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A Study on aspect of development and the ideological backgrounds of a pond a place of Korea (한국(韓國) 고대(古代) 궁원지(宮苑池)의 전개양상(展開樣相)과 사상적(思想的) 배경(背景)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Oh, Seung-Youn
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.37
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    • pp.65-89
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    • 2004
  • Up to now, the studies for a pond of ancient palace of Korea are mainly achieved in a landscape architectural field. In fact, we can't grasp the general aspects but we are only heard about the fragmentary ruins and remains by the people who are in charge of an archaeological excavation. In this thesis, therefore, I attempt to grasp the relational categories of the ponds of an ancient palace of Korea, and find out the ideological backgrounds of the ponds of a palace construction through classify them excavated so far. The ancient ponds of Korea are divided to the class of square ponds(I) and curved ponds(II) according a shapes of planes. The class of square ponds(I) are subdivided to the form IA of the class of square ponds and form IB of the class of square ponds by whether it has an island, artificial hill and ornamental stone or not. And the class of the curved ponds(II) are divided to the form IIC that is only composed of curves in shore and the form IID that is composed of curves and straight lines. According the size, it is divided to a small size that is below the maximal diameter, 20m, and a large size that is more than 45m, after all, the ponds of the ancient palaces are devided to IAa, IAb, IBa, II Ca, IICb, IIDa. The square ponds and the curved ponds are co-exist from the initial stage when a pond of a place was found in our country and are succeeded or changed after Silla unified the three Kingdoms. In other words, we can infer a continuity from the earlier stage from the fact that there is a flat figure ground mainly constituted by the ponds of a palace mixed up of a straight line and a curved line in United Silla Kingdom while it succeeds the ponds of a palace that has a square form of Goguryo in Balhai. Different from the successional relation of the flat figure grounds, in an aspect of the elements of the construction, the site of the arbor at the top of the island and the bridge facilities in a field of a palace those are not exist in three Kingdoms period are appeared in United Silla Kingdom. The point that this aspect is simultaneously appeared in a neighboring country, or Japan, allows us to infer that there may be some motivations cause the changes in a construction of the ponds of a palace of Korea, China and Japan from the latter half of the 7th century to the first half of the 8th century. The ideological backgrounds of the ponds of a palace construction are divided roughly into Taoism and Buddhism. We can recognize that the ponds of a palace made up of the islands, the artificial hills and the garden rocks reflect Taiosm, considering the records of the ponds a palace of Korea and China are all use the term, Taoism, or the concrete statement represents that the islands, the artificial hills and the garden rocks are used in the description of the ponds of a palace of Korea. Both two are, therefore, obviously differentiated from the ponds of a palace that doesn't include them. We can conclude that the ponds of a palace that doesn't include them are colored by Buddhism since they are overtly distinguished from the class of curved ponds that reflect Taoism at the same period and they are identical with the site of an ancient temples in an aspect of their type and construction.

Formative Stages of Establishing Royal Tombs Steles and Kings' Calligraphic Tombstones in Joseon Dynasty (조선시대 능비(陵碑)의 건립과 어필비(御筆碑)의 등장)

  • Hwang, Jung Yon
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.20-49
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    • 2009
  • This paper explores the Korean royal tombs steles such as monumental steles and tombstone marks (神道碑, 表石) that are broadly fallen into the following three periods ; the 15~16th centuries, 17th~18th centuries, and 19th century. As a result, the royal tombs steles were built, unlike the private custom, on the heirs to the King's intentions. During the 15~17th centuries the construction and reconstruction of the monumental steles took place. In the late Joseon period, monumental steles had been replaced with a number of tombstone marks were built to appeal to the king's calligraphy carved on stone for the first time. During the Great Empire Han(大韓帝國) when the Joseon state was upgraded the empire, Emperors Gojong and Sunjong devoted to honor ancestors by rebuilding royal tombstone mark. Based on these periodical trends, it would not be exaggerated that the history of establishing the royal tombs steles formed in late Joseon. The type of royal tombs monuments originated from those of the Three Kingdoms era, a shapeless form, the new stele type of the Tang Dynasty (唐碑) has influenced on the building of monuments of the Unified Silla and Buddhist honorable monuments (塔碑) of the Goryeo Dynasty. From the 15th century, successive kings have wished to express the predecessors's achievements, nevertheless, the officials opposed it because the affairs of the King legacy (國史) were all recorded, so there is no need to establish the tombs steles. Although its lack of quantity, each Heonneung and Jereung monumental steles rebuilt in 1695 and 1744 respectively, is valuable to show the royal sculpture of the late Joseon period. Since the 15th century, the construction of the royal tombs monumental steles has been interrupted, the tombstone marks (boulders) with simpler format began to be erected within the tomb precincts. The Yeoneung tombstone mark(寧陵表石), built in 1682, shows the first magnificent scale and delicate sculpture technique. Many tombstone marks were erected since the 1740s on a large scale, largely caused by King Yeongjo's announce to the honorific business for the predecessors. Thanks to King Yeongjo's such appealing effort, over 20 pieces of tombstone marks were established during his reign. The fact that his handwritten calligraphic works first carved on tombstones was a remarkable phenomenon had never been appeared before. Since the 18th century, a double-slab high above the roof(加?石) and rectangular basement of the stele have been accepted as a typical format of the tombstone marks. In front of the stele, generally seal script calligraphic works after a Tang dynasty calligrapher Li Yangbing(李陽氷)'s brushwork were engraved. In 1897 when King Gojong declared the Empire, these tombstone marks were once again produced in large amounts. Because he tried to find the legitimacy of the Empire in the history of the Joseon dynasty and its four founding fathers in creating the monuments both of the front and back sides by carving his in-person-calligraphy as a ruler representing his symbolic authority. The tombstone marks made during this period, show an abstract sculpture features with the awkward techniques, and long and slim strokes. As mentioned above, the construction of monumental steles and tombstone marks is a historical and remarkable phenonenon to reveal the royal funeral custom, sculpture techniques, and successive kings' efforts to honor the royal predecessors.

