.227-242
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    • 1986
  • This paper describes the observed behavior in the direct shear test on decomposed granite soil having the complicate engineering properties at various different levels of factors. The objectives of this study were to investigate the characteristics of the decomposed granite soil under controlled various moisture content, dry density, strain rate and soaking which give influence to the shear strength. The results were summarized as follows; 1. The shear strength was decreased remarkably with the increasing of moisture contents of A and B soil were 5-10% and 15-20% respectively. 2. Cohesion and angle of internal friction were decreased with the increasing of moisture content and increased with the increasing of dry density. 3. The shear strength was increased with the increasing of normal stress and volume change was decreased on the whole. The shear strength was generally increased with the increasing of the strain rate. 4. As dry density increases, A-soil shows the progressive failure and the decrease of volume change while B-soil shows the initial failure and the increase of volume change. 5. The relationships between the soaked and unsoaked specimens were as follows ; ${\tau}_f=0.1009+1.026{{\tau}_f}^*$ (A-soil), ${\tau}_f=0.1586+0.8005{{\tau}_f}^*$ (B-soil) 6. Angle of internal friction of the direct shear test shows larger value than that of the triaxial compression test. All effective stress path was nearly similar.

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The Pullout Behavior of a Large-diameter Batter ]Reaction Piles During Static Pile Load Test for a Large Diameter Socketed Pipe Pile (대구경 말뚝의 정재하시험시 대구경 경사반력말뚝의 인발거동)

  • 김상옥;성인출;박성철;정창규;최용규
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.5-16
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    • 2002
  • The pullout behavior of large-diameter steel pipe piles(diameter = 2,500mm, length = 38~40m), which were designed as compression piles but used as reaction piles during a static compression load test on a pile(diameter = 1,000m, length = 40m), was investigated. The steel pipe piles were driven by 20m into a marine deposit and weathered soil layer and then socketed by 10m into underlying weathered and soft rock layers. The sockets and pipe were filled with reinforced concrete. The steel pipe and concrete in the steel pipe zone and concrete and rebars in the socketed zone were fully instrumented to measure strains in each zone. The pullout deformations of the reaction pile heads were measured by LVDTs. Over the course of the study, a maximum uplift deformation of 7mm was measured in the heads of reaction piles when loaded to 10MN, and 1mm of residual uplift deflection was measured. In the reaction piles, about 83% and about 12% of the applied pullout loads were transferred in the weathered rock layer and in the soft rock layer, respectively. Also, at an uplift force of 10MN, shear stresses due to the uplift in the weathered rock layer md soft rock layer were developed as much as 125.3kPa and 61.8kPa, respectively. Thus, the weathered rock layer should be utilized as resisting layer in which frictional farce could be mobilized greatly.

Effects of Expansive Admixture on the Mechanical Properties of Strain-Hardening Cement Composite (SHCC) (팽창재 치환율에 따른 섬유보강 시멘트 복합체의 역학적 특성)

  • Lee, Young-Oh;Yun, Hyun-Do
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.617-624
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    • 2010
  • This paper reports on a comprehensive study on the mechanical properties of expansive fiber-reinforced strainhardening cement composite (SHCC) materials containing various replacement levels (0, 8, 10, 12 and 14%) of an expansive admixture and 1.5% polyethylene (PE) fibers volume fraction. A number of experimental tests were conducted to investigate shrinkage, compressive strength, flexural strength, and direct tension behavior. Test results show that as expected, the different replacement levels of an expansive admixture have an important effect on the evolution of the free shrinkage of SHCC with a rich mixture. At the volume fraction of 1.5%, PE fibers in normal SHCC reduce free shrinkage deformation by about 30% in comparison to plain mortar. The replacement of an expansive admixture in SHCC material has led the SHCC to a better initial cracking behavior. Enhanced cracking tendency improved mechanical properties of SHCC materials with rich mixtures. Note that an increase in the replacement of expansive admixture from 10% to 14% does not lead to a significant improvement for mechanical properties; this implies that the replacement of 10% expansive admixture is sufficient.

