• Title, Summary, Keyword: 응력비

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A Numerical Study on the Variation of Initial Stress Ratio by Erosion of Transversely Isotropic Rock Mass (횡등방성 암반의 침식에 따른 초기응력비 변화의 수치해석 연구)

  • 최미진;김원범;양형식
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.339-344
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    • 2004
  • Variation of horizontal to vertical stress ratio of transversely isotropic rock caused by erosion was studied by numerical analysis. Influence of transversely isotropic was less than 5% for isotropic case. Difference between stresses obtained by numerical analysis and theoretical solution was small when initial stress ratio was small and the difference increased as erosion depth increased. Stress ratios diverged from initial ones as depth increased. An equation to determine stress ratio considering erosion according to the analyses was suggested.

A Study on Torsional Stress ratio and Torsional ratio of Curved Girder Bridge by Transfer Matrix Method (전달행렬법에 의한 곡선거더교의 비틀림 응력비와 비틀림 정수비에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Wong-Hong;Lee, Yoon-Young
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.173-182
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    • 2006
  • In the design of curved girder bridges, the engineer is faced with a complex stress situatiorl. since these types of mutiple-I girder. mono-box girder and twin-box girder are subjected to both bending and torsional force. In general, the torsional forces consist of two part, St. venant's and warping. Thus the procedure for determining the induced stresses in a curved girder is difficult. The transfer matrix method is extensively used for the structural analysis because its merit in the theoretical background and applicability. The technique is attractive for implementation on a numerical solution by means of a computer program coded in Fortran language with a few elements. To demonstrate this fact. it gives good results which compare well with finite difference method. Therefore, in this paper, to clarify the range where the torsional warping stress can be approximated by pure torsional analyzed a critical value of relationships between the torsional stress ratio and torsional ratio.

Post-liquefaction Behavior under Monotonic Loading of a Silty Sand (실트질 모래의 액상화 후의 정적거동)

  • 강병희;박근보;강대성
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.27-36
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    • 2000
  • 보통으로 다져진(Dr=50%)실트질 모래의 액상화 후의 비배수정적거동과 이에 대한 압밀응력비의 영향에 관해서 연구하기 위하여 4가지 압밀응력비(σhc'/σVC'=1.0,0.7,0.55,K0)로서 압밀시킨 공시체를 액상화 전후상태에서 비배수 삼축시험을 수행하였다. 연구결과 액상화를 경험하지 않은 실트질 모래의 p'-q좌표상의 상전이선과 파괴선은 모두 구속압밀응력과 압밀응력비의 크기에 관계없이 각각 원점을 지나는 하나의 직선으로 나타난다. 또한 상정이전단저항은 구속응력이 클수록 증가하난 동일한 구속응력하에서는 압밀응력비와는 관계없이 거의 동일한 값을 갖는 경향을 나타낸다.

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Fatigue Crack Growth Equation considered the Effect of Stress Ratio (응력비의 영향을 고려한 표면피로균열의 균열성장식)

  • 강용구;김대석
    • Journal of Ocean Engineering and Technology
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.39-49
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    • 1998
  • In this work, fatigue tests by axial loading were carried out to investigate the effect of stress ratio on the growth behaviors of surface fatigue crack for SM45C steel and Al 2024-T4 alloy. The growth behaviors of surface crack have been monitored during fatigue process by measuring system attached CCTV and monitor. When the growth rates of surface crack were investigate by the concept of LEFM based on Newman-Raju's .DELTA.K, the dependence of stress ratio appears both SM45C steel and Al 2024-T4 alloy. Therefore, modified stress intensity factor range, .DELTA.K' [=(1+R)/sup n/.DELTA.K] are intorduced to eliminate the dependence of stress ratio. Using .DELTA.K', it is found that the dependence of stress ratio disappears both SM45C steel and Al 2024-T4 alloy.

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Horizontal Stress Based on the Calculation of Lateral Stress Ratio in Unsymmetrical Space (비대칭 공간의 수평응력비 산정에 따른 수평응력에 관한 연구)

  • Moon Chang-Yeul;Lee Soo-Ki;Kwon Seung-Joon
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.20 no.9
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    • pp.177-189
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    • 2004
  • The backfilled space carl have various shapes such as vertical or lateral symmetric, unsymmetric slope depending on field conditions. Kellogg (1993) suggested the different equations for the backfill earth pressure and the lateral stress ratio considering that the stresses are different between the symmetrically sloped backfilled space and the vertical one. Kellogg (1993) assumed the stress generated on sloped wall surface as the simple internal friction angle of backfilled soil. However, Moon (1997) suggested modified Kellogg equation assuming that stress behavior in the sloped wall will be varied according to the rotation angle of principal stress and the friction of sloped wall surface. This study has compared and investigated the horizontal stresss of unsymmetrical backfilled space numerically and experimentally obtained when Kellogg lateral stress ratio is appled to and when average lateral stress ratio considering unsymmetric backfill slop of left and right are applied to the modified Kellogg equation. It is shown that the horizontal stress on the sloped wall has good match numerically and experimentally in the modified Kellogg equation when Kellogg's lateral stress ratio in symmetric condition is applied to the unsymmetric condition. But the horizontal stress on the vertical wall shows disagreement numerically and experimentally. The horizontal stress results in good agreement numerically and experimentally when the average lateral stress ratio of left and right at unsymmetric slop as applied to the modified Kellogg equation. Therefore, it is estimated that the application of the average lateral stress ratio to the left and right wall should be considered when backfilled space formed unsymmetric conditions.

