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Clinical review of acute seizures among children who visited the emergency room in Masan Samsung hospital from 2004 to 2006 (최근 3년간(2004-2006년) 응급실로 내원한 소아환자 중 급성 발작으로 인한 환자들에 대한 임상적 고찰)

  • Lee, Won Deok;Yoo, Jae Wook;Lee, Ju Suk;Lee, Jun Hwa;Cho, Kyung Lae
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.420-425
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    • 2008
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to evaluate acute childhood seizures, one of the most important causes of emergency room visits, to provide appropriate medical services. Methods : We reviewed the medical records of 433 (4.6%) pediatric patients with acute seizures that visited the emergency room at Masan Samsung hospital from 2004 to 2006. Results : The male to female ratio was 1.4:1 and the mean age was $40.9{\pm}34.9$ months range. The order of geographical distribution was Masan, Changwon, Haman, and others. Fever was present in 40.6% of patients; December (14.8%) was the most frequent month for visits and generalized tonic clonic seizures (62.7%) were the most common type of seizure. The average frequency and duration of the seizure was $1.5{\pm}1.0$ and $6.7{\pm}13.2$ minutes respectively. Febrile seizures were present in 69.7% of patients and afebrile seizures in 30.3%. The causes of the febrile seizures were acute pharyngotonsillitis (44.6%), acute bronchitis, gastroenteritis, pneumonia, urinary tract infection, and unknown origin, in order of frequency. The most common cause of an afebrile seizure was epilepsy (71.5%) followed by a benign convulsion with mild gastroenteritis (BCwMG), sequela of a perinatal brain injury or brain malformation, and acute CNS infection. Evaluation of the causes of an acute seizure according to age showed that febrile seizures, epilepsy, and the sequela of perinatal brain injuries were more common between 2 and 6 years of age and epilepsy, febrile seizures and acute CNS infection, in order of frequency, were common between 6 and 15 years of age. Many patients, 49.4%, were discharged without admission. Conclusion : The common characteristics of pediatric patients presenting to the emergency room were male gender, an age between 2-6 years, presenting during the month of December, with generalized tonic clonic seizures due to acute pharyngitis. The most common presentation for the group less than 6 years of age was a febrile seizure and in the group more than 6 years of age, it was epilepsy. In many cases, the seizures stopped by the time the family presented to the emergency room.

Geology of Athabasca Oil Sands in Canada (캐나다 아사바스카 오일샌드 지질특성)

  • Kwon, Yi-Kwon
    • The Korean Journal of Petroleum Geology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2008
  • As conventional oil and gas reservoirs become depleted, interests for oil sands has rapidly increased in the last decade. Oil sands are mixture of bitumen, water, and host sediments of sand and clay. Most oil sand is unconsolidated sand that is held together by bitumen. Bitumen has hydrocarbon in situ viscosity of >10,000 centipoises (cP) at reservoir condition and has API gravity between $8-14^{\circ}$. The largest oil sand deposits are in Alberta and Saskatchewan, Canada. The reverves are approximated at 1.7 trillion barrels of initial oil-in-place and 173 billion barrels of remaining established reserves. Alberta has a number of oil sands deposits which are grouped into three oil sand development areas - the Athabasca, Cold Lake, and Peace River, with the largest current bitumen production from Athabasca. Principal oil sands deposits consist of the McMurray Fm and Wabiskaw Mbr in Athabasca area, the Gething and Bluesky formations in Peace River area, and relatively thin multi-reservoir deposits of McMurray, Clearwater, and Grand Rapid formations in Cold Lake area. The reservoir sediments were deposited in the foreland basin (Western Canada Sedimentary Basin) formed by collision between the Pacific and North America plates and the subsequent thrusting movements in the Mesozoic. The deposits are underlain by basement rocks of Paleozoic carbonates with highly variable topography. The oil sands deposits were formed during the Early Cretaceous transgression which occurred along the Cretaceous Interior Seaway in North America. The oil-sands-hosting McMurray and Wabiskaw deposits in the Athabasca area consist of the lower fluvial and the upper estuarine-offshore sediments, reflecting the broad and overall transgression. The deposits are characterized by facies heterogeneity of channelized reservoir sands and non-reservoir muds. Main reservoir bodies of the McMurray Formation are fluvial and estuarine channel-point bar complexes which are interbedded with fine-grained deposits formed in floodplain, tidal flat, and estuarine bay. The Wabiskaw deposits (basal member of the Clearwater Formation) commonly comprise sheet-shaped offshore muds and sands, but occasionally show deep-incision into the McMurray deposits, forming channelized reservoir sand bodies of oil sands. In Canada, bitumen of oil sands deposits is produced by surface mining or in-situ thermal recovery processes. Bitumen sands recovered by surface mining are changed into synthetic crude oil through extraction and upgrading processes. On the other hand, bitumen produced by in-situ thermal recovery is transported to refinery only through bitumen blending process. The in-situ thermal recovery technology is represented by Steam-Assisted Gravity Drainage and Cyclic Steam Stimulation. These technologies are based on steam injection into bitumen sand reservoirs for increase in reservoir in-situ temperature and in bitumen mobility. In oil sands reservoirs, efficiency for steam propagation is controlled mainly by reservoir geology. Accordingly, understanding of geological factors and characteristics of oil sands reservoir deposits is prerequisite for well-designed development planning and effective bitumen production. As significant geological factors and characteristics in oil sands reservoir deposits, this study suggests (1) pay of bitumen sands and connectivity, (2) bitumen content and saturation, (3) geologic structure, (4) distribution of mud baffles and plugs, (5) thickness and lateral continuity of mud interbeds, (6) distribution of water-saturated sands, (7) distribution of gas-saturated sands, (8) direction of lateral accretion of point bar, (9) distribution of diagenetic layers and nodules, and (10) texture and fabric change within reservoir sand body.

