• Title, Summary, Keyword: 연성

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소성가공에 관한 몇 가지 현상 해설

  • Choe, Jae-Chan
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.2 no.3
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    • pp.5-12
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    • 1985
  • 압력유도연성(Pressure-lnduced Ductility) : 금속성형공정에서의 가장 중요한 인자는 가공물의 연성이다. 금속학적인 측면에서의 연성이란 실온에서 측정되는 것이며 가장 일반적인 연성연성측정방법은 인장시험이다. 금속재료의 연성을 증가시키기 위한 보통의 방법은 가열이며 대부분의 경우 가열된 재료는 보다 연하게 되므로, 보통가열은 변형한도를 증가시키고 성형력을 줄이기 위해 사용되어 왔다. 그 런데 Bridgman은 금속의 연성이란 금속학적 성질 뿐 아니라 주변압력이라는 기계적 방법에 의해서도 조정될 수 있다는 것을 지적하였다. 그는 응력-연신률 선도에서 얻어진 금속의 연성은 정수압을 가함으로써 증가될 수 있다는 것을 보였다. 중간응력, 평균응력, 정수압 응력, 정수압 압력, 주변압력 등의 용어가 같은 의미로 사용되어진다. 재료의 금속학적성질 뿐 아니라 공정의 압력도 변수로 작용하여 성형성을 개선시키게 되는데 이런 현상을 압력유도연성(PID)은 주변압력이 재료내부에서의 공동발생 및 그 성장을 억제하기 때문에 얻어진다. 공동 의 합체 및 성장은 연성파괴의 전제조건이 되므로 이러한 현상이 발생되지 않도록 하면 성형성 및 연성이 증가된다. 공동의 형성 및 예방 과 인장봉의 강도와 변형에 미치는 압력효과의 수학적 해석은 참고문헌 2에 나타나 있다. 이 압력유도연성은 Bobrowsky, Pugh와 Green, Alexander등에 의해 확인되었다.

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A Study on the Characteristics of Coupling Loss Factor associated with Fluid Loading (접수구조물의 연성손실계수 변화에 관한 연구)

  • 류정수;전재진
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.629-633
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    • 1998
  • 본 연구에서는 연성손실계수가 구조물의 진동에 미치는 영향을 살펴보았다. 세부시스템의 두께가 동일할 경우 평판으로 이루어진 구조물이 접수되면 연성손실계수가 감소하게 된다. 특히, 저주파수 대역에서 연성손실계수가 크게 낮아졌다. 그 주된 원인은 접수로 인해 평판에서 전파되는 굽힘파의 그룹속도가 줄어들기 때문이며, 접수로 인한 파워투과계수의 변화는 크지 않았다. 내부에 격벽을 가진 steel box에 공기중 연성손실계수와 접수시 연성손실계수를 적용하여 세부시스템의 속도를 구한 결과, 공기중 연성손실계수를 이용하여 구한 속도가 접수시 연성손실계수를 이용하여 구한 속도보다 약 2-3 dB정도 높게 나타났다. 선박과 같은 복잡한 구조물인 경우 연성손실계수에 의한 속도 차이는 더욱 커질 것으로 추정된다. 따라서, SEA를 이용한 접수 구조물의 진동해석에서 해석오차를 줄이기 위해서는 연성손실계수에 접수의 영향을 고려해 주어야 함을 확인하였다. 특히, 접수효과가 고려된 연성손실계수를 사용하면 SEA가 큰 오차를 보이는 중, 저주파수 대역에서 해석 결과에 대한 신뢰성을 높일 것으로 판단된다.

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Vibration Control of Semi-active Suspension Considering the Modal Coupling Effect (모드 연성효과를 고려한 반능동형 현가장치의 진동제어)

  • 오재응;이정윤
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.16 no.3
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    • pp.430-442
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    • 1992
  • 본 연구에서는 자동차의 여러 모드 사이에 존재하는 연성항의 비연성을 위한 능동 제어력을 계산하여 연성항이 승차감에 미치는 영향을 살펴보고, 이 연성항을 비 연성화하기 위한 제어력을 계산하였으며, 현가장치의 반능동 제어에 적용하였다. 또 한 새로운 민감도 이론식을 제안하여 7자유도 현가계에 적용하고 시뮬레이션을 통하여 특성변화예측을 하였다.