Evaluation of Thermal Degradation of CFRP Flexural Strength at Elevated Temperature (온도 상승에 따른 탄소 복합재의 굽힘 강도 저하 평가)

  • Hwang Tae-Kyung;Park Jae-Beom;Lee Sang-Yun;Kim Hyung-Geun;Park Byung-Yeol;Doh Young-Dae
    • Composites Research
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.20-29
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    • 2005
  • To evaluate the flexural deformation and strength of composite motor case above the glass transition temperature$(T_g),\;170^{\circ}C$, of resin material, a finite element analysis(FEA) model in which material non-linearity and progressive failure mode were considered was proposed. The laminated flexural specimens which have the same lay-up and thickness as the composite motor case were tested by 4-point bending test to verify the validity of FEA model. Also. mechanical properties in high temperature were evaluated to obtain the input values for FEA. Because the material properties related to resin material were highly deteriorated in the temperature range beyond $T_g$, the flexural stiffness and strength of laminated flexural specimen in $200^{\circ}C$ were degraded by also $70\%\;and\;80\%$ in comparison with normal temperature results. Above $T_g$, the failure mode was changed from progressive failure mode initiated by matrix cracking at $90^{\circ}$ ply in bottom side and terminated by delamination at the center line of specimen to fiber compressive breakage mode at top side. From stress analysis, the progressive failure mechanism was well verified and the predicted bending stiffness and strength showed a good agreement with the test results.

Pull-out Test of Steel Pipe Pile Reinforced with Hollow Steel Plate Shear Connectors (유공강판 전단연결재로 보강된 강관말뚝 머리의 인발실험)

  • Lee, Kyoung-Hun
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.12
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    • pp.285-291
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to evaluate the structural capacity of steel pipe pile specimens reinforced with hollow steel plate shear connectors by pull-out test. Compressive strength testing of concrete was conducted and yield forces, tensile strengths and elongation ratios of re-bars and hollow steel plate were investigated. A 2,000kN capacity UTM was used for the pull-out test with 0.01mm/sec velocity by displacement control method. Strain gauges were installed at the center of re-bars and hollow steel plates and LVDTs were also installed to measure the relative displacement between the loading plate and in-filled concrete pile specimens. The yield forces of the steel pipe pile specimens reinforced with hollow steel plate shear connectors were increased 1.44-fold and 1.53-fold compared to that of a control specimen, respectively. Limited state forces of steel pipe pile specimens reinforced with hollow steel plate shear connectors were increased 1.23-fold and 1.29-fold compared to that of a control specimen, respectively. Yield state displacement and limited state displacement of steel pipe pile specimens reinforced with hollow steel plate shear connector were decreased 0.61-fold and 0.42-fold compared to that of a control specimen, respectively.

Collapse Analysis of Ultimate Strength Considering the Heat Affected Zone of an Aluminum Stiffened Plate in a Catamaran (카타마란 알루미늄 보강판의 열영향부 효과를 고려한 최종강도 붕괴 해석)

  • Kim, Sung-Jun;Seo, Kwang-Cheol;Park, Joo-Shin
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.542-550
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    • 2020
  • The use of high-strength aluminum alloys for ships and of shore structures has many benefits compared to carbon steels. Recently, high-strength aluminum alloys have been widely used in onshore and of shore industries, and they are widely used for the side shell structures of special-purpose ships. Their use in box girders of bridge structures and in the topside of fixed platforms is also becoming more widespread. Use of aluminum material can reduce fuel consumption by reducing the weight of the composite material through a weight composition ratio of 1/3 compared to carbon steel. The characteristics of the stress strain relationship of an aluminum structure are quite different from those of a steel structure, because of the influence of the welding[process heat affected zone (HAZ). The HAZ of aluminum is much wider than that of steel owing to its higher heat conductivity. In this study, by considering the HAZ generated by metal insert gas (MIG) welding, the buckling and final strength characteristics of an aluminum reinforcing plate against longitudinal compression loads were analyzed. MIG welding reduces both the buckling and ultimate strength, and the energy dissipation rate after initial yielding is high in the range of the HAZ being 15 mm, and then the difference is small when HAZ being 25 mm or more. Therefore, it is important to review and analyze the influence of the HAZ to estimate the structural behavior of the stiffened plate to which the aluminum alloy material is applied.