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Anthropometric Measurements and Biochemical Nutritional Status of the Older Residents (50 years and over) in Andong Area (2) (안동주변 농촌지역 50세 이상 주민의 신체계측치 및 생화학적 영양상태에 관한 연구 (2))

  • Lee, Hye-Sang;Kwun, In-Sook;Kwon, Chong-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.37 no.12
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    • pp.1599-1608
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    • 2008
  • This study aimed to assess the health status based on the anthropometric and biochemical measurements of middle-aged and elderly people living in Andong area. The subjects were 1,384 people (532 males, 852 females) aged 50 years and over (average 62.7 years). The mean anthropometric values for males and females were heights of 163.7 and 151.5 cm; weights 63.6 and 57.3 kg; body mass index (BMI) 23.6 and $24.9kg/m^2$; body fat 21.8 and 31.8%, respectively. Height and weight were lower, however, waist circumference (in female) and BMI were higher than those of the 2001 National Health and Nutrition Survey (NHNS). Obesity incidences of male and female subjects were 28.7% and 47.3% by BMI; 25.8% and 50.8% by % body fat; and 15.6% and 80.9% by waist circumference, respectively. Also, abdominal adiposity was very severe in female subjects of 50s. The mean biochemical measurements of male and female were as follows: systolic and diastolic blood pressure 136.9, 83.8 mmHg and 133.6, 82.5 mmHg; hemoglobin (Hb) 14.3 and 13.0 g/dL; hematocrit (Ht) 44.7 and 39.8%; blood albumin 4.15 and 4.04 g/dL; total-cholesterol 170.0 and 183.1 mg/dL; HDL-cholesterol 43.6 and 42.7 mg/dL; fasting blood glucose 96.7 and 93.0 mg/dL, respectively. Also, the prevalence of biochemically abnormal subjects according to each cut-off point of biochemical measurements were analyzed. The results for male and female were; hypertension 58.0% and 47.2%; iron deficient anemia 19.3% and 20.6% by Hb, 7.2% and 11.9% by Ht; hypoalbuminemia 9.8% and 11.7%; diabetes 12.0% and 10.2%; hypercholesterolemia 19.5% and 30.5%, respectively. From those results we found that hypoalbuminemia, hypertension and hypercholesterolemia were prevalent, and obesity in females of 50s, iron-deficient anemia and diabetes in males of 70 years and over were significant health problems in this area. Therefore, it seems to be necessary to examine their health status periodically and provide the appropriate health and nutrition education program, which includes low sodium intake, balanced diet, exercise and weight control, to prevent the occurrence of chronic diseases.