A Study on the Usage of Miào(廟) and Gōng(宮) in Zhou Dynasty through the Mentions to Them in the Scripture Sentences of 『Chūn-qiū(春秋)』 - In the Process of Investigating the Existence of Zhou Dynasty's System to Regulate the Number of Zōng-miào(宗廟) 【1/2】 (『춘추』 경문에서의 묘(廟)·궁(宮) 언급을 통한 주대(周代)의 그 쓰임 사례 일고찰 - 주대의 묘수제(廟數制) 실재 여부에 대한 궁구 과정에서 【1/2】-)

  • Seo, Jeong-Hwa
    • The Journal of Korean Philosophical History
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    • no.57
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    • pp.57-90
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    • 2018
  • In this discussion, as a way to verify the existence of the system to regulate Zhou dynasty's $z{\bar{o}}ng-mi{\grave{a}}o$(宗廟) numbers, the discussion was focused on '$mi{\grave{a}}o$ (廟)' and '$g{\bar{o}}ng$(宮)' in the records of "$Ch{\bar{u}}n-qi{\bar{u}}$(春秋)". As for the parts where the contents of scripture sentences were not specific, the context of the case was investigated through the writings in "$Zu{\breve{o}}-zhu{\grave{a}}n$(左傳)" and other materials. In the cases of the usage of the letter, '$mi{\grave{a}}o$(廟 : a ruler's house, a nation's royal court)', in the scripture sentences in "$Ch{\bar{u}}n-qi{\bar{u}}$(春秋)", the followings need to be noticed. In $t{\grave{a}}i-mi{\grave{a}}o$(太廟) of State $L{\check{u}}$(魯), nationwide events and a ruler's political ancestral rite, $d{\grave{i}}$(?) ritual, were performed, and fancy tools for ancestral rites used in those rituals were equipped. As for the $z{\bar{o}}ng-mi{\grave{a}}o$(宗廟) of a ruler of those times, a ritual of royal court, $ch{\acute{a}}o$(朝) rite, was performed. The usage case of the letter, '$g{\bar{o}}ng$(宮 : house)', is as the following. In $g{\bar{o}}ng$(宮) where a ruler's personal family lived was a family ancestral rite for them carried out. The record about the ornate decorating for the $hu{\acute{a}}n-g{\bar{o}}ng$ house(桓宮), which can be said to have been the political base of $s{\bar{a}}n-hu{\acute{a}}n-sh{\grave{i}}$(三桓氏), three politically noble families of State $L{\check{u}}$(魯), is outstanding. The $x{\bar{i}}-g{\bar{o}}ng$ house(西宮) during $X{\bar{i}}-g{\bar{o}}ng$(魯 僖公)'s reign and a $x{\bar{i}}n-g{\bar{o}}ng$ house(新宮 : a newly built house) destroyed by fire at the third year of $Ch{\acute{e}}ng-g{\bar{o}}ng$(魯 成公), are assumed to have been a ruler's another house, such as the $ch{\check{u}}-g{\bar{o}}ng$ house(楚宮) in which $Xi{\bar{a}}ng-g{\bar{o}}ng$(魯 襄公) used to enjoy staying, which is different from the viewpoint that it might be a $m{\acute{i}}-g{\bar{o}}ng$ shrine(?宮 : a house constructed as a shrine for the deceased father or the deceased grand father) that had been formed since Han dynasty. It has been discussed that, regarding the records that the '$w{\check{u}}-g{\bar{o}}ng$ house(武宮) was built' and that the '$y{\acute{a}}ng-g{\bar{o}}ng$ house(煬宮) was built', certain buildings were established with the symbols of '$w{\check{u}}$(武 : martial arts and force of arms)' and '$y{\acute{a}}ng$(煬 : to burn and get rid of everything)', and the events that a lord stood as its lord continued. Therefore, its main goal was not the performance of a dutiful ancestral rite by a ruler of those times for deceased rulers, for instance, $W{\check{u}}-g{\bar{o}}ng$(魯 武公) or $Y{\acute{a}}ng-g{\bar{o}}ng$(魯 煬公), but display of certain political symbolism through the ritual. This symbolism is most obvious with the $hu{\acute{a}}n-g{\bar{o}}ng$ house(桓宮) and the $x{\bar{i}}-g{\bar{o}}ng$ house(僖宮). As a consequence, all $mi{\grave{a}}os$(廟) and $g{\bar{o}}ngs$(宮) in scripture sentences had the functions of a shrine in some part, but it has been verified that they were not the buildings set up as a shrine to follow '$z{\bar{o}}ng-mi{\grave{a}}o$(宗廟)'s number regulation system' of '$ti{\bar{a}}nz{\check{i}}-7-mi{\grave{a}}o$(天子七廟 : an emperor owns seven $mi{\grave{a}}os$(廟))' or '$zh{\bar{u}}h{\acute{o}}u-5-mi{\grave{a}}o$(諸侯五廟 : a lord owns five $mi{\grave{a}}os$(廟))'.