Effects of Salts and Acid Solutions on the Weathering of Granite (화강암의 풍화에 미치는 염분과 산성용액의 영향)

  • Shon, Byung-Hyun;Jung, Jong-Hyeon;Kim, Hyun-Gyu;Yoo, Jeong-Gun;Lee, Hyung-Kun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.101-108
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    • 2005
  • Because the stone cultural properties located outdoors, they have been altered and deteriorated in external appearance due to environmental factors such as acid rain, extreme change in temperature, and salts. Damage to stone cultural properties is accelerated particularly due to recent industrial development and environmental pollution. An experimental study was conducted to evaluate the effect of environmental contaminants on the weathering of granite. And as part of the developing of conservation method, $TiO_2$ catalyst was prepared and tested. When fresh granite was dipped into the salt and acid solutions, dissolution rate of eight minerals (Si, Mg, Ca, Na, K, Fe, Mn, Al) are abruptly increased at initial stage of reaction and then increased steadily until 100 cycles. After salt and acid solution experiments, the mineral compositions of the granite surface were lower then that of the fresh granite and density of the weathered granite was steadily decreased from $2.60\;g/cm^3$ to $2.56\;g/cm^3$, but Poissions ratio and absorption ratio were slightly increased. It was expected at stone cultural assets could be weathered by salts and acid rain. In the case of $TiO_2$ was coated to the granite, the dissolution rate of minerals and absorption ratio of $TiO_2$ coated granite were decreased. Therefore, the $TiO_2$ coating method tested in this study considered to be a viable method to assist in the conservation of stone cultural properties from environmental contaminants.

