• Title/Summary/Keyword: 용융지

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Laser Micro-Welding Process in which Magnetic Fields are Applied (자기장을 이용한 레이저 마이크로 접합 공정)

  • Lee, Woo-Ram;Lee, Chul-Ku;Kim, Joo-Han
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.35 no.12
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    • pp.1655-1662
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    • 2011
  • We have conducted a study on stainless steel laser-welding materials by using a laser beam for the evaluation. Stainless steel used in a rust and excellent thermal deformation has a variety of application. In this study, to improve the mechanical properties of stainless steel, a 50 W laser thermal source is used and magnetic fields are applied, on the basis of suggestions. The mechanical properties and performance are evaluated by performing a numerical analysis, tensile test, and shape, microstructure, and hardness test. The results show that the mechanical properties of improve increased speed the melting pool, tensile strength of 16 kPa rise, run into the melting zone and hardness 7 Hv.

Control of Molten Pool by Physical Force of Bead Former in TIG Welding of Overhead and Inclined-up Position (위보기 및 경사상진자세의 TIG 용접에서 비드 성형기의 물리적 힘에 의한 용융지 제어)

  • Ham, Hyo-Sik;Ha, Jong-Moon;Lee, Byung-Woo;Cho, Sang-Myung
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.28 no.6
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    • pp.21-27
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    • 2010
  • Due to excellent weld quality, orbital welding with TIG is widely applied to pipe welding. But concave back bead is formed easily in overhead and inclined-up position of butt orbital welding. It is difficult to find a paper to overcome this problem. In this study, in order to make convex back bead in overhead and inclined-up position of pipe 5G welding, control method of molten pool was actively investigated. Melt run welds were conducted on thickness 4.0mm SS400 with overhead and inclined-up position and was observed the variation of bead shape after welding with the bead former developed. The height of back bead showed the trend of increase as the distance from molten pool to the bead former was decreased. Also, there is no trend in the bead width of front and back as welding position was changed or the distance from molten pool to the bead former was decreased.

Characteristics of EGW Welding Consumables for EH47-TM Steels (선급 EH47-TM용 EGW 용접재료의 특성)

  • An, Young-Ho;Han, Il-Wook
    • Proceedings of the KWS Conference
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    • pp.69-69
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    • 2010
  • 최근 컨테이너 선박의 초대형화로 극후물 고장력 강재인 항복응력 460MPa급 고장력강인 EH47이 개발되었다. 두께 80mm의 극후물 용접에서 용접생산성 향상을 위하여 EGW/FCAW로 양면 용접이 검토되고, 입열량은 최대 300kJ/cm의 대입열 용접이 요구된다. 이를 위해서는 강재 및 용접재료 모두 300kJ/cm 용접부 성능이 선급 규격을 만족하여야 함은 물론 마지막 조립단계에서 적용되기 때문에 용접재료의 용접작업성도 매우 크게 요구되고 있다. 먼저 대입열 용접금속에서 요구되는 저온 충격인성($vE_{-20^{\circ}C}{\geq}57J$)을 만족하기 위하여는 용접금속의 미세조직 제어가 필요하며, 특히 조대한 입계페라이트 생성을 억제하고 미세한 입내 페라이트를 균일 분포하는 것이 중요하지만, 이를 위해 용접금속의 소입성이 지나치게 높이면 경화조직인 베이나이트 분율이 증가하여 오히려 용접금속 저온 충격인성을 저하시키므로, 적절한 용접금속의 성분 제어가 중요하다. 한편 용접부는 선급에서 요구하는 최소 강도인 570MPa를 만족하기 위하여 용접금속의 소성구속 현상을 활용하여 용접부 인장강도를 확보 할 수 있음을 확인했다. 이를 위해서는 용접금속의 적정한 경화도 확보가 필요하였다. 전술한 바와 같이 대입열 용접금속 저온 충격인성 확보와 용접부 강도 측면을 고려하여 용접금속 최적의 탄소당량 범위를 제시코자 하였다. 한편 용접재료의 용접작업성은 EGW용접의 용적이행 현상은 자유비행이행으로 이루어지고 있으며 특성상 용접중 용적과 용융지 사이에 많은 순간단락 현상을 동반하고 있으며, 슬래그 유동이 불안정하면 아크 꺼짐 현상도 관찰되고 있다. 따라서, 현장용접시 원할한 용접작업성을 확보할 수 있는 평가 기준으로써 아크 전류 및 전압의 변동 정도를 설정하고, 용접재료의 용접작업성 확보 기준을 제시코자 하였다.

