• Title, Summary, Keyword: 열관류율

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An Evaluation of the Linear Thermal Transmittance for the Internal Insulation versus the External Insulation in Apartment Housings (공동주택의 단열형태별 선형열관류율 평가)

  • Lee, Jong-Sung;Lee, Do-Heun;Jun, Myoung-Hoon
    • LHI Journal of Land, Housing, and Urban Affairs
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    • v.5 no.4
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    • pp.315-323
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    • 2014
  • In this study, thermal transmittance which is a parameter to measure the thermal performance was evaluated for an internal insulation versus an external insulation. Then the ISO regulation was applied to evaluate it, and the superiority of an external insulation was verified by the thermal transmittance values. The three zones of apartment housing were selected to evaluate the performance. (1) The junction of an outer wall and a protruded slab : If there is no a thermal bridge protection system, then the values are about same in the two insulation systems, so the protection system should certainly be installed. If it is installed, then the value for the external insulation is 2 times lower than internal system. (2) The junction of a side wall and a flat slab: The value is 0.509W/mK for the internal insulation and about zero for the external insulation. (3) The junction of an outer wall and a division wall: The value is 0.451W/mK for the internal insulation and also about zero for the external insulation. A domestic regulation that could evaluate a thermal transmittance has to be established by applying the ISO regulation for the evaluation of external insulation systems in apartment housing in the future. Additionally, the government must decide which length should be used for the national standard.

Adiabatic property of plywood wall panel (합판 벽체의 단열성능)

  • 박준철;홍순일
    • Journal of Korea Foresty Energy
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.62-68
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    • 2002
  • Adiabatic property of plywood wall panel was examined to evaluate their thermal conductivities. The amount of heat loss was investigated through overall heat transmission experiment. Styroform and grass wool showed less heat loss. However, yellowsoil board and laminated lumber showed high volume specific heat capacity. When the changes of indoor and outdoor temperature were checked in model house, wall manufactured with styroform and grass wool was affected easily by the changes of outdoor temperature. Yellowsoil, the mixed board of yellowsoil and sawdust, and laminated lumber, which have high volume specific heat capacity, were not affected much. The rates of overall heat transmission were much better in styroform and grasswool, but the adiabatic properties were much higher in yellowsoil board and the mixed board of yellowsoil and sawdust. The results showed that the insulating material can be developed using yellowsoil and wood, which are nature friendly materials.

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A Study on the Evaluation of Thermal Transmittance Performance of Aluminum Alloy Window Frame of Educational Facility considering 2 Dimensional Steady-state Heat Transfer (2차원 정상상태 전열해석을 통한 교육시설의 알루미늄 창호 열관류율 평가에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Tong-So
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.12 no.11
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    • pp.5284-5289
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    • 2011
  • This study focused to evaluate thermal transmittance(U-value) performance of sliding type of aluminum alloy window frame(AAWF) with double glazing(DG) and glazing spacer and that without thermal breaker in winter and summer season by two dimensional steady state heat transfer analysis. The AAWE was installed to an existing educational facilities in Seosan area which is the southern region of the Korean Peninsula. Analysis of 2D steady-state heat transfer was performed through the use of BISCO as calculation and simulation program. U-value and temperature factors were calculated. The results are as followed. First, the isotherm simulation shows that AAWF with double glazing have serious differences from recently proposed window thermal performance standards such as Insulation Performance of Windows and Doors of Building Energy Saving Design Standards and the results of calculation of thermal transmittance performance of AAWF and DG are U=9.631 W/$m^2K$, U=2.382 W/$m^2K$ respectively during winter and summer season. Second, the results of analysis of heat transfer analysis, calculated by simulation, shows that 225% of heat is lost comparing with thermal performance standards U=4.0 W/$m^2K$ of general double glazing among those standards on AAWF without thermal breaker.

