• Title/Summary/Keyword: 용융지

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A Study on the Arc Characteristics and Weld Pool Analysis of GHTAW under the Space Environment (우주 환경에서 GHTAW 아크 특성과 용융지 해석에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Sang-Hoon;Na, Suck-Joo
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.67-72
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this paper is to understand the behavior of GHTAW process under the space environment with the experimental and numerical analysis. Gas Hollow Tungsten Arc Welding (GHTAW) using a hollow tungsten electrode was adopted, since the ignition and discharge of a conventional GTAW process is not appropriate to the space environment due to low pressure in space. In order to clarify the phenomena of GHTAW under space environment, an investigation of thermal and physical properties of the GHTAW arc plasma was experimentally performed under low pressure conditions. Furthermore, the molten pool behavior and weldment of GHTAW were understood by CFD-based numerical analysis, based on the models of GHTA heat source, arc pressure and electromagnetic force induced by arc plasma, the characteristics of which were obtained by the captured images of a CCD camera.

Arc Welding에서의 Bead의 생成機構

  • 중근금작
    • Journal of the KSME
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.279-290
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    • 1979
  • Arc Welding의 경우 arc열에 의하여 생성된 용융지(Molten Pool)가 응고하는 과정은 금형주물의 응고과정과 비슷하게 생각되나 실은 응고의 제1단계에서 양자간에 큰 차이가 있다. 즉, 금형에 주입된 용융금속이 응고하는 경우는 금형과 이에 접한 주조금속과는 응고후 별도로 분리할 수 있으며, 양자가 서로 융합해서는 안될 것이다. 이에 반하여 융접의 경우에는 금형속에 있는 용 융금속과 금형이라고 볼 수 있는 모재용융부단면과는 완전히 융합되어야 할 것이다. 금형주조 부분의 응고에서는 금형에 접한 주조금속이 열적과냉각(Thermal Supercooling)을 받아 그 내부에 결정핵이 생성되어 이것이 성장하는 과정을 거칠 것이다. 그러나 융접의 경우에는 일반적으로 용융금속과 모재와는 통일계통의 재료이므로 용융금속에 접한 모재부분 자신이 종자결정(Seed Crystal)와 같은 역할을 하여 용융금속내에 새로히 결정핵을 생성함이 없이 이 위에서 직접 결 정성장이 연행되는 것이다. 이것을 Epitaxial Growth라는 하나 이것이 용접부의 응고에서의 큰 특정인 것이다. 주조, 용접 공히 열절과냉각에 의한 응고의 초기단계를 거치면 합금인 경우 그 후의 응고과정은 주로 조성적 과냉각(Constitutional Supercooling)에 따르게 될 것이다. 이 기 회에 Epitaxy에 관해서 간단히 설명하고저 한다.

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A Study of Fuzzy Control of Weld Pool Width in Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (Gas Tunsten Arc 용접에서 용융지폭의 퍼지 제어에 관한 연구)

  • H.K. Chung;S.H. Rhee;K.W. Um
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.150-157
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    • 1997
  • Uniform weld pool shape is important in determining the weld quality. And weld pool width is one of the most dominant factors of the seld pool shape. In order to control the weld pool width, the fuzzy logic controller, which is well adapted to the complicated nonlinear systems such as welding, was used in this study. The weld pool image was obtained through CCD camera, and the weld pool width was calculated by processing the image. Uaing the calculated width, welding speed, as a control input, was inferred by the fuzzy logic controller. An uniform weld pool width can be successfully obtained regardless of the disturbances in the system.

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Weld pool size estimation of GMAW using IR temperature sensor (GMA 용접공정에서 적외선 온도 센서를 이용한 용융지 크기 예측)

  • 김병만;김영선;조형석
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • 1996.10b
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    • pp.1404-1407
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    • 1996
  • A quality monitoring system in butt welding process is proposed to estimate weld pool sizes. The geometrical parameters of the weld pool such as the top bead width and the penetration depth plus half back width are utilized to prove the integrity of the weld quality. The monitoring variables used are the surface temperatures measured at three points on the top surface of the weldment. The temperature profile is assumed that it has a gaussian distribution in vertical direction of torch movement and verify this assumption through temperature analysis. A neural network estimator is designed to estimate weld pool size from temperature informations. The experimental results show that the proposed neural network estimator which used gaussian distribution as temperature information can estimate the weld pool sizes accurately than used three point temperatures as temperature information. Considering the change of gap size in butt welding, the experiment were performed on various gap size.

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A Study of the Thermal Analysis of Horizontal Fillet Joints by Considering the Bead Shape in GMA Welding (GMA 용접에서 비드형상을 고려한 수평필릿용접부의 온도해석에 관한 연구)

  • Jo, Si-Hun;Kim, Jae-Ung
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.18 no.8
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    • pp.71-78
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    • 2001
  • In GMA(Gas Metal Arc)Welding, the weld size that is a locally melted area of a workpiece is one of the most important considerations in determining the strength of a welded structure. Variations in the weld power and the welding heat flux may affect the weld pool formation and ultimately the size of the weld. Therefore, an accurate prediction of the weld size requires a precise analysis of the weld thermal cycle. In this study, a model which can estimate the weld bead geometry and a method for thermal analysis, including the model, are suggested. In order to analyze the weld bead geometry, a mathematical model was developed with transformed coordinates to apply to the horizontal fillet joints. A heat flow analysis was performed with a two dimensional finite element model that was adopted for computing the base metal melting zone. The reliability of the proposed model and the thermal analysis was evaluated through experiments, and the results showed that the proposed model was very effective for predicting the weld bead shape and good correspondence in melting zone of the base metal.