Effects of Boliing, Steaming, and Chemical Treatment on Solid Wood Bending of Quercus acutissima Carr. and Pinus densiflora S. et. Z. (자비(煮沸), 증자(蒸煮) 및 약제처리(藥劑處理)가 상수리나무와 소나무의 휨가공성(加工性)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • So, Won-Tek
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.19-62
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    • 1985
  • This study was performed to investigate: (i) the bending processing properties of silk worm oak (Quercus acutissima Carr.) and Korean red pine (Pinus densiflora S. et Z.) by boiling and steaming treatments; (ii) the effects of interrelated factors - sapwood and heartwood, annual ring placement, softening temperature and time, moisture content. and wood defects on bending processing properties; (iii) the changing rates of bending radii after release from a tension strap, and (iv) the improving methods of bending process by treatment with chemicals. The size of specimens tested was $15{\times}15{\times}350mm$ for boiling and steaming treatments and $5{\times}10{\times}200mm$ for treatments with chemicals. The specimens were green for boiling treatments and dried to 15 percent for steaming treatments. The specimens for treatments with chemicals were soaked in saturated urea solution, 35 percent formaldehyde solution, 25 percent polyethylene glycol -400 solution, and 25 percent ammonium hydroxide solution for 5 days and immediately followed the bending process, respectively. The results obtained were as follows: 1. The internal temperature of silk worm oak and Korean red pine by boiling and steaming time was raised slowly to $30^{\circ}C$ but rapidly from $30^{\circ}C$ to $80-90^{\circ}C$ and then slowly from $80-90^{\circ}C$ to $100^{\circ}C$. 2. The softening time required to the final temperature was directly proportional to the thickness of specimen. The time required from $25^{\circ}C$ to $100^{\circ}C$ for 15mm-squared specimen was 9.6-11.2 minutes in silk worm oak and 7.6-8.1 minutes in Korean red pine. 3. The moisture content (M.C.) of specimen by steaming time was increased rapidly first 4 minutes in the both species, and moderately from 4 to 20 minutes and then slowly and constantly in silk worm oak, and moderately from 4 to 15 minutes and then slowly and constantly in Korean red pine. The M.C. of 15mm-squared specimen in 50 minutes of steaming was increased to 18.0 percent in the oak and 22.4 percent in the pine from the initial conditioned M.C. of 15 percent The rate of moisture adsorption measured was therefore faster in the pine than in the oak. 4. The mechanical properties of the both species were decreased significantly with the increase of boiling rime. The decrement by the boiling treatment for 60 minutes was measured to 36.6-45.0 percent in compressive strength, 12.5-17.5 percent in tensile strength, 31.6-40.9 percent in modulus of rupture, and 23.3-34.6 percent in modulus of elasticity. 5. The minimum bending radius (M.B.R.) of sapwood and heartwood was 60-80 mm and 90 mm in silk worm oak, and 260 - 300 mm and 280 - 300 mm in Korean red pine, respectively. Therefore, the both species showed better bending processing properties in sapwood than in heartwood. 6. The M.B.R. of edge-grained and flat-grained specimen in suk worm oak was 60-80 mm, but the M.B.R. in Korean red pine was 240-280 mm and 260-360 mm, respectively. Comparing the M.B.R. of edge-grained with flat-grained specimen, in the pine the edge-grained showed better bending processing property than the flat-grained. 7. The bending processing properties of the both species were improved by the rising of softening temperature from $40^{\circ}C$ to $100^{\circ}C$. The minimum softening temperature for bending was $90^{\circ}C$ in silk worm oak and $80^{\circ}C$ in Korean red pine, and the dependency of softening temperature for bending was therefore higher in the oak than in the pine. 8. The bending processing properties of the both species were improved by the increase of softening time as well as temperature, but even after the internal temperature of specimen reaching to the final temperature, somewhat prolonged softening was required to obtain the best plastic conditions. The minimum softening time for bending of 15 mm-squared silk worm oak and Korean red pine specimen was 15 and 10 minutes in the boiling treatment, and 30 and 20 minutes in the steaming treatment, respectively. 9. The optimum M.C. for bending of silk worm oak was 20 percent, and the M.C. above fiber saturation point rather degraded the bending processing property, whereas the optimum M.C. of Korean red pine needed to be above 30 percent. 10. The bending works in the optimum conditions obtained as seen in Table 24 showed that the M.B.R. of silk worm oak and Korean red pine was 80 mm and 240 mm in the boiling treatment, and 50 mm and 280 mm in the steaming treatment, respectively. Therefore, the bending processing property of the oak was better in the steaming than in the boiling treatment, but that of the pine better in the boiling than in the steaming treatment. 11. In the bending without a tension strap, the radio r/t of the minimum bending radius t to the thickness t of silk worm oak and Korean red pine specimen amounted to 16.0 and 21.3 in the boiling treatment, and 17.3 and 24.0 in the steaming treatment, respectively. But in the bending with a tension strap, the r/t of the oak and the pine specimen decreased to 5.3 and 16.0 in t he boiling treatment, and 3.3 and 18.7 in the steaming treatment, respectively. Therefore, the bending processing properties of the both species were significantly improved by the strap. 12. The effect of pin knot on the degradation of bending processing property was very severe in silk worm oak by side, e.g. 90 percent of the oak specimens with pin knot on the concave side were ruptured when bent to a 100 mm radius but only 10 percent of the other specimens with pin knot on the convex side were ruptured. 13. The changing rate in the bending radius of specimen bent to a 300 mm radius after 30 days of exposure to room temperature conditions was measured to 4.0-10.3 percent in the boiling treatment and 13,0-15.0 percent in the steaming treatment. Therefore, the degree of spring back after release was higher in the steaming than in the boiling treatment. And the changing rate of moisture-proofing treated specimen by expoxy resin coating was only -1.0.0 percent. 14. Formaldehyde, 35 percent solution, and 25 percent polyethylene glycol-400 solution found no effect on the plasticization of the both species, but saturated urea solution and 25 percent ammonium hydroxide solution found significant effect in comparison to non-treated specimen. But the effect of the treatment with chemicals alone was inferior to that of the steaming treatment, and the steaming treatment after the treatment with chemicals improved 10-24 percent over the bending processing property of steam-bent specimen. 15. Three plasticity coefficients - load-strain coefficient, strain coefficient, and energy coefficient - were evaluated to be appropriate for the index of bending processing property because the coefficients had highly significant correlation with the bending radius. The fitness of the coefficients as the index was good at load-strain coefficient, energy coefficient, and strain coefficient, in order.

