• Title, Summary, Keyword: 약해경감효과

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Safening Activity of Optically Active ${\alpha}$-Methylbenzylphenylurea toward Bensulfuron-methyl and Pyribenzoxim Injury to Rice (광학활성 ${\alpha}$-Methylbenzylphenylurea 유도체의 bensulfuron-methyl과 pyribenzoxim의 벼에 대한 약해경감효과)

  • Ryoo, Jae-Hwan
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.153-158
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    • 2005
  • Safening activities of optically active ${\alpha}$-methylbenzylphenylureas on crop injury of rice (Oryza sativa L., cv. Tsukinohikari, japonica) caused by bensulfuron-methyl (methyl 2-[[[[[(4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)amino]carbonyl]amino]sulfonyl]methyl]benzoate) and pyribenzoxim (benzophenone o-[2,6-bis[(4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)oxy]benzoyl]oxime) were investigated. Some derivatives of the optically active compounds exhibited strong safening activity against growth inhibition of rice by bensulfuron-methyl. Out of the derivatives tested, (S)-2,3-diCl and (S)-2-F-4-Me derivatives showed greater relieving activity than that of dymuron. In addition, the stress relieving activity was also obtained when they were applied at 4 days after bensulfuron-methyl treatment. On the other hand, crop injury caused by pyribenzoxim was relieved by about 95% with (S)-2-F-4-Me derivative in shoots and roots of rice seedlings.

Effect of CGA 123'407 on Reducing Injury of Rice Plants to Pretilachlor, Butachlor and Benthiocarb (CGA 123'407 처리(處理)가 벼에서 Pretilachlor, Butachlor 및 Benthiocarb의 약해경감(藥害輕減)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, H.Y.;Pyon, J.Y.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.179-185
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    • 1987
  • Laboratory studies were conducted to evaluate safening effect of CGA 123'407 (4,6-dichloro-2-phenyl-pyrimidine) against pretilachlor, butachlor, and benthiocarb in rice plants. Butachlor and benthiocarb at 50 ppm or higher concentrations significantly inhibited rice growth and pretilachlor gradually inhibited growth of rice plants with increase in concentration starting from 0.5 ppm. CGA 123'407 at 0.1 ppm or higher concentrations was effective in reducing injury of rice plants when butachlor and benthiocarb were applied at rate of 10 ppm. Rice injury from pretilachlor at 10 ppm was also reduced by addition of CGA 123'407 at 0.25 ppm or higher concentrations Herbicidal activity of pretilachlor, butachlor, and benthiocarb was not affected by mixture treatments of CGA 123'407.

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Antidoting Effect of 1,8-Naphthalic Anhydride on Butachlor Phytotoxicity in Rice (벼에 있어서 Butachlor 약해(藥害)에 미치는 1, 8-Naphthalic Anhydride 의 약해경감효과(藥害輕減效果))

  • Chun, J.C.;Hwang, I.T.;Han, M.S.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.169-174
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    • 1985
  • Antidoting effect of 1,8-naphthalic anhydride (NA) on butachlor [2-chloro-2', 6'-diethyl-N-(butoxyethyl) acetanilide] phytotoxicity in rice was determined at different seeding depths and application rates of butachlor. The most sensitive response to NA was found in mesocotyl of rice (Oryza saliva L.). The mesocotyl length decreased with use of NA when seeded 2 to 4 cm deep, whereas no effect was obtained in plant height, root length and coleoptile length. Phytotoxic effect of butachlor to rice sown in vermiculite saturated with butachlor solutions decreased with use of NA at all seeding depths employed. However, depth protection was not observed when planted 3 to 4 cm deep without use of NA. Use of NA resulted in reduction in the phytotoxicity at concentrations of butachlor lower than 40 ppmw. The results indicated that the antidoting effect of NA was not due to reduction of mesocotyl elongation which would result in decrease in butachlor uptake through the mesocotyl.

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Effect of Activated Carbon on Reducing Herbicide Injury to Vegetables (활성탄(活性炭)의 토양처리(土壤處理)가 채소(菜蔬)에 대(對)한 제초제(除草劑)의 약해경감(藥害輕減)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Pyon, Jong Yeong
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.27-32
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    • 1980
  • In order to determine the effect of activated carbon on toxicity of linuron and napropamide to Chinese cabbage, red pepper, and tomatoes, 5 and 10kg/10a of activated carbon were applied to the soil surface prior to treatment of linuron at 50 and 75g/10a and napropamide at 150 and 225g/10a. 1. Chinese cabbage was protected from linuron injury by spraying activated carbon on the soil to adsorb and detoxify the herbicides even though it was completely killed by linuron at 50 and 75g/10a without activated carbon application. However, Chinese cabbage was not injured by napropamide at 150 and 225g/10a and thus antidotal effect by activated carbon was negligible. 2. Red pepper was greatly injured by linuron at 50 and 75g/10a, but activated carbon significantly reduced linuron injury. Napropamide at 225g/10a was slightly injurious to red pepper. Nevertheless, this injury effect was reduced by activated carbon at 5kg/10a. 3. Tomatoes were also severely injured by linuron at 75g/10a, but activated carbon prevented linuron injury to tomatoes. However, napropamide at 150 and 225g/10a were slightly injurious to tomatoes and activated carbon did not completely prevent napropamide injury to tomatoes.

