• Title, Summary, Keyword: 압축변형율

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多孔性 금속의 소성역학

  • 오흥국
    • Journal of the KSME
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.191-195
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    • 1982
  • 소결 금속(sintered metal)은 기공(pore)의 존재로 성형에 있어서 체적변화를 유발하므로 이제까지 사용되어오던 체적변화를 유발하므로 이제까지 사용되어오던 일반 소성이론(conventional plasticity theory)은 적용할 수 없기 때문에 소결금속에 대한 소성이론을 정립해 오고 있다. 그 발달 과정을 보면 미국과 일본에서 각각 독자적인 방법으로 진행되었는데 미국에서는 Kuhn씨가 포아숀 비(.nu.)를 정의하여 실험적으로 구하고 이것을 기초로 하여 항복조건을 정립하고 응력과 변형도율과의 관계를 유도해 냄과 동시에 알루미늄 분말 소결원판 단조에 적용하여 그 실용성을 예시하였다. 한편 일본에서는 교오토오 대학의 Shima, Oyane등이 연구 정립한 것으로서 다공정 금속과 그 본금속의 항복 응력비와 정수압의 항복 응력에 대한 영향도를 정의하여 실험을 통하여 결정한 다음 항복조건을 만들고 이로부터 응력과 변형율과의 관계, 등가 변형율을 유도하였고 이를 폐금형 압축시험에 적용하였다.

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Mathematical Study for Cylindrically Orthogonal Log (원통형(円筒形) 2차원목재(次元木材)의 수학적(數學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Cha, Jae-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.16 no.1
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    • pp.55-61
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    • 1988
  • 목재(木材)의 응력(應力)과 변형(變形)에 미치는 함수율 및 온도변화의 효과를 유한요소(有限要素) 분석법에 의해 측정하였다. 목재는 춘재(春材) 및 추재(秋材)를 나타내는 층구조(層構造)의 원통형(圓筒形)으로 모델화 하였으며, 선형적(線形的) 탄성체(彈性體) 그리고 원통형(圓筒形) 이력성(異方性) 재료로 가정하였다. 경단면(徑斷面)에서의 변형(變形)은 함수율 및 온도와 밀접한 관매가 인정되었으며, 최대(最大)의 압축응력(壓縮應力)은 최내층(最內層)인 만재층(晩材層)에서 일어났다. 또한 최대의 촉단면응력(觸斷面應力)은 춘재부(春材部)의 최내층(最內層)에서 일어났다. 경단(徑斷) 방향(方向)과 촉단방향(觸斷方向)의 응력간(應力間)의 차이는 외층(外層)에서 가장 크게 나타났으며 이와같은 응력(應力)의 차이가 변형(變形)을 일으키는 주요인(主要因)임이 밝혀졌다.

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A Study on the Undrained Deformation Characteristics of Remoulded Marine Clay (재성형(再成形)한 해성점토(海成粘土)의 비배수(非排水) 변형특성(變形特性)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Yoon, Hyun Jung;Kang, Yea Mook;Cho, Seong Seup
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.309-323
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    • 1985
  • The Paper describes the observed behaviour in the undrained triaxial condition of marine clays remoulded at various different levels of factors, to find out the effects of restricted factors on the stress-strain characteristics. The conventional triaxial compression tests $({\sigma}1>{\sigma}2={\sigma}3)$ were carried out on the 50mm in diameter and 100mm long cylindrical specimens of Gun-san bay mud under controlled various moisture content, density, axial strain rate and passing on No. 200 sieve. Significant conclusions from this study are; 1. The compressible deviator stress at failure of pure marine clay was observed to increase with the decrease of moulding moisture content. 2. The compressible deviator stress at failure increased with the increasing of moulding dry density. 3. The interaction between moisture content and density on the stress-strain characteristics of marine clay was remarkedly significant, as the result of factorial experimental method. 4. The effect of axial strain rate on stress-strain behaviour was unsignificant in marine clay and but the secant moduli could be pronounced on a slight decreasing with increase of the strain rate. 5. With the increasing of the passing on No. 200 sieve, the deviator stress increased regularly. 6. The multiple regression equation could be modeled for the prediction of stress or strain and the comparison with experimental results relatively proved the accuracy.