동시획득 $T_{1}T_{2}^{*}$ 강조 경사 자장 펄스열을 사용한 관류량과 투과도 측정

  • 김은주;김대홍;이희조;허용민;이상훈;이삼현;서진석
    • Proceedings of the KSMRM Conference
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    • pp.103-103
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    • 2002
  • 목적:자화율 대조법을 사용한 관류 영상에서 동시획득 $T_{1}T_{2}^{*}$ 강조 경사 자장 펄스열을 사용하여 Gd-DTPA에 의한 $T_{1}T_{2}^{*}$ 감소 효과를 동시에 획득하여 종양의 치료 효과, 판정에 중요한 기준을 제시할 수 있는 정확한 관류 정보를 얻고자 한다. 대상 및 방법: Gd-DTPA에 의한 $T_{1}T_{2}^{*}$ 감소 효과를 동시에 획득하기 위하여 기존의 이중 경사자장 펄스열을 수정, 동시획득 $T_{1}T_{2}^{*}$ 강조 경사자장 펄스열을 개발하였고, 시간 해상도를 높이기 위하여 key-hole 방법을 사용하였다. 고정 phantom으로 Sephadex를 다양한 농도의 Gd-DTPA 용액에 swelling하여 사용하였고, 관류 phantom으로는 Sephadex와 Dialyzer를 사용하였다. Sephadex는 swelling 하였을 때 $T_1$, $T_2$값이 생체 조직의 값과 비슷하고, 물을 관류시킬 수 있어 생체 모형에 적합한 phantom이다 .관류 phantom은 정량 펌프에 연결하여 사용하였다. Sephadex 관류 phantom에서는 분당 약 4$m\ell$ 속도로 관류시키면서 25 mM Gd-DTPA을 0.1$m\ell$ 일시 주입하여 관류 방향에 수직인 coronal 영상을 약 15분 동안 얻었다. 투과도를 구하기 위한 phantom으로는 hollow fiber type Dialyzer를 사용하였고, in vivo에서 1차 관류 이후에 현관 밖에서의 Gd농도가 높고 혈관 내부의 농도가 낮은 상태를 만들기 위하여 fiber 바깥쪽으로 500 mM Gd-DTPA 2 ml를 미리 넣어두고 fiber 내부로 이보다 낮은 농도의 Gd 용액을 관류시키면서 약 1시간동안 영상을 얻었다. 관류 영상에서 $T_1$/$T_{2}^{*}$ 감소 효과를 구분하여 구한 $\DeltaR_1$, $\DeltaR_2$ 곡선의 적분값으로부터 관류량을 구하고, 2 구획 모델을 적용하여 투과도를 구했다.

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동시획득 $T_{1}{/}T_{2}^{*}$강조 경사 자장 펄스열을 사용한 관류량과 투과도 측정

  • 김은주;김대홍;이희조;허용민;이상훈;이삼현;서진석
    • Proceedings of the KSMRM Conference
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    • pp.127-127
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    • 2002
  • 목적: 자화율 대조법을 사용한 관류 영상에서 동시획득 $T_{1}{/}T_{2}^{*}$ 강조 경사 자장 펄스열을 사용하여 Gd-DTPA에 의한 $T_{1}{/}T_{2}^{*}$ 감소 효과를 동시에 획득하여 종양의 치료 효과, 판정에 중요한 기준을 제시할 수 있는 정확한 관류 정보를 얻고자 한다. 대상 및 방법: Gd-DTPA에 의한 $T_{1}{/}T_{2}^{*}$ 감소 효과를 동시에 획득하기 위하여 기존의 이중 경사자장 펄스열을 수정, 동시획득 $T_{1}{/}T_{2}^{*}$ 강조 경사자장 펄스열을 개발하였고, 시간 해상도를 높이기 위하여 key-hole 방법을 사용하였다. 고정 phantom으로 Sephadex를 다양한 농도의 Gd-DTPA 용액에 swelling하여 사용하였고, 관류 phantom으로는 Sephadex와 Dialyzer를 사용하였다. Sephadex는 swelling 하였을 때 $T_1$, $T_2$값이 생체 조직의 값과 비슷하고, 물을 관류시킬 수 있어 생체 모형에 적합한 phantom이다. 관류 phantom은 정량 펌프에 연결하여 사용하였다. Sephadex 관류 phantom에서는 분당 약 4$m\ell$ 속도로 관류시키면서 25 mM Gd-DTPA을 0.1$m\ell$ 일시 주입하여 관류 방향에 수직인 coronal 영상을 약 15분 동안 얻었다. 투과도를 구하기 위한 phantom으로는 hollow fiber type Dialyzer를 사용하였고, in vivo에서 1차 관류 이후에 혈관 밖에서의 Gd 농도가 높고 혈관 내부의 농도가 낮은 상태를 만들기 위하여 fiber 바깥쪽으로 500mM Gd-DTPA 2$m\ell$를 미리 넣어두고 fiber 내부로 이보다 낮은 농도의 Gd 용액을 관류시키면서 약 1시간동안 영상을 얻었다. 관류 영상에서 $T_{1}{/}T_{2}^{*}$ 감소 효과를 구분하여 구한 $\Delta{R}_{1}$, $\Delta{R}_{2}^{*}$ 곡선의 적분값으로부터 관류량을 구하고, 2 구획 모델을 적용하여 투과도를 구했다.