Clinical Outcomes of Off-pump Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (심폐바이패스 없는 관상동맥우회술의 임상성적)

  • Shin, Je-Kyoun;Kim, Jeong-Won;Jung, Jong-Pil;Park, Chang-Ryul;Park, Soon-Eun
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.41 no.1
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    • pp.34-40
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    • 2008
  • Background: Off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OPCAB) shows fewer side effects than cardiopulmonary by. pass, and other benefits include myocardial protection, pulmonary and renal protection, coagulation, inflammation, and cognitive function. We analyzed the clinical results of our cases of OPCAB. Material and Method: From May 1999 to August 2007, OPCAB was performed in 100 patients out of a total of 310 coronary artery bypass surgeries. There were 63 males and 37 females, from 29 to 82 years old, with a mean age of $62{\pm}10$ years. The preoperative diagnoses were unstable angina in 77 cases, stable angina in 16, and acute myocardial infarction in 7. The associated diseases were hypertension in 48 cases, diabetes in 42, chronic renal failure in 10, carotid artery disease in 6, and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in 5. The preoperative cardiac ejection fraction ranged from 26% to 74% (mean $56.7{\pm}11.6%$). Preoperative angiograms showed three-vessel disease in 47 cases, two-vessel disease in 25, one-vessel disease in 24, and left main disease in 23. The internal thoracic artery was harvested by the pedicled technique through a median sternotomy in 97 cases. The radial artery and greater saphenous vein were harvested in 70 and 45 cases, respectively (endoscopic harvest in 53 and 41 cases, respectively). Result: The mean number of grafts was $2.7{\pm}1.2$ per patient, with grafts sourced from the unilateral internal thoracic artery in 95 (95%) cases, the radial artery in 62, the greater saphenous vein in 39, and the bilateral internal thoracic artery in 2. Sequential anastomoses were performed in 46 cases. The anastomosed vessels were the left anterior descending artery in 97 cases, the obtuse marginal branch in 63, the diagonal branch in 53, the right coronary artery in 30, the intermediate branch in 11, the posterior descending artery in 9 and the posterior lateral branch in 3. The conversion to cardiopulmonary bypass occurred in 4 cases. Graft patency was checked before discharge by coronary angiography or multi-slice coronary CT angiography in 72 cases, with a patency rate of 92.9% (184/198). There was one case of mortality due to sepsis. Postoperative arrhythmias or myocardial in-farctions were not observed. Postoperative complications were a cerebral stroke in 1 case and wound infection in 1. The mean time of respirator care was $20{\pm}35$ hours and the mean duration of stay in the intensive care unit was $68{\pm}47$ hours. The mean amounts of blood transfusion were $4.0{\pm}2.6$ packs/patient. Conclusion: We found good clinical outcomes after OPCAB, and suggest that OPCAB could be used to expand the use of coronary artery bypass grafting.

Regulatory Mechanism of Vascular Contractility by Extracellular $\textrm{K}^{+}$: Effect on Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation and Vascular Smooth Muscle Contractility (세포 외 $\textrm{K}^{+}$의한 혈관 수축신 조절 기전: 혈관평활근 수축성과 내피세포 의존성 이완에 미치는 영향)

