• Title, Summary, Keyword: 약제감수성

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The in vitro Drug Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Piglets, Calve, Lamb and Goats with Diarrhoea (대장균 설사중에 이환된 소, 돼지, 양에서 분리한 대장균의 약제감수성)

  • Kim, Bong Hwan;Rhee, Jai Chin;Kim, Dong Sung
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.121-126
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    • 1979
  • 대장균 설사중에 걸린 어린 돼지, 송아지, 어린 양에서 분리한 대장균 126주의 항생제와 화학요법제(15종)에 대한 감수성을 disc diffusion technique로 조사한 성적은 다음과 같다. 1. 어린 돼지에서 분리한 62주의 대장균은 gentamicin(GM)에 100%, colistin(CL)에 96.8%, kanamycin(KM)에 93.5%, neomycin(NM)에는 91.9%가 감수성을 가지고 있었으나 ampicillin(AM), erythromycin(EM), lincomycin (LM), novobiocin (NB), penicillin (PC), streptomycin(SM), tetracycline(TC), sulfaisodimidin(SU)에는 내성을 가지고 있었다. chloramphenicol(CP), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim(SXT), cephalosporin(CE)에는 각각 75.8%, 64.5%, 50%가 감수성이 있었다. 2. 송아지에서 분리한 32주의 대장균은 GM에 100%, CL에는 87.5%, SXT에는 66.7%가 감수성이 있었으나 CP와 KM에는 각각 40.6%, SU에는 56.2% NM에는 62.5%, SM에는 87.5%가 내성을 가지고 있었다. EM, LM, NB, PC에는 전혀 감수성이 없었으며 AM, SM, TC에도 고도의 내성을 가지고 있었다. 3. 어린 양에서 분리한 32주의 대장균은 GM과CL에 100%, CP에 96.9%, KM과 NM에 90.6%가 감수성이 있었다. SM과 SU에도 71.9%나 감수성이 있었으나 CM, EM, LM, PC, TC에는 대부분 내성을 가지고 있었다. AM에는 21.9%가 감수성이 있었다. 4. 2종류 이상의 약제에 내성을 가진 대장균의 AM, CE, CP, CL, GM, KM, NM. SM, TC, SU등 10종의 약제에 대한 multiple drug resistance pattern(MDRP)을 조사한 바 돼지 유래 약제내성 대장균의 MDRP는 18가지였으며 이중 가장 빈도가 높은 것은 AM, CE, SM, TC, SU 내성형으로 전체의 24.2%나 되었다. 송아지 유래 약제내성 대장균의 MDRP는 17가지였으며, AM, CE, CP, KM, NM, SM, TC, SU 내성형이 28.1%로 가장 빈도가 높았다. 반면에 어린 양에서 분리한 대장균의 MDRP는 9가지였으며 AM, CE, SU의 3약제 내성형이 40.6%로 가장 많았다.

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Seasonal fluctuation of susceptibility of the green peach aphid to insecticides in Chinese cabbage field (포장에서 복숭아혹진딧물(Myzus persicae Sulzer)의 계절적 변동에 따른 약제 감수성)

  • ;Naoki Motoyama
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.218-221
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    • 1993
  • Sensitivities of insecticides and their seasonal variation were investigated against Myzus persicae. Some aphicides such as malathion were not effective on Myzus persicae in Chinese cabbage field. Difference of seasonal sensitivity was from I time to 16 times.