Hot Ductility Behavior and Hot Cracking Susceptibility of Type 303 Austenitic Stainless Steel(1) -Hot ductility Behavior- (303 오스테나이트계 스테인레스강의 고온연성거동과 고온균열감수성(I) -고온연성거동-)

  • ;;Lundin, C. D.
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.35-45
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    • 1988
  • 오-스테나이트계 스테인레스강에 대한 용접은 용접재료의 개발과 더불어 각종 산업계에 널리 이용되고 있으며 최근 Type 303 오-스테나이트계 스테인레스강 등은 free machining재로써 널리 응용되고 있다. 그러나 이 303계는 피삭성, 절삭성, 칩형성개선을 위한 특수원소(Se, S 등)의 첨가 때문에 용접성에 문제점을 제기하고 있다. 본 연구에서는 Type 303을 중심으로 AISI 304-316NG 및 347NG계의 오-스테나이트계 스테인레스강의 고온연성거동과 고온균열감수성(용접성)에 관한 연구에 대한 검토중 고온연성거동에 관하여 조사하였다. 고온연성평가는 Gleeble Simulator에 의하여 재료와 방향성에 따라 검토하였으며, 그 결과 모든 재료는 압연방향을 종방으로 시험하였을 때는 거의 유사한 고온연성을 나타내었으나 횡방향으로 시험하였을 때는 종방향에 비하여 연성저하를 나타내었다. 이와 같은 고온연성은 후속연구에서 검토될 고온균열 감수성과 밀접한 관련성에 의하여 용접성을 평가할 수 있다.

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Evaluation of Ductility Factors for MDOF Systems in Special Steel Moment Resisting Frames (철골 연성 모멘트 골조에 대한 다자유도 시스템의 연성계수 평가)

  • Kang, Cheol-Kyu;Han, Young-Cheol
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.8 no.6
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    • pp.13-22
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    • 2004
  • Ductiluty factor has played an important role in seismic design as it is key component of response modification factor(R). In this stuty, ductility factors() are calculated by multiplying ductility factor for SDOF systems() and MDOF modification factors(). Ductility factors() for SDOF systems are computed from nonlinear dynamic analysis undergoing different level of displacement ductiluty demands and period when subjected to a large number of recorded earthquake ground motions. The MDOF modification factors() are proposed to account for the MDOF systems, based on previous studies. A total of 108 prototype steel frames are designed to investigate the ductility factors considering the number of stories(4, 8 and 16-stories), framing system(Perimeter Frames, PF and Distributed Frames, DF), failure mechanism(Strong-Column Weak-Beam, SCWB and Weak-Column Strong-Beam, WCSB), soil profiles(SA, SC and SE in UBC 1997) and seismic zone factors(Z=0.075, 0.2 and 0.4 in UBC 1997). It is shown that the number of stories, failure mechanisms (SCWB, WCSB), and soil profiles have great influence on the ductility factors, however, the structural system(Perimeter frames, Distributed frames), and seismic zones have no influence on the ductility factors.

The Term and Classification of Structure System with Non-rigid Member (연성구조시스템의 분류체계와 용어)

  • Lee, Ju-Na;Park, Sun-Woo;Kim, Seung-Deog;Park, Chan-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Association for Spatial Structures
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.99-105
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    • 2004
  • The structure systems with non-rigid member were classified by the composition type of line and surface members. As a result of the classification, there are 1-way cable structure, cable net and radial cable net structure in the line member system. And there are pneumatic structure and suspension membrane structure in surface member system. In addition, when the line and surface members are composed together, there is the hybrid membrane system which are divided into hanging type and supported type. In this paper, the Korean terms of structure systems with non-rigid member are recommended through this classification.