  • 유지영;설근희;서석효;안재호
    • The Korean Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.210-219
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    • 2004
  • Extracellular $K^{+}$ concentration ([ $K^{+}$]$_{0}$ ) can be increased within several mM by the efflux of intracellular $K^{+}$. To investigate the effect of an increase in [ $K^{+}$]$_{0}$ on vascular contractility, we attempted to examine whether extracellular $K^{+}$ might modulate vascular contractility, endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR) and intracellular $Ca^2$$^{+}$ concentration ([C $a^2$$^{+}$]$_{i}$ ) in endothelial cells (EC). We observed isometric contractions in rabbit carotid, superior mesenteric, basilar arteries and movse aorta. [C $a^2$$^{+}$]$_{i}$ was recorded by microfluorimeter using Fura-2/AM in EC. No change in contractility was recorded by the increase in [ $K^{+}$]$_{0}$ from 6 to 12 mM in conduit artery such as rabbit carotid artery. whereas resistant vessels, such as basilar and branches of superior mesenteric arteries (SMA), were relaxed by the increase. In basilar artery, the relaxation by the increase in [ $K^{+}$]$_{0}$ to from 1 to 3 mM was bigger than that by the increase from 6 to 12 mM. In contrast, in branches of SMA, the relaxation by the increase in [ $K^{+}$]$_{0}$ to from 6 to 12 mM is bigger than that by the increase from 1 to 3 mM. $Ba^2$$^{+}$ (30 $\mu$M) did not inhibit the relaxation by the increase in [ $K^{+}$]$_{0}$ from 1 to 3 mM but did inhibit the relaxation by the increase from 6 to 12 mM. In the mouse aorta without the endothelium or treated with $N^{G}$_nitro-L-arginine (30 $\mu$M), nitric oxide synthesis blocker, the increase in [ $K^{+}$]$_{0}$ from 6 to 12 mM did not change the magnitude of contraction induced either norepinephrine or prostaglandin $F_2$$_{\alpha}$. The increase in [ $K^{+}$]$_{0}$ up to 12 mM did not induce contraction of mouse aorta but the increase more than 12 mM induced contraction. In the mouse aorta, EDR was completely inhibited on increasing [ $K^{+}$]$_{0}$ from 6 to 12 mM. In cultured mouse aorta EC, [C $a^2$$^{+}$]$_{i}$ , was increased by acetylcholine or ATP application and the increased [C $a^2$$^{+}$]$_{i}$ , was reduced by the increase in [ $K^{+}$]$_{0}$ reversibly and concentration-dependently. In human umbilical vein EC, similar effect of extracellular $K^{+}$ was observed. Ouabain, a N $a^{+}$ - $K^{+}$ pump blocker, and N $i^2$$^{+}$, a N $a^{+}$ - $Ca^2$$^{+}$ exchanger blocker, reversed the inhibitory effect of extracellular $K^{+}$. In resistant arteries, the increase in [ $K^{+}$]$_{0}$ relaxes vascular smooth muscle and the underlying mechanisms differ according to the kinds of the arteries; $Ba^2$$^{+}$-insensitive mechanism in basilar artery and $Ba^2$$^{+}$ -sensitive one in branches of SMA. It also inhibits [C $a^2$$^{+}$]$_{i}$ , increase in EC and thereby EDR. The initial mechanism of the inhibition may be due to the activation of N $a^{+}$ - $K^{+}$pump. activation of N $a^{+}$ - $K^{+}$pump.p.p.p.

Clinical Features of Acute Nonspecific Mesenteric Lymphadenitis and Factors for Differential Diagnosis with Acute Appendicitis (급성 비특이성 장간막 림프절염의 임상 소견과 급성 충수돌기염과의 감별 인자)

  • Shin, Kyung Hwa;Kim, Gab Cheol;Lee, Jung Kwon;Lee, Young Hwan;Kam, Sin;Hwang, Jin Bok
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.31-39
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: Although acute nonspecific mesenteric lymphadenitis (ANML) is probably common cause of abdominal pain in children, which can be severe enough to be an abdominal emergency, the clinical features of mesenteric lymphadenitis are not clear. Also, a differential diagnosis with acute appendicitis (APPE) is indispensable to avoid serious complications. The clinical features of ANML were determined, and the risk factors for differential diagnosis with APPE were analyzed. Methods: Between November 2000 and May 2001, data from 26 patients (aged 1 to 11 years) with ANML and 21 patients (aged 2 to 13 years) with APPE were reviewed. ANML was defined as a cluster of five or more lymph nodes measuring 10 mm or greater in their longitudinal diameter in the right lower quadrant (RLQ) without an identifiable specific inflammatory process on the ultrasonographic examination. There were risk factors on patient's history, physical examination, and laboratory examination; the location of abdominal pain, abdominal rigidity, rebound tenderness, fever, nocturnal pain, the vomiting intensity, the diarrhea intensity, the symptom duration, and the peripheral blood leukocytes count. Results: Of the 26 ANML patients and 21 APPE patients, abdominal pain was noted on periumbilical (76.9% vs 14.2%), on RLQ (11.5% vs 71.4%), with abdomen rigidity (7.6% vs 80.9%), with rebound tenderness (0.0% vs 76.1%)(p<0.05), in the lower abdomen (11.5% vs 14.2%), and at night (80.8% vs 100.0%) (p>0.05). The clinical symptoms were vomiting (38.4% vs 90.4%), the vomiting intensity ($1.5{\pm}0.7$ [1~3]/day vs $4.5{\pm}2.9$ [1~10]/day), diarrhea (65.3% vs 28.5%) (p<0.05), and fever (61.5% vs 76.2%)(p>0.05). The period to the subsidence of abdominal pain in the ANMA patients was $2.5{\pm}0.5$ (2~3) days. The laboratory data showed a significant difference in the peripheral blood leukocytes count ($8,403{\pm}1,737[5,900{\sim}12,300]/mm^3\;vs\;15,471{\pm}3,749[5,400{\sim}20,800]/mm^3$)(p<0.05). Discriminant analysis between ANML and APPE showed that the independent discriminant factors were a vomiting intensity and the peripheral blood leukocytes count and the discriminant power was 95.7%. Conclusion: The clinical characteristics of ANML were abrupt onset of periumbilical pain without rigidity or rebound tenderness, a mild vomiting intensity, normal peripheral leukocytes count, and relatively short clinical course. If the abdominal pain persist for more than 3 days, and/or the vomiting intensity is more than 3 times/day, and/or the peripheral leukocytes count is over $13,500/mm^3$, abdominal ultrasonography is recommended to rule out APPE.