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Formulation of Special Constitutive Equations for Inelastic Responses of Porous Metals (I) - Elastic, Perfectly Plastic Material - (다공질 금속의 비탄성거동을 위한 특수 구성방정식의 형성 I)

  • 김기태
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.11 no.6
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    • pp.975-981
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    • 1987
  • Employing a speical yield function for porous metals, a set of special constitutive equations is formulated to predict elastic-plastic responses of porous metals under triaxial compression. The proposed contitutive equations are compared with experimental data for porous tungsten under hydrostatic compression and uniaxial strain compression.

A Study on the Prediction of the Strength and Axial Strain of High-Strength Concrete Columns Confined by Tie Reinforcement (띠근 보강 고강도 콘크리트 기둥의 강도 및 축변형 특성 산정에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Hoon-Gyu;Jang, Il-Young
    • Magazine of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.197-208
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    • 1999
  • The use of high-strength concrete which permits smaller cross sections, reduced dead loads, and longer spans has been getting more popular in tall buildings. However, there has been little research on behavior of high-strength concrete columns laterally reinforced with square ties and subjected to compressive loading. With the addition of transverse reinforcement which lead to triaxial compressive state, ductility behavior of high-strength column member shall be increased. In this study, rational quality and quantity evaluations were made to investigate the ultimate strength and strain ductility by confinement effect of tie reinforced high-strength concrete columns subject to uniaxial loads. Concrete failure theory at the triaxial compressive state and statistical results based on conventional experimental data were applied for this propose. Up to 185 columns, tested under monotonically increasing concentric loading, were evaluated in terms of strength and strain ductility. Analytical results show that confinement stress, maximum compressive strength, and increase of strain equations were developed with the consideration of concrete strength, yield strength, spacing, volumetric ratio, and configurations of tie reinforcement.

Confining Pressure-Dependency on Deformation and Strength Properties of Sands in Plane Strain Compression (평면 변형률 상태에서의 모래의 변형 강도특성의 구속압 의존성)

  • Park, Choon Sik;Tatsuoka, Fumio;Jang, Jeong Wook;Chung, Sung Gyo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.14 no.3
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    • pp.543-552
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    • 1994
  • A series of drained plane strain compression tests was performed on dried samples of dense Toyoura sand and Silver Leighton Buzzard sand prepared by air-pluviation method to find out the deformation and strength characteristics on the value of confining pressure ${\sigma}{_3}^{\prime}({\sigma}{_3}^{\prime}=0.05{\sim}4.0kgf/cm^2)$. The axial and lateral strains measured in this apparatus ranged from $10^{-6}$ up to the failure of the specimen. So the stress-strain characteristics would be investigated from very small to very large strain levels. It was found that the change of the angle of internal friction ${\phi}^{\prime}{_{max}}=arcsin\{({\sigma}{_1}^{\prime}-{\sigma}{_3}^{\prime})/({\sigma}{_1}^{\prime}+{\sigma}{_3}^{\prime})\}_{max}$ with the change of ${\sigma}{_3}^{\prime}$ is very small when ${\sigma}{_3}^{\prime}$ is lower than higher. Furthermore, the effect of confining pressure on stiffness of sands was evaluated. It was also found that for the range of shear strain ${\gamma}$ from $10^{-6}$ to those at peak, the Rowe's stress-dilatancy relation seems to be a good approximation for air-dried Toyoura sand and Silver Leighton Buzzard sand, irrespective of the change of ${\sigma}{_3}^{\prime}$.

