• Title, Summary, Keyword: 양생기간

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Strength Variation of Cemented Sand Due to Wetting (수침이 고결모래의 강도에 미치는 영향)

  • Park, Sung-Sik;Kim, Ki-Young;Kim, Chang-Woo;Choi, Hyun-Seok
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.29 no.6C
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    • pp.303-311
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    • 2009
  • In this study, weakly cemented sand was cured at air dry condition with different periods (3, 7, 14, 21, 28 days) and its unconfined compressive strength was evaluated. As a result, the strength of specimens with low cement ratios such as 4 and 8% increases until 7 days curing but, after 7 days, their strength continuously decreases. The strength of specimens with relatively high cement ratios such as 12 and 16% increases up to 7 days curing and then stays almost constant until 21 days. After 21 days curing, their strength suddenly dropped down, which is much lower than the strength of 3 days curing specimen. A cemented sand and gravel called CSG, which is highly permeable, could be exposed to repetitive drying and wetting conditions due to rainfall or groundwater table change during curing. In this study, the weakly cemented sand is exposed to repetitive drying and wetting and then its unconfined compressive strength was evaluated. As a result, the strength of a specimen with 27 days drying condition following 1 day wetting was at maximum 35% lower than the one cured under 28 days drying. The strength degradation due to wetting decreases as a cement ratio increases. However, the strength of a specimen with repetitive drying and wetting increases as the number of wetting increases until 3 cycles. After 3 cycles of drying and wetting, the rate of strength increase decreases due to an insufficient water for hydration or stays constant. If the sufficient water supply is provided to cemented sand during curing, the target or design strength increase can be achieved. Otherwise, the strength degradation due to wetting should be considered at the design stage.

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Geotechnical Characteristics of Clays Reconsolidated at High Temperature (고온재압밀 점토의 역학적 거동특성에 관한 연구)

  • 이강일
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.7-14
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    • 2003
  • A series of laboratory tests, which can show how different curing conditions influence an aging effect on clay, were carried out for the clay samples collected in the area of Kwangyang Bay and Mokpo. Clay samples were remolded and reconsolidated under three different curing temperatures (20, 50, and 80 degree Celsius) and low different curing durations (1, 7, 14, and 40 days). To find out an aging effect and geotechnical characteristics between undisturbed samples and reconsolidated samples, laboratory tests, consisting of uniaxial compression tests, CU triaxial test, and consolidation tests, were preformed. Results showed that the compression index ratio is very useful factor to indicate the aging effect of natural clays. Also geotechnical characteristics of clays reconsolidated at high temperature were very similar to those of undisturbed clays. Finally, curing temperature and curing duration influenced an aging effect on clays. The best curing condition was 80 degree Celsius and 27 days.

Fixation characteristics of CCA and CCFZ in Japanese Red Pine, Japanese Larch, and Ezo Spruce Sapwood (소나무, 낙엽송, 북양가문비나무 변재부에서 CCA와 CCFZ의 정착특성)

  • Kim, Gyu-Hyeok;Kim, Hyung-Jun;Kim, Jae-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Wood Science and Technology
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.52-59
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    • 2001
  • The fixation characteristics of CCA and CCFZ in Japanese red pine, Japanese larch, and ezo spruce sapwood were compared at various temperatures and fixation conditions (drying and nondrying fixation). Fixation was monitored by the rates of reduction of hexavalent chromium to trivalent one, and optimal fixation time was estimated based on the results. The rate of fixation was highly temperature dependent, and the fixation rate of treated wood conditioned under nondrying conditions was much more faster than that under drying conditions, especially when the moisture content of treated wood was below fiber saturation point. Preservative types affected fixation; CCA-Type B had the highest fixation rate, followed by CCA-Type C and then CCFZ. The differences in fixation rates of preservative components were also observed among wood species; Japanese red pine fixed the fastest, followed by Japanese larch and then ezo spruce. Time required to complete fixation according to the fixation temperature could be predicted successfully using the regression equations between the temperatures and fixation time, regardless of conditioning methods, preservative types, and wood species.