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Stability Analysis of Open Pit Slopes in the Pasir Coal Field, Indonesia (인도네시아 Pasir 탄전에서의 노천채탄장 사면의 안전성해석)

  • 정소걸;선우춘;한공창;신희순;박연준
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Rock Mechanics Conference
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    • pp.183-193
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    • 2000
  • A series of studies such as geological logging data analysis, detailed geological survey, rock mass evaluation, in-situ and laboratory tests, rock strength and mechanical properties of the rock were concerned. The stability of the slope were carried out inorder to design the pit slope and individual benches using the stereographic projection analysis and numerical methods in Roto Pit of Pasir coal fetid. The bedding plane was one of the major discontinuities in the Roto Pit and the dip of which is about $60^{\circ}$in the northern part and $83^{\circ}$in the southern part. The dip of bedding becomes steeper from north to south. The plane and toppling failures are presented in many slopes. In laboratory test the average uniaxial compressive strength of mudstone was 9 MPa and that of weak sandstone was 10 MPa. In-situ test showed that the rocks of Roto north mining area are mostly weak enough to be classified in grade from R2(weak) to R3(medium strong weak) and the coal is classified in grades from R1(Very weak) to R2(Weak). The detailed stability analysis were carried out on 4 areas of Roto north(east, west, south and north), and 2 areas of Roto south(east and west). In this paper, the minimum factor of safety was set to 1.2 which is a general criterion for open pit mines. Using the stereographic projection analysis and the limit equilibrium method, slope angles were calculated as 30~$36^{\circ}$for a factor of safety greater than 1.2. Then these results were re-evaluated by numerical analysis using FLAC. The final slope angles were determined by rational described abode. A final slope of 34 degrees can guarantee the stability for the eastern part of the Roto north area, 33 degrees for the western part, 35 degrees for the northern part and 35 degrees for the southern part. For the Roto south area, 36 degrees was suggested for both sides of the pit. Once the pit slope is designed based on the stability analysis and the safety measures. the stability of 니ope should be checked periodically during the mining operations. Because the slope face will be exposed long time to the rain fall, a study such aspreventive measures against weathering and erosion is highly recommended to be implemented.

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Stability Analysis of Open Pit Slopes in the Pasir Coal Field, Indonesia (인도네시아 Pasir 탄전에서의 노천채탄장 사면의 안정성 해석)

  • 정소걸;선우춘;한공창;신희순;박연준
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.430-440
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    • 2000
  • A series of studies such as geological logging data analysis, detailed geological survey, rock mass evaluation, in-situ and laboratory tests, rock strength and mechanical properties of the rock were concerned. The stability of the slope were carried out inorder to design the pit slope and individual benches using the stereographic projection analysis and numerical methods in Roto Pit of Pasir coal field. The bedding plane was one of the major discontinuities in the Roto Pit and the dip of which is about 60$^{\circ}$ in the northern part and 83$^{\circ}$ in the southern part. The dip of bedding becomes steeper from north to south. The plane and toppling failures are presented in many slopes. In laboratory test the average uniaxial compressive strength of mudstone was 9MPa and that of weak sandstone was 10MPa. In-situ test showed that the rocks of Roto north mining area are mostly weak enough to be classified in grade from R2(weak) to R3(medium strong weak) and the coal is classified in grades from R1(Very weak) to R2(Weak). The detailed stability analysis were carried out on 4 areas of Roto north (east, west, south and north), and 2 areas of Roto south(east and west). In this paper, the minimum factor of safety was set to 1.2 which is a general criterion for open pit mines. Using the stereographic projection analysis and the limit equilibrium method, slope angles were calculated as 30∼36$^{\circ}$ for a factor of safety greater than 1.2. Then these results were re-evaluated by numerical analysis using FLAC. The final slope angles were determined by rational described above. A final slope of 34 degrees can guarantee the stability for the eastern part of the Roto north area, 33 degrees for the western part, 35 degrees for the northern part and 35 degrees for the southern part. For the Roto south area, 36 degrees was suggested for both sides of the pit. Once the pit slope is designed based on the stability analysis and the safety measures, the stability of slope should be checked periodically during the mining operations. Because the slope face will be exposed long time to the rain fall, a study such aspreventive measures against weathering and erosion is highly recommended to be implemented.

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