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Effects of Welding Fluxes on the GMA Overlay Welding Behavior (용접플럭스 첨가에 따른 GMA 오버레이 용접거동)

  • Kim, Nam-Hoon;Koh, Jin-Hyun;Suh, Hui-Hun;Kim, In-Ju;Kim, Jun-Ki
    • Proceedings of the KWS Conference
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    • 2010.05a
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    • pp.72-72
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    • 2010
  • 최근 오일샌드, 극지유전, 심해저자원 등 극한지 자원개발이 활발해짐에 따라 수요가 증대되고 있는 극한지용 내마식 소재는 내마식성과 함께 저온 인성이 요구된다. 철계 합금에서 관찰되는 변형유기 마르텐사이트 상변태는 입자의 충돌에 의한 충격을 흡수하고 소재의 표면을 가공경화시켜 내마식성 향상 및 저온 인성에 기여할 수 있을 것으로 기대되고 있지만 합금조성의 정교한 제어가 필요하기 때문에 오버레이 용접에 적용하기 위해서는 모재와의 희석률을 제어하는 방안이 필요하다. 용접플럭스 설계기술은 용접시 금속이행모드, 용융지 유동거동 등과 같은 용접현상 제어를 통해 오버레이 용접재료의 용접성과 용접부 희석률을 최적화할 수 있는 기술이다. 본 연구에서는 내마식 고인성 오버레이 용접재료의 개발을 위해 Fe-12Cr-1.2C 합금조성을 갖는 메탈코어드 와이어에 대하여 아크안정제로 사용되는 Ca 함유 용접플럭스 첨가가 용착부 형상 및 희석률 변화에 미치는 영향을 조사하였다.

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A study on the seam tracking in CO_2$ fillet welding by using an arc sensor (CO_2$ 용접에서 전기적인 아크신호를 이용한 수평 필릿 용접선 추적에 관한 연구)

  • 선채규;김재웅;나석주;조형석;최칠룡
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.70-78
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    • 1990
  • The harsh nature of welding environments makes welding a prime candidate for process automation. Among the variety of welding processes available, gas metal arc welding is one of the most frequently used methods, primarily because it is highly suited to a wide range of applications, and also to automation. Automatic seam tracking method is one of the most demanded techniques for automatic control of arc welding. In this study a seam tracking system has been developed by using the welding arc itself as a sensor. This paper described the principle and experimental result of the arc sensor system, as well as the development and application of the automatic CO_2$ welding for the horizontal fillet welding. A basic problem in horizontal fillet welding is the prevention of hanging bead formation such as undercut at the vertical plate and overlap at the horizontal plate. To produce the symmetric bead shape, the relationship of bead shape to welding parameters(welding velocity, weaving width, weaving speed, tip to workpiece distance) was also investigated.

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Effect of Delay Time Control on the Spatter Generation in $CO_2$ Welding ($CO_2$ 용접에서 스패터 발생에 미치는 지연시간 제어의 영향)

  • 이창한;김희진;강봉용
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.61-68
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    • 1999
  • For the last two decades, waveform control techniques have been successively developed and applied for the inverter welding machines resulting in the substantial reduction of spatter generated in CO₂ welding. One of the constituents commonly involved in those techniques is to delay the instant of current increase to some extent after the initiation of short-circuiting. Although this technique has been known to be quite effective in reducing the spatter generation through the suppression of is instantaneous short circuiting, the delay time necessary for minimum spatter has not been clearly understood. In this study, the control system for varying the delay time was constructed so that the spatter generation rates could be measured over a wide range of delay time, 0.29-2.0 msec. As a result of this study, it was demonstrated that spatter generation rate(SGR) sharply decreased at delay time of 0.6 msec and longer accompanied with the change in characteristics of short circuit mode from the instantaneous short-circuiting(ISC) dominant to normal short-circuiting(NSC) dominant. Another feature that have been found in current waveform of over 0.6msec was the creation of current pulse right after the arc reignition stage. Because of this current pulses weld pool oscillated in wave-like fashion and it looks like to play an important role in developing short circuiting between electrode and weld pool.

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A Effects of Magnetic Field For Fiber Laser Micro Welding Process Using Carbon Steel of SCP1-S (자기장 영향에 따른 냉연압연 강판의 파이버 레이저 마이크로 접합 공정)

  • Lee, C.K.;Lee, W.R.
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Technology Engineers
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.433-438
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    • 2012
  • We have studied on welding dissimilar materials of Carbon steel SCP1-S by using laser beam. In this research we have performed some experiments to know the possibility of welding dissimilar materials using laser beam and magnetic fields by adjusting the power output of 35W laser. Other conditions of the experiments were as follows : the welding speed was varied in the range 10 m/min nitrogen gas was used as shield gas, the flow value of shield gas was ranged 10 L/min. In order to ascertain of the welded surface, we have done the tensile strength testing, the hardness testing and the microscope observation. As a result, we have found that tensile strength was the highest at the condition of the welding speed of 10mm/s, the flow value of 10 L/min, the gap of two materials 0, and the use of nitrogen gas. Above testings have also showed that the tensile strength was generally satisfactory since the penetration of welding was almost complete due to the thinness of the materials. In addition, the formation of the welded area was excellent when it had the highest tensile strength.