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The Radioprotective Effect and Mechanism of Captopril on Radiation Induced-Heart Damage in Rats (방사선 조사 후 발생한 흰쥐 심장손상에서 Captopril의 방어역할과 기전)

  • Chang Seung-Hee;Lee Kyung-Ja;Koo Heasoo
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.40-54
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    • 2004
  • Purpose : Captopril (angiotension converting enzyme inhibitor) is known to have a radioproptective effect in the lungs, intestines and skin, but its effect in the heart is unclear. To investigate the radioprotectlve efiect and mechanism of captopril on the heart, the histopathological changes and immunohistochemical stains were compared with radiation alone, and radiation combined with captopril, in the rats. Materials and Methods : The histopathological changes and immunohistochemical stains ($TNF{\alpha}$, $TGF{\beta}1$, PDGF and FGF2) were examined in the radiation alone and the combined captopril and radiation groups, 2 and 8 weeks after irradiation. Each group consisted of 8 to 10 rats (Sprague-Dawley). Irradiation (12.5 Gy) was given to the left hemithorax in a single fraction. Captopril (50 mg/Kg/d) mixed with water, was given orally and continuously from the first week prior to, up to the 8th week of the experiment. Results : In the radiation alone group, the ventricle at 2 weeks after irradiation showed prominent edema (p=0.082) and fibrin deposit (p=0.018) compared to the control group. At 8 weeks, the edema was decreased and fibrosis increased compared to those at 2 weeks. The histopathological changes of the combined group were similar to those of the control group, due to the reduced radiation toxicity at 2 and 8 weeks. The endocardial fibrin deposit (p=0.047) in the atrium, and the interstitial fibrin deposit (p=0.019) and edema (p=0.042) of the ventricle were reduced significantly in the combined group compared to those in the radiation alone group at 2 weeks. The expressions of $TNF-{\alpha}$, $TGF-{\beta}1$, PDGF and FGF-2 in the radiation alone group were more increased than in the control group, especially in the pericardium and endocardium of the atrium at 2 weeks. At 8 weeks, the pericardial $TNF-{\alpha}$ and $TGF-{\beta}1$ in the radiation alone group continuously increased. The expressions of $TNF-{\alpha}$, $TGF-{\beta}1$ and PDGF were decreased in the combined group at 2 weeks. At 8 weeks, the expressions of $TNF-{\alpha}$ in the atrial and ventricular pericardia were markedly reduced (p=0.049, p=0.009). Conclusion : This study revealed that the early heart damage induced by radiation can be reduced by the addition of captopril in a rat model. The expressions of $TNF-{\alpha}$, $TGF-{\beta}1$ and PDGF were further decreased in the combined compared to the radiation alone group at both 2 and 8 weeks. From these results, it may be concluded that these cytokines probably play roles in the radioprotective mechanism of captopril from the radiation-induced heart toxicity, similarly to in other organs.