A Research on Investigation Results of Teenagers' Civic and Ethic Awareness - Confucian values and a Treatise of Human Nature (유교사상을 통한 청소년의 시민윤리의식 실증조사연구)

  • Moon, Ki-young;Lee, In-young
    • The Journal of Korean Philosophical History
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    • no.52
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    • pp.393-424
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    • 2017
  • This study investigates the relationship between South Korean youths' Confucian values and sense of citizen ethics while presenting outlook on the sense of citizen ethics based on the theory of human nature. The purpose of this study, by doing so, is to present educational measures. For this purpose, empirical research method was applied in this study. In the empirical study, youths were surveyed and the answers were statistically analyzed and discussed with a view to achieve the study purpose. In the empirical research part of the study, Korean youths' awareness on Confucian values was examined along with its relationship with the sense of citizen ethics. The effect of Confucian values on sense of citizen ethics and their relationship were analyzed to evaluate the receptivity of youths on Confucian ideas and usefulness of sense of citizen ethics. This study investigated a total of final 311 sets of data from male and female students at middle and high schools located in Seoul, Gyeonggi, South Korea. First, to identify the youths' Confucian values and level of sense of citizen ethics, descriptive statistical analysis was conducted. As a result, the survey subjects were found to have, concerning the Confucian values, world view M=3.54, human relations view M=3.66, morality cultivation M=3.76, and social order M=3.45, higher than 3.0 to represent positive levels. The morality cultivation, in particular, was recorded the highest among all whereas the social order was relatively lower, which represents the degree of relying on Confucian values to establish social order. Second, the sub-variables of Confucian values were verified according to the personal characteristics of the surveyed youths and differences in their entire perception was investigated. As a result, according to gender, morality cultivation was found higher in female students (M=3.85) than in male students (M=3.64). According to the subjective economic level of their household, world view was found higher in upper class (M=3.98) than middle-low class (M=3.25) and low class (M=3.22) while human relations view was found higher in middle-upper class (M=3.79) than low class (M=3.46). As for the family type, morality cultivation was found higher in extended family (M=3.83) than nuclear family (M=3.62); and social order was higher in extended family (M=3.54) than nuclear family (M=3.36). Third, to verify the study theme of identifying the effects of youths' Confucian values on sense of citizen morality, hierarchical regression analysis was employed in this study, which used the multi-level model of multiple regression analysis. As a result, the Confucian values was found to have significant positive (+) correlations with the entire sense of citizen ethics in order of human relations view(${\beta}=.499$), world view(${\beta}=.412$), social order(${\beta}=.341$), and morality cultivation(${\beta}=.241$). Confucian value showed significant positive (+) correlations with autonomy in order of morality cultivation(${\beta}=.458$), human relations view(${\beta}=.454$), social order(${\beta}=.362$), and world view(${\beta}=.158$). Confucian values was found to have significant positive (+) correlations with community spirit in order of human relations view(${\beta}=.295$), social order(${\beta}=.281$), and morality cultivation(${\beta}=.232$). As shown in the findings above, youths' Confucian values was found to have significant positive (+) effects on the sense of citizen ethics. It is noted that the higher the Confucian values, the more positive the sense of citizen ethics would be. Consequentially, the Confucian values was identified to play an important role in the sense of citizen ethics in the modern society. Based on this analysis, this study presented specific measures - the necessity and possibility of education on sense of citizen ethics under the theory of human nature. To this end, this study proposed to find an optimal interface between the contemporary sense of citizen ethics and Confucian ethics through the respect for human life and nature, man of virtue as the ideal human model, and united society as a desirable society model.

A Study on the existence aspect of the elderly in the Joseon Dynasty (조선시대 노인(老人)의 존재양상 - 연령과 신분을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Hyo-Gyong
    • Journal of Korean Historical Folklife
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    • no.52
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    • pp.7-46
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    • 2017
  • The elderly in the Joseon Dynasty consistently attracted attention from the national herb as objects of social respect. Based on the Confucian ideology, the old man was considered to be a receiving body, since he was a person with complete character as a man. The elderly, who have the character of being a slave, transcended their status, and both the souls and the people were transcended beyond their identities and attributes and became objects of respect. The perception of the elderly is divided by age. The persons who are 50 years old and start to be in physical decline were regarded as senior citizens. However, this was just mentioned as an inflection point between the prime of manhood and senior citizens and was not defined as the elderly. As a public duty called a national work ends when they are 60 years old, the age is truly the lowest limit of senior citizens who are applicable to all the social beings. However, because their public duties end when they are 60 years old and they were regarded as general members of society, special benefits were not granted to them. In the caste system and bureaucratic society, senior citizens' treatment were differently done by age. For the senior citizens who are 70 years old, various benefits were just granted to high government officials. Bokho(復戶) and Seojeong were first given to them. And the retirement age of government officials was not specially set. It was done in the way to treat Jonno with exceptional respect by Chisa(致仕: regular retirement). It is the most respectful treatment given to high government officials and ministers. For the senior citizens who are 80 years old, Yangnoyeon(養老宴) was held for both of Yangmin and Cheonmin as an measure to treat them considerately. In addition, official ranks(官品) with social value were allowed by giving them Noinjik (老人職). Official ranks given to Seoin and Cheonin were the best Jonno(尊老) policy. However, the Jonno policy related to senior citizens was different according to position and official ranks as follows: Kings were subjected to social treatment when they were 60 years old. High government officials and royal relatives of the senior grade of the second court rank were subjected to social treatment when they were 70 years old. And general Seoin and slaves were subjected to social treatment when they were respectively 80 and 90 years old. Senior citizens were individually supported. However, social value was granted because the nation supervised it. As Bokho and Sijeong were assigned according to position and official ranks and kinds of things were different, the social limit was clearly shown. Social order was put above the ideology called Jonno thought. However, Jonno acts by age and position did not stay at the individual level and the nation took care of the senior citizens who are the members of society in various ways based on Jonno thought. Society tried to take care of the senior citizens who had difficulties in their activities because of being in physical decline. The nation increased the existence value of the senior citizens by giving things(賜物) including chairs, rice, meat, and ice economically, exoneration(免罪), the reduction system, and wergild legally, and Noinjik called Gaja(加資) socially to them and changing them to the members of society. Yangnoyeon and Gaja held targeting people of every class by transcending position and official ranks make the point that the senior citizens who are more than 80 years old are subject to social jonno clear. That is, the senior citizens were subject to respect for the elderly as the persons who were socially respected transcending their position when they got to be 80 years old.