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The experimental investigation for the curing condition deduce of the Polymer concrete manhole (폴리머 콘크리트 맨홀의 양생 조건 도출을 위한 실험적 고찰)

  • Kim, Dong-Hun;Han, Jin-Woo
    • 한국정보통신설비학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.545-548
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    • 2008
  • 불포화 폴리에스테르 수지를 결합재로 사용하여 제작되는 폴리머 콘크리트 맨홀은 조기 고강도 발현, 접착성. 수밀성, 내동결융해성, 내약품성, 내마모성, 전기절연성이 우수하여 프리캐스트로 제작되는 많은 통신용 맨홀에 적용되고 있다. 폴리머 콘크리트의 결합재로 사용되는 불포화 폴리에스테르 수지는 열경화성수지로써, 자체 발열에 의해 거푸집을 탈형할 정도의 초기 경화 반응이 나타나지만, 구조물로서 요구되는 소요 강도를 발휘하기 위해서는 적정 온도에 의한 추가 양생이 반드시 필요하다. 이에 본 논문에서는 폴리머 콘크리트의 휨 강도 시험용 공시체를 사용하여, 다양한 양생 온도 조건 및 양생기간에 따른 휨 강도를 측정하였으며, 이를 가열 촉진 양생에 의한 휨 강도와 비교하여 콘크리트가 소요 강도를 발휘하는데 요구되는 적정 온도와 기간을 도출하였다. 이를 통해 폴리머 큰크리트 맨홀의 품질 확보를 위한 생산 관리와 제품 검사를 체계적이고 효율적으로 수행할 수 있도록 하였다.

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라이닝콘크리트의 양생시스템 개선

  • Yu, Yeong-Seon;Kim, Yong-Ha;Mun, Byeong-Tak;Lee, Hyeon-Gu;Gwon, Gi-Hwal;Im, Ju-Yeong
    • Magazine of korean Tunnelling and Underground Space Association
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2011
  • 양북터널은 굴착과 동시에 라이닝콘크리트를 타설하였다. 터널굴착과 라이닝콘크리트의 동시시공을 위한 적정시공 Cycle을 결정하고, 이에 따른 양생기간과 양생온도를 설정하는 순으로 시험하였다. 라이닝콘크리트는 품질관리를 위해 보온장치를 탑재한 Sliding form과 양생대차를 운영하고, 균열을 최소화하기 위해 양생온도와 양생시간 및 탈형강도 등을 시험에 의해 결정하였다. 시험과정은 터널내부와 라이닝콘크리트 내부온도를 계절별로 측정하고, 양생온도별로 콘크리트의 강도를 측정하였다. 거푸집 탈형시 콘크리트 온도가 터널내부의 온도로 수렴하기까지는 $15{\sim}20^{\circ}C$의 차이로 측정되었고, 거푸집 탈형을 위한 콘크리트 초기강도 4MPa을 발현하는데는 양생온도에 따라 차이가 발생하지만 시공 Cycle에 적합한 양생시간은 약 20시간이고, 이 때의 양생온도는 $23^{\circ}C$ 이상이었다. 위의 시험결과대로 현장에서 라이닝콘크리트를 양생한 결과 시공 Cycle과 압축강도 및 콘크리트면의 외관 등이 만족한 결과를 나타내었다.

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Development of Multi-scale Model for Concrete Strength Estimation using Intelligent Self-diagnostic sensor (지능형 자가진단센서를 이용한 콘크리트 강도추정을 위한 다중스케일모델 개발)

  • Kim, Dong-Jin;Park, Woong-Ki;Lee, Chang-Gil;Hong, Seok-Inn;Park, Seung-Hee
    • Proceedings of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute Conference
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    • pp.303-306
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    • 2011
  • 본 논문은 콘크리트의 양생 강도 발현을 모니터링하기 위하여 매립형 압전 센서를 이용하여 콘크리트 내부의 임피던스 및 유도초음파 신호를 측정함으로써, 콘크리트의 양생 강도를 실시간 추정할 수 있는 기법을 개발하였다. 임피던스 및 유도초음파 신호는 구조물의 물성을 나타내며 특히 양생 기간 중 임피던스 및 유도초음파의 변화는 해당 콘크리트 구조물의 강도변화를 나타낼 수 있다. 이를 이용하여 매립형 압전 센서로부터 저비용의 셀프 센싱 기반 임피던스 및 유도초음파를 계측하여 콘크리트의 임피던스 공진 주파수 및 유도초음파의 전달 강도를 측정하고 측정된 신호를 통하여 콘크리트 양생 강도를 추정할 수 있게 된다. 제안된 기법의 적용가능성을 검증하기 위하여 설계 압축강도 30MPa의 콘크리트 슬라브 내부에 매립형 압전 센서를 매립하고 양생기간 동안 임피던스 및 유도초음파 신호를 측정, 비교 분석 하였다. 측정된 신호 및 압축강도를 통하여 임피던스 및 유도초음파 기반 강도 추정 모델을 도출하고 보다 높은 정확도를 얻기 위해 다중스케일 강도 추정 모델을 개발하였다. 결과적으로 본 연구를 통해 매립형 압전 센서를 이용하여 콘크리트의 양생 강도를 실시간 모니터링할 수 있음이 검증되었다.