Effects of Sodding and Seeding Time and Rate of Seed Mixture on the Establishment of Cool-Season Turfgrasses (한지형 잔디의 조성시기, 초종 혼합 비율이 잔디 피복에 미치는 영향)

  • Shim Gyu Yul;Kim Chang Soo;Lee Seong Ho;Joo Young Kyoo
    • Asian Journal of Turfgrass Science
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.179-191
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    • 2004
  • This study was conducted to find out the effect of sodding and seeding time and rate of seed mixtures on the establishment of cool-season turfgrasses by evaluating the turf coverage rates for two years. In fall planting, the required establishment period of full coverage($100\%$) was 1.5 months with a rolled turf sodding(Kentucky bluegrass $100\%$, Kentucky bluegrass $80\%$+perennial ryegrass $20\%$). The $100\%$ turf establishment was achieved in 7 months with Perennial ryegrass $100\%$, and 7.5 months by seeding with Kentucky bluegrass $100\%$(KB 100), Kentucky bluegrass $80\%$+perennial ryegrass $20\%$(KB80+PR20), Kentucky bluegrass $70\%$+perennial ryegrass $30\%$(KB70+PR30). In spring planting, the establishment periods far sod with KB 100 or KB80+PR20 were taken one month. However, in the case of seeding, the establishment periods were 3 months, 3.5 months, 3.5 months and 4 months with PR100, KB80+PR20, KB70+PR30, and KB 100, respectively Comparing the turf establishment vigor between fall and spring planting, the vigor was higher In spring planting than in fall planting in both sodding and . seeding. In the case of spring planting, the most proper time for turf establishment was tested on April, May, and June trials. The effect was significant in establishment vigor. The result showed highest on April planting. On May and June trials, establishment vigors were decreased gradually As the mixture rate of PR increased, ryegrass, establishment vigor was decreased with the rates. These results indicated that perennial ryegrass has relatively less tolerant to summer heat than Kentucky bluegrass. Number of shoots in 95 days after seeding was higher in KB100 by 16,600 per $m^2$ than in PR100 by 12,400 per $m^2$, while the lowest number showed in KB50+PR50 by 3,300 per $m^2$. Those in KB80:PR20, KB70:PR30 were 6,700 and 4,900 per $m^2$, respectively. The ratios of tillers according to mixture rates between Kentucky bluegrass and perennial ryegrass were KB80:PR20=87:13, KB70:PR30=78:22, and KB50:PR50=48:52. According to results in this study, Ideal seeding time might be spring (April) than in fall (September), and proper mixture rate was $80\%$ of Kentucky bluegrass with $20\%$ of perennial ryegrass.

Seasonal Variation of Water Quality in a Shallow Eutrophic Reservoir (얕은 부영양 저수지의 육수학적 특성-계절에 따른 수질변화)

  • Kim, Ho-Sub;Hwang, Soon-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.180-192
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to assess the seasonal variation of water quality and the effect of pollutant loading from watershed in a shallow eutrophic reservoir (Shingu reservoir) from November 2002 to February 2004, Stable thermocline which was greater than $1^{\circ}C$ per meter of the water depth formed in May, and low DO concentration (< 2 mg $O_2\;L^{-1}$) was observed in the hypolimnion from May to September, 2003. The ratio of euphotic depth to mixing depth ($Z_{eu}/Z_{m}$) ranged 0.2 ${\sim}$ 1.1, and the depth of the mixed layer exceeded that of the photic layer during study period, except for May when $Z_{eu}$ and $Z_{m}$ were 4 and 4.3 m, respectively. Most of total nitrogen, ranged 1.1 ${\sim}$ 4.5 ${\mu}g\;N\;L^{-1}$, accounted for inorganic nitrogen (Avg, 58.7%), and sharp increase of $NH_3$-N Hand $NO_3$-N was evident during the spring season. TP concentration in the water column ranged 43.9 ${\sim}$ 126.5 ${\mu}g\;P\;L^{-1}$, and the most of TP in the water column accounted for POP (Avg. 80%). During the study period, DIP concentration in the water column was &;lt 10 ${\mu}g\;P\;L^{-1}$ except for July and August when DIP concentration in the hypolimnion was 22.3 and 56.7 ${\mu}g\;P\;L^{-1}$, respectively. Increase of Chl. a concentration observed in July (99 ${\mu}g\;L^{-1}$) and November 2003 (109 ${\mu}g\;L^{-1}$) when P loading through two inflows was high, and showed close relationship with TP concentration (r = 0.55, P< 0.008, n = 22). Mean Chl. a concentration ranged from 13.5 to 84.5 mg $L^{-1}$ in the water column, and the lowest and highest concentration was observed in February 2004 (13.5 ${\pm}$ 1.0 ${\mu}g\;L^{-1}$) and November 2003 (84.5 ${\pm}$29.0 ${\mu}g\;L^{-1}$), respectively. TP concentration in inflow water increased with discharge (r = 0.69, P< 0.001), 40.5% of annual total P loading introduced in 25 July when there was heavy rainfall. Annual total P loading from watershed was 159.0 kg P $yr^{-1}$, and that of DIP loading was 126.3 kg P $yr^{-1}$ (77.7% of TP loading. The loading of TN (5.0ton yr-1) was 30 times higher than that of TP loading (159.0 kg P yr-1), and the 78% of TN was in the form of non-organic nitrogen, 3.9 ton $yr^{-1}$ in mass. P loading in Shingu reservoir was 1.6 g ${\cdot}$ $m^{-2}$ ${\cdot}$ $yr^{-1}$, which passed the excessive critical loading of Vollenweider-OECD critical loading model. The results of this study indicated that P loading from watershed was the major factor to cause eutrophication and temporal variation of water quality in Shingu reservoir Decrease by 71% in TP loading (159 kg $yr^{-1}$) is necessary for the improvement of mesotrophic level. The management of sediment where tine anaerobic condition was evident in summer, thus, the possibility of P release that can be utilized by existing algae, may also be considered.