Analysis of Football Fans' Uniform Consumption: Before and After Son Heung-Min's Transfer to Tottenham Hotspur FC (국내 프로축구 팬들의 유니폼 소비 분석: 손흥민의 토트넘 홋스퍼 FC 이적 전후 비교)

  • Choi, Yeong-Hyeon;Lee, Kyu-Hye
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.91-108
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    • 2020
  • Korea's famous soccer players are steadily performing well in international leagues, which led to higher interests of Korean fans in the international leagues. Reflecting the growing social phenomenon of rising interests on international leagues by Korean fans, the study examined the overall consumer perception in the consumption of uniform by domestic soccer fans and compared the changes in perception following the transfers of the players. Among others, the paper examined the consumer perception and purchase factors of soccer fans shown in social media, focusing on periods before and after the recruitment of Heung-Min Son to English Premier League's Tottenham Football Club. To this end, the EPL uniform is the collection keyword the paper utilized and collected consumer postings from domestic website and social media via Python 3.7, and analyzed them using Ucinet 6, NodeXL 1.0.1, and SPSS 25.0 programs. The results of this study can be summarized as follows. First, the uniform of the club that consistently topped the league, has been gaining attention as a popular uniform, and the players' performance, and the players' position have been identified as key factors in the purchase and search of professional football uniforms. In the case of the club, the actual ranking and whether the league won are shown to be important factors in the purchase and search of professional soccer uniforms. The club's emblem and the sponsor logo that will be attached to the uniform are also factors of interest to consumers. In addition, in the decision making process of purchase of a uniform by professional soccer fan, uniform's form, marking, authenticity, and sponsors are found to be more important than price, design, size, and logo. The official online store has emerged as a major purchasing channel, followed by gifts for friends or requests from acquaintances when someone travels to the United Kingdom. Second, a classification of key control categories through the convergence of iteration correlation analysis and Clauset-Newman-Moore clustering algorithm shows differences in the classification of individual groups, but groups that include the EPL's club and player keywords are identified as the key topics in relation to professional football uniforms. Third, between 2002 and 2006, the central theme for professional football uniforms was World Cup and English Premier League, but from 2012 to 2015, the focus has shifted to more interest of domestic and international players in the English Premier League. The subject has changed to the uniform itself from this time on. In this context, the paper can confirm that the major issues regarding the uniforms of professional soccer players have changed since Ji-Sung Park's transfer to Manchester United, and Sung-Yong Ki, Chung-Yong Lee, and Heung-Min Son's good performances in these leagues. The paper also identified that the uniforms of the clubs to which the players have transferred to are of interest. Fourth, both male and female consumers are showing increasing interest in Son's league, the English Premier League, which Tottenham FC belongs to. In particular, the increasing interest in Son has shown a tendency to increase interest in football uniforms for female consumers. This study presents a variety of researches on sports consumption and has value as a consumer study by identifying unique consumption patterns. It is meaningful in that the accuracy of the interpretation has been enhanced by using a cluster analysis via convergence of iteration correlation analysis and Clauset-Newman-Moore clustering algorithm to identify the main topics. Based on the results of this study, the clubs will be able to maximize its profits and maintain good relationships with fans by identifying key drivers of consumer awareness and purchasing for professional soccer fans and establishing an effective marketing strategy.

Philosophical Stances for Future Nursing Education (미래를 향한 간호교육이념)