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Statistical Study of Ductility Factors for Elastic Perfectly Plastic SDOF Systems (탄소성 단자유도 구조물에 대한 연성계수의 통계적 분석)

  • Kang, Cheol-Kyu;Choi, Byong-Jeong
    • Journal of the Earthquake Engineering Society of Korea
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.39-48
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    • 2003
  • This paper present a summary of the results of statistical study of the ductility factor which is key component of response modification factor(R). To compute the ductility factor, a group of 1,860 ground motions recorded from various earthquake was considered. Based on the local site conditions at the recording station, ground motions were classified into four groups according to average shear wave velocity. Inleastic spectrum were computed for elastic perfectly plastic SDOF systems undergoing different level of inelastic deformation and period. Ductility factors were calculated by deviding elastic response spectrum by inelastic response spectrum. The influence f displacement ductility ratio, site condition, magnitude and epicentral distance on ductility factors were studied. The coefficient of variation was computed to evaluated the dispersion of ductility factors as the defined ratio of the standard deviation to the mean.

Evaluation of Ductility and Strength Factors for Special Steel Moment Resisting Frames (철골 연성 모멘트 골조의 연성계수 및 강도계수 평가)

  • Kang, Cheol Kyu;Choi, Byong Jeong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.793-805
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    • 2004
  • The main objective of this paper is to evaluate the ductility and strength factors that are key components of the response modification factor for special steel moment-resistant frames. The ductility factors for special steel moment-resistant frames were calculated by multiplying the ductility factor for SDOF systems and the MDOF modification factors. Ductility factors were computed for elastic and perfectly plastic SDOF systems undergoing different levels of inelastic deformation and periods when subjected to a large number of recorded earthquake ground motions. Based on the results of the regression analysis, simplified expressions were proposed to compute the ductility factors. Based on previous studies, the MDOF modification factors were also proposed to account for the MDOF systems. Strength factors for special steel moment resisting frames were estimated from the results of the nonlinear static analysis. A total of 36 sample steel frames were designed to investigate the ductility and strength factors considering design parameters such as number of stories (4, 8, and 16 stories), seismic zone factors (Z = 0.075, 0.2, and 0.4), framing system (Perimeter Frames, PF and Distributed Frames, DF), and failure mechanism (Strong-Column Weak Beam, SCWB, and Weak-Column Strong-Beam, WCSB). The effects of these design parameters on the ductility and strength factors for special steel moment-resisting frames were investigated.

Deformability of RC Beam-Column Assembles (철근콘크리트 보-기둥 접합부의 연성능력)

  • Lee, Jung-Yoon
    • Proceedings of the Korea Concrete Institute Conference
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    • pp.193-196
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    • 2008
  • This paper proposes a method to predict the ductility capacity of reinforced concrete beam-column joints failing in shear after the formations of plastic hinges at both ends of the adjacent beams. The current design code divides joints into two categories: Type 1 for structures in non seismically hazard area and Type 2 in seismically hazard area. While there are many researches related to joint shear strength in Type 1, those in regard to joint ductility capacity of Type 2 are scarce. This paper classified the ductility capacity of beam-column joints into column, joint panel, and beam deformability. Since a brittle failure such as shear or bond failure in the columns must be avoided, column deformability was calculated by elastic analysis. The plastic hinges of the adjacent beams affect joint deformability. Therefore, the prediction of joint deformability was calculated with consideration to the degradation of the diagonally compressed concrete due to the strain penetration.

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Ductility Confinement of RC Rectangular Shear Wall (장방형 철근 콘크리트 전단벽의 연성 보강)

  • 강수민;박홍근
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.530-539
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    • 2002
  • In designing the boundary confinement of shear walls, the current design provisions and recommendations are empirical and prescriptive; they specify a certain confinement length and details, regardless of the actual requirement of ductility Therefore, they are inappropriate to the performance based-design. The purpose of the present study is to develop a ductility design method that Is applicable to the performance based-design of shear wall. For the purpose, experimental studies were performed to investigate variations in the ductility of shear walls with the length of the boundary confinement. Five specimens modeling the compressive zone of cross sections with different confinement area were tested against eccentric vertical load. Through the experimental studies, strength, ductility, and failure mode of the compression zone were investigated. In addition, nonlinear numerical analyses for the overall cross-sections of shear wall were performed to investigate variations of the stress and strain profiles with the length of compression zone. On the basis of the experimental and numerical studies, a ductility design method for shear wall was developed. By using the proposed design method, for a given ductility demand, the area of lateral confinement and corresponding reinforcement ratio can be precisely determined so that the ductile behavior and economical design are assured.