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Strength and Deformation Characteristics of Geosynthetics-Reinforced Slag Materials (토목섬유로 보강된 슬래그 재료의 전단강도 및 변형 특성)

  • Shin, Dong-Hoon;Lee, Jong-Seok
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.8 no.4
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 2009
  • In this paper, characteristics of shear strength and deformation of geosynthetics-reinforced slag materials are described. In order to investigate the effect of geosynthetics on shear strength and deformation behavior of slags, when they are reinforced with geosynthetics or geomat such as PET mat, large triaxial tests were performed under consolidated-drained condition. The materials used in the study are real ones as they are in the field, so that the scale effect of samples disappeared. From the large triaxial tests, it was observed that the stress-strain relationship of geosynthetics-reinforced slags shows relatively small dilatancy and weak tendency of strain hardening, compared with that of slags without reinforcement. The shear strength parameters such as apparent cohesion and internal friction angle increase with PET mat reinforcement, consequently result in about 1.2 (for low confining pressure) to 1.4 (for high confining pressure) times of shear strength of un-reinforced sample. Therefore, the adoption of geomat-reinforced slag layers leads to an increase in the factor of safety for embankment design on soft soil formations.

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A Study on the Physcial and Mechanical Properties of Hot - Compressed Wood (열압처리(熱壓處理) 목재(木材)의 이학적(理學的) 성질(性質)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Young-Kyu;Chung, Dae-Kyo
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.45-58
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    • 1987
  • This study was carried out to improve the physical and mechanical properties of Pupulus alba $\times$ glandulosa treated by the heat and compression. The results obtained were as follows. 1. The specific gravity of the wood was conspicuously increased by the lincreasing of pressing level. 2. The shrinkage of the wood was increased. by the increasing of pressing level. The radial shrinkage was 6.41-8.81%, the tangential shrinkage was 8.98-19.81 %, and the longitudinal shrinkage was 1.46-1.91 %. Comparing to the untreated stock, the rate of increase was 48.7-104.4% in radial direction. 1.7-124.4% in tangential direction and 60.4-109.9% in longitudinal direction, respectively. 3. The rate absorption of 30% compressed stock was Similar to that of untreated stock. but the rate of absorption of 40 % or more compressed stock was increased highly. 4. The thickness swelling of the wood was not changed in radial direction at pressing level, but was conspicuously increased in tangential direction under the pressing level of 40% and 50%. 5. The heat and compression treatment affected on the mechanical properties of the wood. The longitudinal compressive strength was increased under the pressing level of up to 40%, but was decreased under the pressing level of 50%. The bending strength was not changed under the compression percentage of up to 30%, but was decreased under the pressing level of 30% or more. And, the absorbed energy in impact bending was increased to 128% under the pressing level of up to 30%, but was decreased under the pressing level of 30% or more. Conclusionly, the mechanical properties of the wood was improved by the heat and compression treatment, but the strength of the wood was decreased under the pressing level of a certain level or more(in this study, pressing level of 30% or more). This was because of the wood deterioration due to the deformation(shrinkage, crack, failure) of wood tissues induced by the heat and compression treatment, the heat analysis of wood components induced by the heating, and the drop of the degree of polymerization.

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압축성을 고려한 캘린더 닙 내에서의 열전달 현상에 대한 해석