  • Hong Yeo Shin
    • The Korean Nurse
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.27-38
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    • 1981
  • 오늘 저희에게 주어진 주제, 내일에 타당한 간호사업 및 간호교육의 향방을 어떻게 정하여야 하는가의 논의는 오늘날 간호계 주변에 일어나고 있는 변화의 실상을 이해하는 데서 비롯되어져야 한다고 생각하는 입장에서 먼저 세계적으로 건강관리사업이 당면한 딜레마가 어떠한 것이며 이러한 문제해결을 위해 어떠한 새로운 제안들이 나오고 있는가를 개관 하므로서 그 교육적 의미를 정의해 보고 장래 간호교육이 지향해야할 바를 생각해 보려 합니다. 오늘의 사회의 하나의 특징은 세계 모든 나라들이 각기 어떻게 전체 국민에게 고루 미칠 수 있는 건강관리체계를 이룩할 수 있느냐에 관심을 모으고 있는 사실이라고 봅니다. 부강한 나라에 있어서나 가장 빈궁한 나라에 있어서나 그 관심은 마찬가지로 나타나고 있읍니다. 보건진료 문제의 제기는 발달된 현대의학의 지식과 기술이 지닌 건강관리의 방대한 가능성과 건강 관리의 요구를 지닌 사람들에게 미치는 실질적인 혜택간에 점점 더 크게 벌어지는 격차에서 발생한다고 봅니다. David Rogers는 1960년대 초반까지 갖고 있던 의료지식의 축적과 민간인의 구매력 향상이 자동적으로 국민 건강의 향상을 초래할 것이라고 믿었던 순진한 꿈은 이루어지지 않았고 오히려 의료사업의 위기는 의료지식과 의료봉사간에 벌어지는 격차와 의료에 대한 막대한 투자와 그에서 얻는 건강의 혜택간의 격차에서 온다고 말하고 있읍니다. 균등 분배의 견지에서 보면 의료지식과 기술의 향상은 그 단위 투자에 대한 생산성을 낮춤으로서 오히려 장애적 요인으로 작용해온 것도 사실이고 의료의 발달에 따른 일반인의 기대 상승과 더불어 의료를 태성의 권리로 규명하는 의료보호사업의 확대로 야기되는 의료수요의 급증은 모두 기존 시설 자원에 압박을 초래하여 전래적 의료공급체제에 도전을 가해 왔으며 의료의 발달에 건 기대와는 달리 인류의 건강 문제 해결은 더욱 요원한 과제로 남게 되었읍니다. 현시점에서 세계인구의 건강문제는 기아, 영양실조, 안전한 식수 공급 및 위생적 생활환경조성의 문제에서부터 가장 정밀한 의료기술발달에 수반되는 의료사회문제에 이르는 다양한 문제를 지니고 있으며 주로 각개 국가의 경제 사회적 여건이 이 문제의 성격을 결정짓고 있다고 볼수 있읍니다. 그러나 건강 관리에 대한 요구는 영구히, 완전히 충족될 수 없는 요구에 속한다는 의미에서 경제 사회적 발달 수준에 상관없이 모든 국가가 공히 요구에 미치지 못하는 제한된 자원문제로 고심하고 있는 실정입니다. 또 하나의 공통된 관점은 각기 문제의 상황은 달라도 오늘날의 건강 문제는 주로 의료권 밖의 유전적 소인, 사회경제적, 정치문화적인 환경여건과 각기 선택하는 삶의 스타일에 깊이 관련되어 있다는 사실입니다. 따라서 오늘과 내일의 건강관리 문제는 의학적 견지에서 뿐 아니라 널리 경제, 사회, 정치, 문화적 관점에서 포괄적인 접근이 시도되어야 한다는 점과 의료의 고급화, 전문화, 일변도의 과정에서 소외되었던 기본건강관리체계 강화에 역점을 둔 다양하고 탄력성 있는 사업전개가 요구되고 있다는 점입니다. 다양한 건강관리요구에 적절히 대처할 수 있기 위한 그간 세계 각처에서 시도된 새로운 건강관리 접근과 그 제안을 살펴보면 대체로 4가지의 뚜렷한 성격들로 집약할 수 있을 것 같습니다. 그 첫째는 건강관리사업계획 및 그 수행에 있어 지역 사회의 적극적 참여를 유도하는 일, 둘째는 지역단위의 일차보건의료에서 부터 도심지 신예 종합병원, 시설 의료에 이르기까지 건강관리사업을 합리적으로 체계화하는 일. 셋째로 의료인력이용의 효율화 및 비의료인의 훈련과 협조 유발을 포함하는 효과적인 인력관리에 대한 제안과 넷째로 의료보험 및 각양 집단 의료유형을 포함하는 대체 의료재정 운영관리에 관련된 제안들을 들 수 있읍니다. 건강관리사업에 있어 지역사회 참여의 의의는 첫째로 사회 경제적인 제약이 모든 사람에게 가능한 최대한의 의료를 모두 고루 공급하기 어렵게 하고 있다는 점에서 제한된 정부재정과 지역사회가용자원을 보다 효율적으로 이용할 수 있게 하는 자조적이고 자율적인 지역사회건강관리체제의 구현에 있다고 볼 수 있으며 둘때로는 개인과 가족 및 지역민의 건강에 영향하는 많은 요인들은 실질적으로 의료권 외적 요인들로서 위생적인 생활양식, 식사습관, 의료시설이용 등 깊이 지역사회특성과 관련되어 국민보건의 실질적 향상을 위하여는 지역 주민의 자발적인 참여가 필수여건이 된다는 점 입니다. 지역 단위별 체계적인 의료사업의 전개는 제한된 의료자원의 보다 합리적이고 효율적인 이용을 가능하게 하며 요구가 있을때 언제나 가까운 거리에서 경제 사회적 제약을 받지 않고 이용할 수 있는 일차건강관리망을 통하여 건강에 관련된 정보를 얻으며 질병예방, 건강증진 및 기초적인 진료의 도움을 얻을 수 있고 의뢰에 대한 제2차, 제3차 진료에의 길은 건강관리사업의 질과 폭을 동시에 높고 넓게 해 줄 수 있는 길이 된다는 것입니다. 인력 관리에 관련된 두가지 기본 방향으로서는 첫째로 기존보건의료인력의 적정배치 유도이고 둘째는 기존인력의 역할확대, 조정 및 비의료인의 교육훈련과 부분적 업무대체를 들수 있으며 이러한 인력관리의 기본 방향은 부족되는 의료인력의 생산성을 높이고 주민들의 자조적 능력을 강화시킨다는 데에 두고 있음니다. 