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Safening Mode of Action of 1, 8-Naphthalic Anhydride on Corn and Soybean Against Herbicide Bensulfuron and Imazaquin (제초제(除草劑) bensulfuron과 imazaquin에 대한 1, 8-naphthalic anhydride(NA)의 옥수수와 콩에 대한 약해경감작용기구(藥害輕減作用機構))

  • Hwang, I.T.;Choi, J.S.;Kim, J.S.;Cho, K.Y.;Chun, J.C.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.8-15
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    • 1994
  • The mode of safening action and potency of the 1, 8-naphthalic anhydride(NA) were investigated in corn(Zea mays) and soybean(Glycine max) treated with herbicide bensulfuron[2-{{{{{(4,6-dimethoxy-2-pyrimidinyl)amino}carbonyl}amino}sulfonyl}methyl}benzoic acid] and imazaquin[2-{4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl} 3-quinolinonecarboxylic acid]. Seed dressing with 0.2%(w/w) NA showed successful protection in corn against injury from herbicide bensulfuron and imazaquin but not in soybean. Safening factors of NA against bensulfuron and imazaquin were 10.2 and 5.0, respectively, in corn, while they were both 1.3 in soybean. In vivo, Glutathione-S-transferase(GST) activity of NA-treated corn and soybean increased 1.8-and 1.3-fold, respectively, but the activity was not affected by the herbicides in vitro. Acetolactate synthase(ALS) levels of NA-treated corn was increased 1.3-fold, but not changed in soybean. Tolerance of ALS activity to the herbicides was slightly greater in ALS obtained from NA-treated corn than that from the untreated, whereas the difference was not found in soybean. A significant increase of ACCase due to NA occurred in corn, but not in soybean. The herbicides did not affect in vitro ACCase activity.

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Effect of Fenelorim on Reducing Herbicide Injury of Rice Plaints in Vinyl-covered Subirrigated Seedbed (보온절충(保溫折衷)못자리에서 해독제(解毒劑) Fenclorim이 벼에 대한 제초제(除草劑)의 약해경감(藥害輕減)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, H.Y.;Pyon, J.Y.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.237-243
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    • 1988
  • Field study was conducted to evaluate safening effect of fenclorim (4,6-dichloro-2-phenyl pyrimidine) against benthiocarb, butachlor, and pretilachlor injury in rice plants under vinyl-covered subirrigated seedbed. Combinated application of benthiocarb 210, and 315 g ai/10a with fenclorim 10 g ai/10a or higher concentration, butachlor 180, and 270 g ai/10a with fenclorim 20 g ai/10a or higher concentration, and pretilachlor 60, and 90 g ai/10a with fenclorim 30 g ai/10a reduced herbicide injury of rice, and thus increased standing, plant height, tillers, and dry weight of rice plants compared to no combined application of fenclorim.

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Effect of Mixed Application of Cinosulfuron with Dymron on Rice (Cinosulfuron과 Dymron의 혼합처리(混合處理)가 수도(水稻)(Oryza sativa L.)의 초기생육(初期生育)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Choi, Y.S.;Kim, K.U.;Shin, D.H.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.12 no.2
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    • pp.110-123
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    • 1992
  • To investigate the safening effect of dymron against cinosulfuron, the responses of 104 rice cultivars and lines to single and mixture treatments of cinosulfuron [3-(4.6-dimethoxy-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-1-[2-(2-methoxyethoxy)-phenylsulfonyl]-urea] and dymron [1-(${\alpha}$, ${\alpha}$-dimethylbenzyl)-3-p-tolyl urea] were evaluated. The responses of 104 rice cultivars and lines to cinosulfuron were differed. Among the rice cultivars, growth of Calrose, Dasukei, Hwajinhyeo, and Milyang 105 was significantly inhibited by cinosulfuron but there was no inhibition in Daeseongbyeo, Iri 371, Jangseongbyeo, Taebaegbyeo and IR 74. The japonica types were generally inhibited more than the indica and indica${\times}$japonica types. When Kwangmyungbyeo was treated with the mixtures of cinosulfuron 48g and 96g ai/ha with dymron 450g ai/ha, the inhibition of plant height was significantly reduced regardless of dymron concentrations. With increase in cinosulfuron concentration, the safening effect of dymron against cinosulfuron was more evident in plant height than fresh weight. On the other hand, dymron did not have any safening effects of cinosulfuron on Echinochloa crus-galli at any concentrations. The mixtures of dymron and cinosulfuron produced antagonistic effects on the plant height regardless of rice cultivars and treatment concentrations. At cinosulfuron 24g ai/ha, the effects of the mixtures of cinosulfuron and brassinolide on the plant height of Kwangmyungbyeo and IR 74 were similar irrespective of brassinolide concentrations but the inhibition of Kwangmyungbyeo was greater than that of IR 74 as the concentrations of cinosulfuron increased. The effects of the mixtures of cinosulfuron at concentration of 96g ai/ha with various ABA levels on the plant height of both Kwangmyungbyeo and IR 74 showed synergistic effect regardless of ABA concentration. However, the response of fresh weight of both cultivars treated with cinosulfuron at 96g ai/ha with ABA synergisism was observed in Kwangyungbyeo while IR 74 showed antagonism.