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Antifungal susceptibility of Candida spp isolated from bovine mammary glands and teat cups of milking machines (Candida속 균의 항진균성약제에 대한 감수성)

  • Yeo, Sang-geon;Chung, Kyu-young;Cho, Hee-tack
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.69-73
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    • 1989
  • In vitro antifungal susceptibility test was carried out on 53 strains of Candida spp isolated from milk of dairy cows with subclinical mastitis and teat cups of milking machines, Nystatin, clotrimazole, miconazole, econazole, 5-fluorocytosine, cycloheximide, haloprogin and griseofulvin were tested by the agar dilution method. The 84.8% to 98.2% of Candida strains were inhibited by clotrimazole, econazole and miconazole at $${\leq_-}25{\mu}g/ml$$, and clotrimazole was most active. Interspecies differences of antifungal susceptibility were recognized and these were as follows. C albicans was most sensitive to clotrimazole (GM-MIC, $5.49{\mu}g/ml$) followed by 5-fluorocytosine, econazole and miconazole. C pseudotropicalis and C guilliermondii were notably sensitive to haloprogin, clotrimazole, miconazole, cconazole, 5-fluorocytosine, and haloprogin (GM-MIC, $0.17{\sim}0.19{\mu}g/ml$) was most active. C krusei was most sensitive to cycloheximide (GM-MIC, $0.54{\mu}g/ml$) followed by clotrimazole, haloprogin, miconazole and econazole. C parapsilosis was somewhat sensitive to econazole, cycloheximide, clotrimazole, and econazole (GM-MIC, $7.26{\mu}g/ml$) was most active. C tropicalis showed very low sensitivity to all tested drugs (GM-MIC, $${\geq_-}20.32{\mu}g/ml$$).

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Age-related Susceptibility of Spodoptera litura Larvae to Some Insecticides (담배거세미나방 유충의 영기별 약제 감수성)

  • 조점래;송원례;황선영;김홍선;이정운
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.35 no.3
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    • pp.249-253
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    • 1996
  • In the laboratory study, the toxicities of chlorpyrifos-methyl, chlorpyrifos, etofenprox, etofenprox+PAF' and deltamethrin for different larval instars of S. litura decreased significantly as larvae aged. LCso values for chlorpyrifos- methyl and chlorpyrifos increased significantly from 3rd instar larvae, while those for etofenprox+PAP and deltamethrin-increased from 2nd instar larvae. In pot study, no significant differences in control efficacy were observed among each treated plots and over 90% control efficacy at 5 d after treatment was obtained in all of the treated plots, except treatment with deltamethrin. Therefore four insecticides excluding deltamethrin will be effective for controlling S. litura. However, it will be probably important to select appropriate insecticides and decide a proper time of treatment because the developmental stage is a significant factor in deciding insecticide efficacy because various developmental stages of the tobacco cutworm inhibit in fields.

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The Prevalence of Initial Drug Resistance among Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients (초치료 폐결핵 환자들에 있어서 초회 약제내성률)

  • Kong, Jae Hwan;Lee, Sang Seok;Kang, Ha Yan;Park, Jae Seuk
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.64 no.2
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    • pp.95-101
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    • 2008
  • Background: Drug resistant tuberculosis (TB) in patients who have not received previous TB treatment (initial drug resistance) is a serious problem for the control of TB. However, prevalence of initial drug resistance among pulmonary TB patients has not been well characterized in Korea, especially in the private sector. We assessed the prevalence of initial drug resistance and evaluated the risk factors for drug resistance in pulmonary TB patients, at a regional tertiary hospital in Cheonan. Methods: We performed a drug susceptibility test for both first and second line anti-TB drugs in all culture-confirmed pulmonary TB patients who had not received a previous TB treatment at Dankook University Hospital from September 2005 to September 2007. In addition, we evaluated the initial drug resistance pattern and clinical characteristics of patients to evaluate the risk factors for initial drug resistance. We also assessed the influence of the drug susceptibility test results on the treatment regimen. Results: Of the total 156 cases where the drug susceptibility test was performed, resistance to at least one anti-TB drug was found in 21 cases (15.6%) and multidrug resistance, where TB was resistant to at least isoniazid and rifampin, was found in one case (0.6%). Multivariate logistic regression showed no clinical characteristics were independently associated with initial drug resistance. Of the total 156 patients who underwent the drug susceptibility test, the treatment regimen was changed for 15 patients (9.6%) according to the results of the drug susceptibility test. Conclusion: Initial drug resistance is common and the drug susceptibility test is informative for pulmonary TB patients who have not received previous TB treatment.