대체적 의료재정운영안은 대체로 의료공급과 재정관리를 이원화하여 주민의 경제능력이 의료수혜의 장애요소로 작용함을 막고 의료인의 경제적 동기에 의한 과잉치료처치에 의한 낭비를 줄임으로써 의료재정의 투자의 효과를 증대하는 데(cost-effectiveness) 그 기본방향을 두고 있다고 봅니다. 이러한 주변의료 사회적인 동향이 간호교육의 미래상에 끼치는 영향은 지대한 것이라 봅니다. 첫째로 장래 세계인구의 건강문제는 정치, 사회, 경제, 환경적인 의료권 밖의 요인들에 의해 더욱 크게 영향 받는다고 전제한다면 건강문제해결에 있어서도 전통적인 의료사업의 접근에서 더나아가 문제발생의 근원이 되는 생활개선이라는 차원에서 포괄적 접근을 생각하여야 하고 이를 위해선 정치, 경제, 사회전반에 걸친 깊이있는 이해과 주민의 생활환경에 직접 영향하는 교통수단, 통신망 mass media, 전력문제, 농업경영방법 및 조직적 사회활동 등 폭넓은 이해가 요구된다고 봅니다. 둘째로, 지역사회참여의 의의를 인정한다면 지역민의 자발적 참여를 효과적으로 유발시킬수 있고 의료집단과 각종 주민조직과 일반주민들 사이에서 협조적으로 일할수 있는 역량을 기르기위한 교육적 준비가 요구된다고 봅니다. 셋째로, 지역주민의 건강관리 자조능력 강화를 하나의 목표로 삼는다면 치료자에서 교육자로, 지도자에서 촉진자로, 제공자에서 지원자료의 역할의 변화 내지 다양화를 요구하게 될 것이므로 그에 대처할 수 있는 준비가 필요하다고 봅니다. 넷째로, 생각되어야 할 점은 지역중심건강관리사업을 지향하는 보건의료의 이념적 방향과 그에 상응하는 구체적 접근방법을 효율적으로 적용하기 위해서는 종횡으로 연결되는 의사소통체계의 정립과 민활한 정보교환이 이루어질 수 있어야 한다는 점에서 의사소통의 구심체로서 역할할 수 있는 역량을 함양해야 할 교육적 과제가 있다고 봅니다. 마지막으로 생각되어야 할 점은 지역중심으로 전개될 건강관리사업은 건강증진 및 질병예방적 측면과 질병진료 및 회복과 재활에 이르는 종합적이고 포괄적인 사업이어야 한다는 점에서 종래 공공 의료부문과 사설의료기관 사이에 나누어져 있던 예방의학과 치료의학의 통합 뿐 아니라 정부주축으로 이루어 지고 있는 지역사회개발사업 및 농촌지도사업과 종교 및 각종 민간인 집단이 벌이고있는 사업들과의 전체적인 통합적 접근이 이루어져야 한다고 생각하는 입장에서 종래 간호교육이 강조하지 않던 진료의 의무와 대외적 조직활동에 대한 보완적인 교육조치가 요구된다고 봅니다. 간호의 학문체계로서의 입장은 오랜 역사를 두고 논의의 대상이 되어왔으나 아직까지 뚜렷이 어떤 것이 간호 특유의 지식체계이며 건강문제에 관련하여 무엇이 간호특유의 결정영역이며 이 결정과 그 결과를 어떠한 방법으로 치료적 행위로 옮길 수 있는가에 대한 확실한 답을 얻지 못하고 있는 실정이라고 봅니다. 다만 근래에 제시된 여러 간호이론들 속에서 공통적으로 이야기되어지고 있는 개념들로선 우선 간호학문을 건강과 질병에 관련된 인간의 전인적이고 전체적인 상황을 다루는 학제적 과학으로서보는 입장이 있고 따라서 생물신체적인 면 외에 정신심리적, 사회경제적, 정치문화적 환경과의 상호작용 속에서 인간의 건강과 질병문제를 생각한다는 지향을 갖고 있다고 말할 수 있겠읍니다. 간호교육은 간호계 내적인 학문적, 이론적 체계화의 요구에 못지않게 대민봉사하는 전문직으로서의 사회적 책임을 감당해야하는 중요과제를 안고있어 변화하는 사회요구에 효과적으로 대처해 나가야 할 당면문제를 안고 있읍니다. 간효역할 확대, 보건진료원훈련 등 이러한 사회적 요구에 대응하려는 조치가 되겠읍니다. 이러한 시점에서 간호계가 분명히 짚고 넘어가야 할 사실은 이러한 움직임들이 종래의 의사들의 외업무공급을 연장 확대하는 입장에 서서 간호의 특수전문직 명목을 흐리게 할수있는 위험을 감수할 것인지 아니면 가능한 대체방안을 갖고 간호전문직의 독자적인 진로를 개척하면서 다각적인 도전을 받아들일 준비를 갖추든지 그 방향을 뚜렷이 해야할 일이라 생각합니다. 저로서는 이미 잘 훈련된 간호원들과 조산원들의 교육적, 경험적 배경을 기반으로 지역사회 최일선 건강관리요원으로 사회적 효능을 다 할수 있는 일차건강관리간호조직의 구현을 대체방안으로 제시하고 싶습니다. 간호원과 조산원들의 훈련된 역량과 건강관리체제의 구조적 변화를 효과적으로 조화시킨다면 대부분의 세계인구의 건강문제는 해결가능하다고 보는 입장입니다. 물론 정책과 의료와 행정적지원이 활성화되어지는 환경속에서만 그 기대하는 결과가 확대되리라는 점 부언하는 바입니다. 마지막으로 언급하고 싶은 점은 바로 오늘의 주제 ''교육의 동역자-선생과 학생''이라는 개념입니다. 특히 상회정의적 입장에서 보는 의료사업전개에 지역민 내지 의료소비자의 참여를 강조하는 현시점에 있어 교육자와 학생이 교육의 현장에서 서로 동역자로서 학습의 책임을 나누는 경험은 아주 시기적으로 적합하여 교육적으로 지대한 의미를 갖는 것이라고 생각합니다. 이에 수반되어져야 할 역할의 변화에 수용적인 자세를 갖고 적극 실제적용하려 노력하는 선생앞에서 자주적 결정을 행사해본 학생이야말로 건강관리대상자로 하여금 같은 결정권을 행사할수 있도록 촉구하여 주민의 자조적 역량을 기르고 의료사업의 민주화, 인간화를 이룩할 수 있는 길잡이가 될 수 있으리라 믿는 바입니다.