PS-341-Induced Apoptosis is Related to JNK-Dependent Caspase 3 Activation and It is Negatively Regulated by PI3K/Akt-Mediated Inactivation of Glycogen Synthase Kinase-$3{\beta}$ in Lung Cancer Cells (폐암세포주에서 PS-341에 의한 아포프토시스에서 JNK와 GSK-$3{\beta}$의 역할 및 상호관련성)

  • Lee, Kyoung-Hee;Lee, Choon-Taek;Kim, Young Whan;Han, Sung Koo;Shim, Young-Soo;Yoo, Chul-Gyu
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.57 no.5
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    • pp.449-460
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    • 2004
  • Background : PS-341 is a novel, highly selective and potent proteasome inhibitor, which showed cytotoxicity against some tumor cells. Its anti-tumor activity has been suggested to be associated with modulation of the expression of apoptosis-associated proteins, such as p53, $p21^{WAF/CIP1}$, $p27^{KIP1}$, NF-${\kappa}B$, Bax and Bcl-2. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) and glycogen synthase kinase-$3{\beta}$ (GSK-$3{\beta}$) are important modulators of apoptosis. However, their role in PS-341-induced apoptosis is unclear. This study was undertaken to elucidate the role of JNK and GSK-$3{\beta}$ in the PS-341-induced apoptosis in lung cancer cells. Method : NCI-H157 and A549 cells were used in the experiments. The cell viability was assayed using the MTT assay and apoptosis was evaluated by proteolysis of PARP. The JNK activity was measured by an in vitro immuno complex kinase assay and by phosphorylation of endogenous c-Jun. The protein expression was evaluated by Western blot analysis. Dominant negative JNK1 (DN-JNK1) and GSK-$3{\beta}$ were overexpressed using plasmid and adenovirus vectors, respectively. Result : PS-341 reduced the cell viability via apoptosis, activated JNK and increased the c-Jun expression. Blocking of the JNK activation by overexpression of DN-JNK1, or pretreatment with SP600125, suppressed the apoptosis induced by PS-341. The activation of caspase 3 was mediated by JNK activation. Blocking of the caspase 3 activation suppressed PS-341-induced apoptosis. PS-341 activated the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt pathway, but its blockade enhanced the PS-341-induced cell death via apoptosis. GSK-$3{\beta}$ was inactivated by PS-341 via the PI3K/Akt pathway. Overexpression of constitutively active GSK-$3{\beta}$ enhanced PS-341-induced apoptosis; in contrast, this was suppressed by dominant negative GSK-$3{\beta}$ (DN-GSK-$3{\beta}$). Inactivation of GSK-$3{\beta}$ by pretreatment with lithium chloride or the overexpression of DN-GSK-$3{\beta}$ suppressed both the JNK activation and c-Jun up-regulation induced by PS-341. Conclusion : The JNK/caspase pathway is involved in PS-341-induced apoptosis, which is negatively regulated by the PI3K/Akt-mediated inactivation of GSK-$3{\beta}$ in lung cancer cells.