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Effect of Different Curing Methods on the Unconfined Compressive Strength of Cemented Sand (양생방법에 따른 고결모래의 일축압축강도 특성)

  • Park, Sung-Sik;Kim, Ki-Young;Choi, Hyun-Seok;Kim, Chang-Woo
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.29 no.5C
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    • pp.207-215
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    • 2009
  • Cemented soils or concrete are usually cured under moisture conditions and their strength increases with curing time. An insufficient supply of water to cemented soils can contribute to hydration process during curing, which results in the variation of bonding strength of cemented soils. In this study, by the consideration of in situ water supply conditions, cemented sand with cement ratio less than 20% is prepared by air dry, wrapped, moisture, and underwater conditions. A series of unconfined compression tests are carried out to evaluate the effect of curing conditions on the strength of cemented soils. The strength of air dry curing specimen is higher than those of moisture and wrapped cured specimens when cement ratio is less than 10%, whereas it is lower when cement ratio is greater than 10%. Regardless of cement ratio, air dry cured specimens are stronger than underwater cured specimens. A strength increase ratio with cement ratio is calculated based on the strength of 4% cemented specimen. The strength increase ratio of air dry cured specimen is lowest and that of wrapped, moisture, and underwater cured ones increased by square. Strength of air dry cured specimen drops to maximum 30% after wetting when cement ratio is low. However, regardless of cement ratio, strength of moisture and wrapped specimens drops to an average 10% after wetting. The results of this study can predict the strength variation of cemented sand depending on water supply conditions and wetting in the field, which can guarantee the safety of geotechnical structures such as dam.

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Estimation of Uniaxial Compressive Strength of Weak Rocks Using Needle Penetrometer (침관입시험을 이용한 연약암반의 일축압축강도 추정)

  • Kang, Seong-Seong;Obara, Yuzo;Je, Dong-Kwang;Park, Young-Ho
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.41-49
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    • 2011
  • This study is to estimate the uniaxal compressive strength (UCS) for the weak rocks using needle penetrometer test. The appropriate ratio of the artificial rocks for this test was cement (C):bentonite (B):water (W) = 1.3:0.7:2.3 or 1.5:0.5:2.0. From the relationship between needle penetration resistance (NPR) measured by needle penetrometer test and an estimated UCS, NPR and UCS tended to increase with increasing the curing period. Also from the relationship between the measured NPR and the measured UCS, NPR-UCS was linearly increased with the curing periods of 3-day to 14-day regardless of the ratio, then in the curing periods of 14-day to 28-day it was nearly constant. In conclusion, the overall relationship between NPR and UCS shows a linear relation for the most part, it means that UCS is possible to be estimated from NPR by needle penetrometer test in the case of weak rocks.

Support Characteristics of Rock Bolt and Spiral Bolt (록 볼트 및 스파이럴 볼트의 지보특성)

  • Cho, Young-Dong;Song, Myung-Kyu;Lee, Chung-Shin;Kang, Choo-Won;Ko, Jin-Seok;Kang, Seong-Seung
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.181-189
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    • 2009
  • This study is to evaluate an effect of supports with respect to these supports after comparing the characteristic of support between rock bolt of a widely used type and spiral bolt of a new type. For these purposes, we performed pull-out test in laboratory about rock and spiral bolts in the case of cement-mortar grout curing periods, 7 and 28 days, then calculated pull-out load, displacement, external pressure, inner pressure and shear stress using data obtained from the results of pull-out test, respectively. In relation between pull-out load and displacement, displacement of spiral bolt is larger than one of rock bolt. It is considered that mechanical property of rock bolt is due to larger than one of spiral bolt. In addition, displacement of supports shows nearly same or decreasing with curing periods. We found that because adhesive force between supports and cement-mortar grout is increasing with compressive strength of grout according to curing periods. The inner pressure of spiral bolt is represented larger than one of rock bolt at a step of same pull-out load. It is suggested that spiral bolt is more stable than rock bolt, maintaining stability of ground or rock mass, when supports are installed in a ground or rock mass under the same condition. Putting together with above results, we can consider that spiral bolt as a new support on an aspect of pull-out load and inner pressure is larger than rock bolt in a ground or rock mass under the same condition. Moreover, spiral bolt is more effective support than rock bolt, considering an economical and constructive aspects of supports, as well as ground or rock stability before or after installing supports.