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Behavior of Weld Pool Shape and Weld Surface Deformation as a Function of Spot-GTA Welding Position for 304 Stainless Steel (Spot-GTA 용접자세에 따른 304 스테인리스강 용융지 표면 및 용접부 형상 거동)

  • Kang, Nam-Hyun;Park, Yeong-Do;Cho, Kyung-Mox;Singh, Jogender;Kulkarni, Anil
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.26 no.2
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    • pp.62-68
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    • 2008
  • Effects of gravitational orientation on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) for 304 stainless steel were studied to determine the critical factors for weld pool formation, such as weld surface deformation and weld pool shape. This study was accomplished through an analytical study of weld pool stability as a function of primary welding parameters (arc current and arc holding time), material properties (surface tension and density), and melting efficiency (cross-sectional area). The stability of weld pool shape and weld surface deformation was confirmed experimentally by changing the welding position. The arc current and translational velocity were the major factors in determining the weld pool stability as a function of the gravitational orientation. A 200A spot GTAW showed a significant variation of the weld pool formation as the arc held longer than 3 seconds, however the weld pool shape and surface morphology for a 165A spot GTAW were 'stable', i.e., constant regardless of the gravitational orientation. The cross-sectional area of the weld (CSA) was one of the critical factors in determining the weld pool stability. The measured CSA ($13.5mm^2$) for the 200A spot GTAW showed a good agreement with the calculated CSA ($14.9mm^2$).

Neuro-Fuzzy Contro of Weld Pool Size in Arc Welding Robot System (1st Report : Fuzzy Control of Weld Pool Size) (아크용접 로보트시스템에서 용융지크기의 뉴로-퍼지 제어)

  • Jeon, Euy-Sik
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Manufacturing Technology Engineers
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.89-95
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    • 1997
  • Welding technique is widely applied to general industry such as pressure vessel for chemical plant, pipe system, heavy industry, and automobile. There are some points which must be considered when robot system is used in welding automation process for productivity improvement. Welding quality is governed by heat input, and this quantity can be different according to shape, property, and thick of material . For desired heat input , weld input parameters such as welding voltage, current, and welding velocity must be determined with those consideration. Until now these parameters have been determined mainly by experience of operator. In this study, the size of welding zone was predicted by fuzzy rules were constructed from the relation between welding variables and weld pool size. Inverse model method which welding control input for welder is determined with optimum voltage and current by fuzzy controller is validatied by computer simulation.

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Effect of shield gas on weld quality in narrow gap TIG welding of alloy 617 (Alloy 617 내로갭 TIG용접에서 실드가스가 용접품질에 미치는 영향)

  • Ham, Hyo-Sik;Kim, Nam-Gyu;Kim, Beom-Jun;Kim, Mun-Gi;Bae, Dong-Ho;Cho, Sang-Myung
    • Proceedings of the KWS Conference
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    • pp.66-66
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    • 2010
  • 국내 화력발전의 $CO_2$배출량을 크게 줄이고, 친환경, 그린 화력발전시스템을 위한 가장 효과적인 수단은 발전효율을 획기적으로 증대시키는 것이기 때문에 이를 목표로 한 기술개발은 경제적으로나 산업적으로 파급효과가 매우 크다. 발전효율 증대를 위한 핵심기술은 증기터빈의 성능향상이다. 현재 일본, 미국, EU 등 각국이 가장 관심을 가지고 기술개발에 심혈을 쏟고 있는 초내열, 내식 합금소재는 $700^{\circ}C$이상에서 기계적 성능을 보장할 수 있는 Ni기 합금개발이고, 현재까지 상당한 기술수준에 이르고 있는 것으로 파악되고 있다. 국내의 경우는 관련기술개발을 위해 연구가 진행되고 있으나, 기술적으로 아직 미흡한 수준이다. Ni기 초내열, 내식합금을 개발해서 그것을 화력발전용 증기터빈 부품, 특히 초내열합금 용접형 터빈로터 소재로 이용하기 위해서는 체계적이고 실용적인 연구를 통하여 용접형로타의 내구성과 신뢰성이 보장되는 최적 수준의 접합기술 개발이 선행되어야 한다. 따라서 본 연구는 선행연구로 $700^{\circ}C$이상 초내열/내식 Ni기 합금소재의 용접기술 개발을 위한 후보 소재 Alloy 617의 동종재료 용접 기술 개발을 목표로 한다. 본 연구는 Alloy617 12.6t 맞대기 이음으로 U그루브 내로갭 TIG용접을 하였다. 1pass 1layer 방식으로 총 8pass 8layer로 용접하였다. 전류 및 용접속도는 동일하게 두고 실드가스를 Ar 또는 Ar-$H_2$ 가스로 변경하여 시험하였다. Ar가스 TIG용접은 비드표면에 산화스케일이 생기고, 비드면이 거칠며 전체적으로 산화되었다. 반면에 Ar-$H_2$가스 TIG용접은 비드표면에 산화스케일이 없으며 표면이 미려하고 산화되지 않았다. 실드가스에 수소가스 첨가시 환원성가스로 역할을 하게 되고 이에 따라 용융지 표면에 산화피막을 제거하여 용접비드를 청정하게 하는 효과를 가진다.