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A Study on Numerical Analysis of Overall Heat Transmission Coefficient of Vacuum Glazing with Emissivity (방사율에 따른 진공유리 열관류율 수치해석 연구)

  • Hwang, Il-Sun;Lee, Young-Lim
    • Proceedings of the KAIS Fall Conference
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    • pp.756-758
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    • 2012
  • 인구증가와 지속적인 산업발전으로 인하여 건축이 매우 활발해지고 냉난방으로 인한 에너지 소비가 급증하게 되면서 효율적인 에너지 사용의 필요성이 크게 대두되었다. 건물에서 손실되는 에너지의 약 20~40%가 창문을 통해 손실이 일어나며 이를 해결하고자 현재 Low-E 유리, 복층유리등 다양한 방법들이 개발되어 사용하고 있으며 에너지 손실을 더욱 낮추기 위하여 진공유리가 개발 중이나 아직 보급은 이루어지지 않고 있다. 본 논문에서는 진공유리의 열관류율 측정 장치와 진공에서의 중요한 열전달 요인인 복사열전달이 진공유리 성능에 미치는 영향을 3차원 수치해석을 통하여 알아보았다.

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Validation of Load Calculation Method for Greenhouse Heating Design and Analysis of the Influence of Infiltration Loss and Ground Heat Exchange (온실 난방부하 산정방법의 검증 및 틈새환기와 지중전열의 영향 분석)

  • Shin, Hyun-Ho;Nam, Sang-Woon
    • Horticultural Science & Technology
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    • v.33 no.5
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    • pp.647-657
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    • 2015
  • To investigate a method for calculation of the heating load for environmental designs of horticultural facilities, measurements of total heating load, infiltration rate, and floor heat flux in a large-scale plastic greenhouse were analyzed comparatively with the calculation results. Effects of ground heat exchange and infiltration loss on the greenhouse heating load were examined. The ranges of the indoor and outdoor temperatures were $13.3{\pm}1.2^{\circ}C$ and $-9.4{\sim}+7.2^{\circ}C$ respectively during the experimental period. It was confirmed that the outdoor temperatures were valid in the range of the design temperatures for the greenhouse heating design in Korea. Average infiltration rate of the experimental greenhouse measured by a gas tracer method was $0.245h^{-1}$. Applying a constant ventilation heat transfer coefficient to the covering area of the greenhouse was found to have a methodological problem in the case of various sizes of greenhouses. Thus, it was considered that the method of using the volume and the infiltration rate of greenhouses was reasonable for the infiltration loss. Floor heat flux measured in the center of the greenhouse tended to increase toward negative slightly according to the differences between indoor and outdoor temperature. By contrast, floor heat flux measured at the side of the greenhouse tended to increase greatly into plus according to the temperature differences. Based on the measured results, a new calculation method for ground heat exchange was developed by adopting the concept of heat loss through the perimeter of greenhouses. The developed method coincided closely with the experimental result. Average transmission heat loss was shown to be directly proportional to the differences between indoor and outdoor temperature, but the average overall heat transfer coefficient tended to decrease. Thus, in calculating the transmission heat loss, the overall heat transfer coefficient must be selected based on design conditions. The overall heat transfer coefficient of the experimental greenhouse averaged $2.73W{\cdot}m^{-2}{\cdot}C^{-1}$, which represents a 60% heat savings rate compared with plastic greenhouses with a single covering. The total heating load included, transmission heat loss of 84.7~95.4%, infiltration loss of 4.4~9.5%, and ground heat exchange of -0.2~+6.3%. The transmission heat loss accounted for larger proportions in groups with low differences between indoor and outdoor temperature, whereas infiltration heat loss played the larger role in groups with high temperature differences. Ground heat exchange could either heighten or lessen the heating load, depending on the difference between indoor and outdoor temperature. Therefore, the selection of a reference temperature difference is important. Since infiltration loss takes on greater importance than ground heat exchange, measures for lessening the infiltration loss are required to conserve energy.

Effect of Design Value Selection on Heating and Cooling Load Calculation in Greenhouses (설계 변수 선택이 온실의 냉난방부하 산정에 미치는 영향)

  • Nam, Sang-Woon;Shin, Hyun-Ho
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.277-284
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    • 2018
  • For the main variables to be selected by the designer for the heating and cooling load calculation in greenhouses, in order to evaluate the effect of these design values on the heating and cooling load, the simulations were carried out by varying the respective design values. Based on these results, we proposed the design values which should pay special attention to selection. The design values which have the greatest effect on the heating load were the overall heat transfer coefficient of the covering material and the design outdoor temperature was next. The effect of the design values according to the number of spans showed little difference. In the case of the single-span greenhouse, the effect of the design values related to the underground heat transfer can not be ignored. However, in the case of the multi-span greenhouse, the effect of the design values related to the underground heat transfer and the infiltration rate were insignificant. The design values which have the greatest effect on the cooling load were the solar radiation into the greenhouse and the evapotranspiration coefficient, followed by the indoor and outdoor temperature difference and the ventilation rate. The effect of the design values showed a great difference between the single-span greenhouse and the multi-span greenhouse, but there was almost no difference according to the number of spans. The effect of the overall heat transfer coefficient of the covering material was negligible in both the single-span greenhouse and the multi-span greenhouse. However, the effect of the indoor and outdoor temperature difference and the ventilation rate on the cooling load was not negligible. Especially, it is considered that the effect is larger in multi-span greenhouse.