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The Aspects of Change of Sijo (시조의 변이 양상)

  • Kang Myeoung-Hye
    • Sijohaknonchong
    • /
    • v.24
    • /
    • pp.5-46
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    • 2006
  • Korean verse has flexibly changed its form and contents according to the historical background of the times. This fact arouses reader sympathy because it has reflected ideas, historical aspects and realities of the times. However, korean verse has kept its own characteristics in some ways, allowing it to exist today. It holds its form as 3 verses of three by three or four meter and three letters of the last of three verses. It makes every different version which has specific aspects of each times in the same 'sijo' area. 'Sijo' in Korean poems, is the first form that has been changed from formal to private functionally. As a result of that common verses in the Goryeo to Joseon eras were going with the stream of the times. Verse was the plate for justice so that there was no double meaning, symbols, or technical sentences. It had to show the idea of Myungchundo Jwonginryun. The theme was commonly fitted within certain areas. such as blessings, fidelity, devotion, etc. Around the end of the Joseon era, there was activation of private verses - a form of sijo with no restrictions on the length of the first two verses. Some ideas had been changed because Sarimpa gained power, domestic conflict, and the introduction of practical science. These things had an effect on the form of Sijo. After all, it shows the ideas of collapsing feudalism, resistance of confucian ideas, equality of the sexes, and opposition to the group who rule the government. Thus Sasul Sijo seems to have the tendency of resistance to reality. It was a specialty of realism poetry It explained our life in detail and reflected real life by being an intermediary of realism. This met and represented the demand of a reader's expectations. After 1905, there was new form of sijo that is very different, in form and content, from the previous versions. It was even different in areas of what people accepted. They started to think sijo was not the form of lyrical verse that is once was. It became a 'record of reading'. The form changed to 'hung or huhung' that satirized the times and the ending of a word in the last verse. Although this form could deliver the tension in statement, it was too iu from the original form. Therefore, it didn't last long, and its position got smaller because of the free verse that had western influence and was emerging in the times. In the middle of 1920, there was a movement of Sijo revival. It was lead by Choinamsun. He wrote poems and Sijo which were effected by western ideas in his early works. Although he worked with that, he took the lead in the movement of Sijo revival. He published the collection of Sijo $\ulcorner$Baekpalbunnwoi$\lrcorner$ that has one major theme-patriotic sentiment. He thought an ancient poem was a part of racial characteristics so that he expressed the main theme which represented the times and situations of his era. Modern Sijo is difficult. Sijo has to have modern and Korean verse characteristics at the same time. If it considers a modern aspect too much, it could not be distinguished from sijo and free verse. If it overly leans toward Sijo. it would seem to be too conservative which it then could be said to have no real charm of a poem. In spite of these problems, it is written constantly, because it has its own specialty. It has been focused on some works because they reflect awareness of modern times, the democratic idea, and realism. Overall, the authors of Modern Sijo express various themes by using different forms. The more what we can guess in this work, Sijo will exist permanently because of its flexibility. Furthermore, one special characteristic-flexibility of the korean verse will make it last forever and it will be a genre in Korean poetry.

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The effects of proliferation and differentiation on adipocyte 3T3-L1 by prescriptions and herbs of Taeyang-In and Taeum-In (태양인(太陽人), 태음인(太陰人)의 처방(處方)과 약재(藥材)가 지방세포(脂肪細胞)(3T3-L1)의 증식(增殖)·분화억제(分化抑制)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Su-beom;Kho, Byung-hee;Song, Il-byung
    • Journal of Sasang Constitutional Medicine
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.533-564
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    • 1998
  • In order to know the effect of proliferation and differentiation on edipocyte 3T3-L1 by prescriptions and herbs, Taeyangin(太陽人)'s Okapijangcheok-tang(五加皮壯脊湯) Mihudeungsikjangtang Acanthopanacis Cortex(五加皮) Phragmitis Rhizoma(蘆根) and Taeumin(太陰人)'s Taeumjowi-tang(太陰調胃湯) Cheongsimyonja-tang(淸心蓮子湯) Cheongpaesagan-tang(淸肺瀉肝湯) Galkeunbupyong-tang(葛根浮萍湯) Coicis Semen(薏苡仁) Rhei Undulati Rhizoma(大黃) Mori Cortex(桑白皮) Ulmi Cortex(楡根白皮) Holotrichia Vermiculus Kalopanaxii Cortex(海桐皮) Ephedrae Herba(麻黃) Imperatae Rhizoma(白茅根), were used and had some effects. 1. The proliferation effect of edipocyte 1) At the Taeyangin(太陽人)'s prescriptions and herbs, Okapijangcheok-tang(五加皮壯脊湯) Mihudeungsikjang-tang Acanthopanacis Cortex(五加皮) have a control effect at the boiling water-extract and ethyl alcohol-extract. Phragmitis Rhizoma(蘆根) have a control effect at the ethyl alcohol-extract. 2) At the Taeyangin(太陽人)'s prescriptions and herbs, Taeumjowi-tang(太陰調胃湯) Cheongsimyonja-tang(淸心蓮子湯) Cheongpaesagan-tang(淸肺瀉肝湯) Galkeunbupyong-tang(葛根浮萍湯) have a control effect at the boiling water-extract and ethyl alcohol-extract. Coicis Semen(薏苡仁) Rhei Undulati Rhizoma(大黃) Morl Cortex(桑白皮) Ulmi Cortex(楡根白皮) Kalopanaxii Cortex(海桐皮) · Ephedrae Herba(麻黃) of the boiling water-extract, Holotrichia Vermiculus Kalopanaxii Cortex(海桐皮) of ethyl alcohol-extract have a control effect on edipocytes. Rhei Undulati Rhizoma(大黃) Ulmi Cortex(楡根白皮) Ephedrae Herba(麻黃) of high-density have a cyto-toxicity. 2. The differentiation effect of edipocyte 1) At the Taeyangin(太陽人)'s prescriptions and herbs during the natural differentiation, Phragmitis Rhizoma(蘆根) of the boiling water-extract, Okapijangchek-tang(五加皮壯脊湯) Acanthopanacis Cortex(五加皮) of the ethyl alcohol-extract have a cyto-toxicity on the first-differentiation. 2) At the Taeumin(太陰人)'s prescriptions and herbs during the natural differentiation, Ulmi Cortex (楡根白皮) Kalopanaxii Cortex(海桐皮) of the boiling water-extract have a cyto-toxicity on the first-differentiation. Cheongsimyonja-tang(淸心蓮子湯) Ephedrae Herba(麻黃) of ethyl alcohol-extract have a control effect on the redifferentiation. 3) At the Taeyangin(太陽人)'s prescriptions and herbs on the first-differentiation during the induced differentiation, Acanthopanacis Cortex(五加皮) of ethyl alcohol-extract has a control effect. Okapijangchek-tang(五加皮壯脊湯) Acanthopanacis Cortex(五加皮) Phragmitis Rhizoma(蘆根) of the boiling water-extract have a cyto-toxicity. 4) At the Taeumin(太陰人)'s prescriptions and herbs on the first-differentiation during the induced differentiation, Coicis Semen(薏苡仁) Ephedrae Herba(麻黃) Imperatae Rhizoma(白茅根) of the boiling water-extract and Ephedrae Herba(麻黃) of the ethyl alcohol-extract have a control effect. Kalopanaxii Cortex(海桐皮) of the boiling water-extract and the ethyl alcohol-extract has a cyto-toxicity. Considering this result, the Taeyangin(太陽人) Taeumin(太陰人)'s prescriptions and herbs have a control effect on edipocytes during the proliferation. Acanthopanacis Cortex(五加皮), Coicis Semen(薏苡仁) Ephedrae Herba(麻黃) Imperatae Rhizoma(白茅根) have a control effect on edipocytes during the induced differentiation. In the future, for treating a obesity need a vivo assay and hope this study to help to know the mechanisms of obesity.