  • 이학래;박선규
    • Proceedings of the Korea Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry Conference
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    • pp.117-117
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    • 2000
  • 제지공정의 마지막 단계인 캘린더는 지필의 표면을 평활하게 하고 두께를 감소시켜 균일 하게 하는 역할을 한다. 하지만 캘린더링은 인장강도 둥의 강도적 성질과 불투명도 등 광학 적 성질을 저하시키는 공정이기도 하다. 따라서 캘린더령 공정에 의한 제품 품질의 저하를 극소화하기 위해서는 공정인자의 엄밀한 관리가 요청된다. 캘린더링의 주요 공정인자에는 온도와 압력, 닙 체류시간, 유입지의 함수율, 유입지의 온도 롤의 재질 등이 있다. 이 가운 데 특히 캘린더링 온도와 압력은 주요한 공정 인자이다. 따라서 이들 변수에 의한 캘린더링 공정의 변화를 정확하게 파악하는 것은 매우 중요하다. 캘린더링 공정의 속도와 관련된 닙 체류시간과 유입지의 함수율, 유입지의 온도, 롤의 재질 등은 실제 공정에서 변화시키기 어 려운 반면 온도와 압력은 조절이 비교적 용이한 특정도 지니고 있다. 캘린더링 전후의 종이의 물성 차이는 지필 내부로의 열 침투에 의한 열변형에 따라 크게 달라진다. 셀룰로오스는 유리전이온도 이상으로 가열되면 그 성질이 크게 변화하므로 캘린 더링 시의 온도가 유리전이온도보다 높거나 낮은 경우 캘린더링된 종이의 물성 차이가 크게 달라질 수 밖에 없다. 캘린더령은 비정상상태에서 진행되기 때문에 지펼의 내층보다는 표층 으로부터 순차적으로 열변형이 발생하는 공정이다. 그러므로 지필의 두께 방향으로의 열 침 투 현상의 해석을 통하여 캘린더링 시 유리전이온도가 어느 깊이까지 도달하는가를 파악하 는 것은 캘린더링 공정의 해석에 매우 중요하다. 캘린더링 공정에서 발생하는 열전달현상 해석 시 지필의 압축을 고려하지 않고 비압축성 물질로 가정하는 것은 캘린더링 공정 인자 중 압력에 의한 영향을 제대로 평가하지 못하는 한계를 지니게 된다. 따라서 본 연구에서는 지펼의 압축성을 고려하여 캘린더링 모델을 정립 하고, 이를 토대로 캘린더링 공정 조건에 따른 열 침투 현상을 해석코자 하였으며, 그 방법으 로 수치해석기법을 도입하였다. 또 실제 캘린더링 전후의 두께 변화를 측정하여 유리전이온도 의 도달 깊이와 비교하였다. 지필의 압축 정도는 롤의 직경과 닙 폭을 이용하여 MD 방향으 로 함수화하였으며, 열전달 계수로는 겉보기 값을 사용하였다. 이때 지펼은 균질한 것으로 가 정하였다. 함수율은 유리전이온도를 좌우하는 가장 큰 인자이나 본 연구에서는 항온항습처리 를 통해 유입지의 함수율을 고정시켰으며 캘린더링 시 함수율의 변이는 없다고 가정하였다. 그 결과 열침투깊이가 증가할수록 지필은 보다 변형되기 쉬운 상태가 되어 주어진 압력 조건에 대해 소성변형 정도가 증가하는 것으로 나타났다. 이는 캘린더링 전후에 두께 변화를 측정하여 정량적으로 평가할 수 있었다. 수치해석기법을 통해 같은 압력 조건에서 온도가 증 가함에 따라 혹은 같은 온도 조건에서 압력이 증가함에 따라 지필 내의 유리전이온도의 침투 깊이가 증가함을 알 수 있었으며 이는 캘린더링 전후의 두께 변화의 측정 결과와 일치하였 다. 또 NRT가 증가함에 따라서도 유리전이온도 침투 깊이가 증가하였다.

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Study on Viscoelastic Properties of Rice Plant (벼줄기의 점탄성(粘彈性) 특성(特性)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Huh, Yun Kun
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.255-264
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    • 1986
  • The objectives of this study were to examine the viscoelastic behaviour of stem samples of rice in force-relaxation and rheological model to represent its relaxation behaviour, and to study the effects of rate of deformation and initial deformation on the relaxation time. The results were as follows; 1. In the process of loading and unloading, there is any plastic deformation so called elasto-plastic hysterisis. 2. Loading and unloading of stem of rice for several cycles has also shown the reduction of plastic or residual deformation and work hardening. 3. The relaxation behaviour of stem of rice in compression may be described by a generalized Maxwell model consisting of three Maxwell units in parallel. The rheological equation of such a model is given as $$F(t)=C_1e^{{-t/{\tau}}_1}+C_2e^{{-t/{\tau}}_2}+C_3e^{{-t/{\tau}}_3}$$ 4. Force relaxation always increased with increasing rates of deformation and initial deformation.

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