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Effect of aerodynamic drag force on liquid metal convection in GTA welding (GTA 용접시 발생하는 용융금속의 유동에 미치는 공기역학적 향력의 영향)

  • 나석주;김성도
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.575-583
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    • 1991
  • The weld pool convection problem that occurs during the stationary GTA welding has been studied, considering the four driving forces for weld pool convection, i.e., the electromagnetic force, the buoyancy force, the aerodynamic drag force, and the surface tension force at the weld pool surface. In the numerical simulation, the difficulties associated with the irregular moving liquid-solid interface have been successfully overcome by adopting a Boundary-Fitted Coordinate system. In the experiments to show the validity of the numerical analysis, a deep periphery and shallow centerpentrated weld pool shape was observed from the etched specimen. It could be revealed that this type of weld pool shape could be simulated, only when some of aerodynamic drag force distributions are considered. Although slight disagreement arose, the calculated and the observed weld pool shapes were in a reasonable agreement.

A Study of material analysis and its experimentation of metamorphosis and its utilities in Copper Alloy plates for contemporary metal craft (현대금속공예용 동합금판의 재료분석과 형질변환 실험 및 응용에 관한 연구)

  • Lim, Ock-Soo
    • Archives of design research
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.241-250
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    • 2004
  • In this research, the copper alloy plates C2200, C5210, C7701, C8113 were selected to make datum and to identify further usage of metal craft experimentation. For its experimentation, the general welding and TIG welding methods were researched; for 2nd experimentation, the Reticulation and Electroforming skill's differences in color and temperature were researched. With these methods 3 different kinds of works are introduced for sample studies. For this research, Dr. Lee, Dong-Woo who works in Poongsan Metal Co, supported 4 kinds of copper alloy metals. Which are Commercial bronze (Cu-Zn), Deoxidiged Copper(Cu-Sn-P), Nickel Silver (Cu-Ni-Zn), and White Bronze (Cu-Ni); they were applied partly and wholly by the method of Laminatin, Reticulation, Fusing, and Electroforming skills. In case of C2200, the brass, the A. C. TIG welding method is better under 2mm slight plate; the D.C. TIG welding is better upper 2mm plate; and 250~300$^{\circ}C$ is recommended for remain heat treatment. In case of C5210, not having Hydrogen in high temperature return period, doesn't need Oxygen in high temperature and hardening in comparative high temperature neither, it is good for welding. It contains Sn 2-9% ad P 0.03-0.4% generally; and in accordance with the growth rate of Sn contain amount, the harden temperature boundary become broad. In case of cold moment after welding, they are recommended that higher speed TIG welding, smaller melting site and less than 200$^{\circ}C$ for pre-heating temperature. In case of C7701, the 10-20% Ni, 15-30% Zn are widely used.. If it is upper 30% Zn, it become (${\alpha}+{\beta}$) system and adhesive power rate become lower, and the productivity become lower in low temperature but the productivity become higher in high temperature. Nickel Silver's resistance of electricity is well; and the heatproof and incorrodibility is good, too. Lastly, in case of C8113, good at persistence in salty and grind; high in strength of high temperature. In case of white brass, contain 10-30% Nickel and hardened in high temperature and become single phrase. For these reason, the crystallization particles easily become large, if the resistance become higher small amount of Pb, P, S separation rate become higher.

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