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A Survey on the Perception of the Counterplans of Medical Accident and Dispute of Dental Hygienist (의료사고 및 의료분쟁에 대한 치위생사의 인식도 조사)

  • Oh, Jin-Ho;Kwon, Jeong-Seung;Ahn, Hyoung-Joon;Kang, Jin-Kyu;Choi, Jong-Hoon
    • Journal of Oral Medicine and Pain
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.9-33
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    • 2007
  • In the field of dentistry, there existed relatively few emergency patients or patients who need intensive care and thus had low medical dispute rates. However, these days, there is a general tendency of increased medical disputes. Although many medical disputes are caused by medical accidents of the dentists, because dental assistants are also lawfully involved in practicing dentistry, there is a possibility of medical disputes or medical accidents caused by dental assistants. Therefore, the role of the dental assistants cannot be ignored. This study consists of a survey given to dental hygienists currently working in general hospitals, dental hospitals and private dental clinics. Following is the results of the analysis of 275 respondents' backgrounds, medical disputes rates including patients' complaints, their understanding of medical regulations and their general understanding of overall dental practice and medical disputes. 1. 251 of 274(91.6%) respondents doubted the risk of medical accident and dispute. 2. 81(29.5%) dental hygienist experienced complaint from patients. They have been working in the private dental clinic, the rate of this experience was high. 3. 349 case of 1805(19.3%) the complaints by patients, highest percentage among its category, were those regarding dental fees and poor service. 4. 129 case of 1805(7.1%) patients' complaints, highest percentage among it's subcategory, were those regarding the absence of explanations of precautions or request of agreements before dental treatment. 5. 252 of 267 (94.4%) dental hygienists chart after a scaling treatment. However, only 55(20.7%) dental hygienists chart the fact of explaining the precautions. 6. 6(2.2%) dental hygienists do not inspect patients' medical history, if patients don't mention it. 7. 104 of 274(38.0%) dental hygienists responded to be capable of administering first aid treatment. 8. 115(41.8%) dental hygienists have a first aid kit and equipment. 9. In case of medical dispute, 268(97.8%) dental hygienists respond that, charting plays a big role in resolving the dispute. 10. In case of medical dispute, 272(93.3%) dental hygienists respond that, explanation and agreement before treatment have an important role in settlement of dispute 11. Only 160(58.4%) dental hygienists responded correct answer that the duration of keeping medical records is 10 years. 12. 124(45.3%) respondents thought that it is legal for a dental hygienist to take a panoramic dental X-ray, 71(25.9%) respondents thought that it is legal practice cervical resin treatment by dental hygienist, and 37(13.5%) respondents thought that it is legal extract primary teeth by dental hygienist. 13. 24(18.76%) respondents thought that it doesn't matter to tell patient's state to others 14. 272(99.27%) responded that receiving education for the prevention of medical disputes was needed and of them, 61.0% thought it was urgent. 15. 186(64.2%) has never had classes regarding the prevention of medical disputes while in school and 212(77.4%) has not had the same type of classes after graduating from school. 16. 256(93.4%) responded that there will be even more of an increased number of medical disputes. Among them, 83.3% of respondents though that due to the increased opportunity of acquiring information through the internet and mass media. The study shows that 29.5 percentage of dental hygienists have experienced the medical disputes and complaints and they are lack of recognition of medical regulations and dental hygienist's official duty. So, there is a big potential of the percentage to increase. Therefore, the correct understanding of explaining precautions and requesting agreement before dental treatments and performing them are mandatory. Moreover, classes regarding the prevention and counterplans of medical disputes need to be widely offered.