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Effect of Fenclorim on Reducing Herbicidal Injury in Direct-seeded Rice (해독제(害毒劑) Fenclorim이 담수직파(湛水直播) 재배조건(栽培條件)에서 벼의 제초제약해(除草劑藥害) 경감(輕減)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Lee, H.Y.;Pyon, J.Y.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.9 no.3
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    • pp.214-220
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    • 1989
  • The experiments were conducted to evaluate safening effect of fenclorim (CGA 123'407, 4,6-dichloro-2-phenyl pyrimidine) against injuries of pretilachlor, butachlor, and benthiocarb in direct-seeded rice under flooded conditions. Pretilachlor and butachlor and benthiocarb reduced crop standing and inhibited growth of rice plants. However, premixture application of pretilachlor, butachlor or benthiocarb with fenclorim at 10-30 g ai/10a greatly reduced rice injury caused by the application of each herbicide alone and thus increased crop standing plant height and dry weight of rice plants compared to herbicide treatments alone.

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Comparison of Herbicidal Action between Pyrazosulfuron - ethyl and Imazaquin (Pyrazosulfuron - ethyl과 Imazaquin의 살초작용 비교)

  • Hwang, I.T.;Choi, J.S.;Kim, J.S.;Cho, K.Y
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.317-326
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    • 1996
  • To know whether pyrazosulfuron-ethyl(PYR) and imazaquin(IMA), known as a acetolactate synthase(ALS) inhibitors, have a same herbicidal action pattern in rice(Oryza sativa) or barnyardgrass (Echinochloa crus-galli), an inhibition pattern and a response characteristics in combination with dymron or butachlor were investigated. In contrast to the phytotoxicity of rice treated with IMA, the one treated with PYR was completely tended to be recovered after 25 days after treatment. Safening effect of dymron against PYR was effectively developed to transplanted-rice, while such an effect was not shown in combination with IMA. In combination with PYR and butachlor, antagonistic effect was observed in both simultaneous or sequential treatment on bamyardgrass, however, additive effect was rather shown in combination with IMA and its activity was dominantly dependent on the first applied compound. $I_{50}$ of PYR and IMA on the ALS extracted from barnyardgrass was $4{\times}10^{-7}$M and $2.8{\times}10^{-6})$M, respectively. Butachlor did not affect their activities on ALS in vitro. These results suggest that PYR and IMA might have a different action each other in the pathway to a final herbicidal activity even though their primary action site is ALS.

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Investigation of Herbicide Safeners and its Mode of Safening Action Ⅰ. Effect of N-(4-chlorophenyl)maleimide on Metolachlor Absorption and Metabolism (제초제(除草劑) 약해경감물질(藥害輕減物質) 탐색(探索)과 작용기구(作用機構) 규명(糾明) Ⅰ. Metolachlor 흡수(吸收) 및 대사(代謝)에 대한 N-(4-chlorophenyl)maleimide의 효과(效果))

  • Chun, Jae-Chul;Ma, Sang-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.271-278
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    • 1994
  • Mode of safening action of N-(4-chlorophenyl)maleimide (CPMI) on metolachlor [2-chloro-N-(2-ethyl-6-methylphenyl)-N-(2-methoxy-l-methylethyl) acetamide] was investigated in sorghum(Sorghum bicolor L.). CPMI was synthesized by dehydration of N-(4-chlorophenyl)maleamic acid (CPMA) which was obtained from amination with maleic anhydride and 4-chloroaniline. Melting points of CPMA and CPMI (>95% purity) were $200-202^{\circ}C$ and $116-118^{\circ}C$, respectively. Growth response study indicated that seed treatment of CPMI increased tolerance of sorghum shoot to metolachlor approximately threefold. Sorghum shoot was more sensitive to injury caused by metolachlor and CPMI activity than the root. Metolachlor was initially absorbed by sorghum shoot and metabolized to the metolachlor-glutathione conjugate in CPMI-untreated and treated shoots. However, CPMI treatment significantly accelerated metabolism of $[^{14}C]$metolachlor in sorghum shoot, resulting in decrease in metolachlor content and increase in formation of the glutathione conjugate. It was concluded that the protection against metolachlor injury conferred by CPMI appeared to be correlated to detoxification of metolachlor in sorghum shoot tissue.

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