Monitoring on Insecticide resistance of major insect pests in paddy field (주요 벼 해충에 대한 약제저항성 모니터링)

  • Lee, Si-Woo;Choi, Byeong-Ryeol;Park, Hyung-Man;Yoo, Jai-Ki
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.365-373
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    • 2005
  • This study was carried out for looking into the status of susceptibility of pest insects to insecticides. Each insect Brown planthopper(BPH), Green leaf hopper(GLH), Smaller brown plant hopper(SBPH), Rice water weevil(RWW), were captured at various areas where the host crops were being cultivated and the susceptibility level of each pest insect was investigated. The susceptibility of each pest insect varied by insect species and areas where they were caught. BPHs kept higher level of susceptibility comparing to susceptible reference strain except to most of tested insecticides except imidacloprid (Resistance ratio was 68). The susceptibilities of GLH and SBPH to most of insecticides for their control did not developed markedly since 1976 except fipronil and imidacloprid which is widely used for WRR control. The insecticides used for control of WRR were very effective even at the concentration of one fourth of recommending concentration, but in 2000 suwon strain of WRR showed markedly reduction of susceptibility to carbofuran.

Mechanisms of Tolerance to Diphenyl Ether Herbicide Oxyfluorfen in Rice Cultivars (Diphenyl Ether계 제초제 Oxyfluorfen에 대한 벼 품종간 저항성기구)

  • Choi, S.H.;Kim, N.Y.;Lee, J.J.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.362-371
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    • 1996
  • In this study, the relationships between sensitivity to oxyfluorfen, absorption of the herbicide, protoporphyrin IX(Proto IX) accumulation and activities of antioxidative enzymes were examined to identify the tolerance mechanism against oxyfluorfen in various rice cultivars having different level of tolerance to this herbicide. Absorption of oxyfluorfen in tolerant rice cultivars was slower than in susceptible cultivars. Proto IX accumulation in various rice cultivars treated with oxyfluorfen was higher in susceptible cultivars than in tolerant ones. In susceptible cultivars especially, Proto IX accumlated rapidly during the herbicide treatment in the dark. Large amounts of Proto IX accumulation were considered to cause membrane lipid peroxidation in the light. However, among the tested rice cultivars, there was little relationship between their tolerance to oxyfluorfen and the activities of antioxidative enzymes. Therefore, it is assumed that differential susceptibility of rice cultivars to oxyfluorfen was due to difference in their capability to absorb the herbicide and to subsequently accumulate Proto IX.

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The Results of the ATP Based Chemotherapy Response Assay in Gastric Cancer Tissues (ATP-CRA 방법을 이용한 위암조직의 항암제 감수성 검사결과)

  • Lee, Je-Hyung
    • Journal of Gastric Cancer
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.160-166
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: Recently, chemosensitivity tests have become widely used for the selection of effective drugs in gastric cancer patients. In this study, a chemosensitivity test was performed to select agents to increase the effectiveness of adjuvant chemotherapy. Materials and Methods: Chemosensitivity testing was performed in 81 gastric cancer patients that received a gastrectomy at the Yeungnam University Hospital. An ATP (adenosine triphosphate) based chemotherapy response assay was used. Clinicopatholgical factors such as sex, age, expression of tumor markers (CEA and CA19-9 levels), location of the tumor, morphology of advanced cancer, histological type, cell differentiation, depth of invasion, Lauren classification, Ming classification, lymphatic invasion, vascular invasion, neural invasion, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage were used to correlate the chemosensitivity and clinicopathological factors. Results: The most effective antitumor agents in gastric cancer patients were (in order of effectiveness) 5-FU, Epirubicin, lrinotecan and Oxaliplatin in our series. The chemosensitivity test showed a significant difference in susceptibility according to clinicopathological factors. Conclusion: Further studies on multidrug therapy are needed to evaluate synergistic effects of drugs. Therefore, for effective chemotherapy, it is more efficacious to select a chemosensitive drug than continue to use the same drug regimen.

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