Stress Concentration Ratio of GCP Depending on the Mixing Ratio of Crushed Stone and Sand (GCP의 쇄석과 모래의 배합비 별 응력분담비)

  • Na, Seung-Ju;Kim, Min-Seok;Park, Kyung-Ho;Kim, Daehyeon
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.32 no.9
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    • pp.37-50
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    • 2016
  • Gravel compaction pile (GCP) is widely used as it increases the bearing capacity of soft ground and reduces the consolidation settlement. Stress concentration ratio for GCP design is dependent on the area replacement, surcharge pressure and depth. However, a range of stress concentration ratio obtained through field, laboratory experiments and numerical analysis is large. Little study has been done on the stress concentration ratio for the mixing ratio of gravel and sand. The main objective of the study is to evaluate the stress concentration ratio for both area replacement ratio and mixing ratio through literature review and numerical analysis. Numerical analysis using the finite element program ABAQUS 6.12-4 has been performed for the composite ground with GCP. The excess pore water pressure and stress concentration ratio of composite ground have been analyzed for both the area replacement ratio and the mixing ratio. Based on the previous research results, a range of stress concentration ratio obtained from the field tests, laboratory tests, numerical analysis on the GCP studies is found to be 1.7-3.2, 2.0-7.5 and 2.0-6.5, respectively. Based on the numerical analysis results, as the area replacement ratio increases, the stress concentration ratio increases up to 30% and then decreases at 40%. Also, the stress concentration ratio tends to increase up to 70:30 and then to decrease after 60:40.

The Stress -Strain Behavior of Sand in Torsion Shear Tests (비틀림전단시험에 의한 모래의 응력 -변형률 거동)

  • 남정만;홍원표
    • Geotechnical Engineering
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.65-82
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    • 1993
  • A series of torsion shear tests were performed to study the drained stress -strain behavior of medium dense Santa Monica Beach sand under various stress paths. The torque was applied to both clockwise and counterclockwise directions at the end of hollow cylinder specimen. Two clip gages had been previously used to measure the changes in wall thickness and diameter of the specimen. In this study, however, the lateral strain was determined by measuring volume changes in specimen. Specimens were prepared by the air pluviation method and gaseous carbon deozide( CO2) was used to measure precisely volumetric strain in specimen. The drained stress -strain behavior of cohesionless Boils during rotation of principal stress directions was analysed based on the results of torsion shear tests. The coupling of mal stress were applied. It was also found from the test results that the atrial strain at failure decreased with increasing value.

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Effect of Low Temperature and Single Overload on Fatigue Crack Growth Behavior of Cr-Mo Steel Weldments (Cr-Mo강 용접부의 피로균열 성장거동에 미치는 저온도와 단일과대하중의 영향)

  • Lim, Jae Kyoo
    • Journal of Welding and Joining
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.79-89
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    • 1996
  • 일정진폭하중과 과대하중비 2.5의 단일 인장과대하중에 의한 4140강 용접부 의 피로균열성장거동을 실온과 -45.deg.C의 저온에서 피로시험과 파면관찰을 통하여 고찰하였다. 이때, 용접부 미시조직의 영향을 평가하기 위해 모재(parent metal), 열영향부(as-welded HAZ), 열처리된 열영향부(PWHT HAZ)로 나누어 응력비 0과 0.5로 CT시험편을 이용하여 피로시험을 실시하였다. 피로균열성장거동은 재료의 미시조직과 온도변화보다는 응력비에 크게 영향을 받았으며, 단일 과대하중에 의한 피로균열성장 지연효과가 모든 재료에서 상당히 크게 나타났다. 전자현미경에 의한 피로파면 관찰 결과, 실온에서는 연성의 스트라이에이숀과 -45.deg.C에서는 의벽개파면과 같은 피로 균열성장거동을 나타내고 있다.

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Numerical Analysis of Stress Regimes in and around Inactive and Active Fault Zones (비활성 그리고 활성 단층지역 내부와 주변에서의 응력장에 대한 수치적 분석)

  • Jeong, Woo-Chang;Song, Jai-Woo
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Hazard Mitigation
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.117-125
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    • 2001
  • This paper presented the analysis of stress regimes in and around inactive and active fault zones. The stress regime in the vicinity of an existing inactive fault zone is dependent on the orientation of the fault with respect to the current stress field and the contrast between the elastic properties of the faulted rock and those of the surrounding rock. In the analysis of stress regimes around an active fault zone, if the yielding stress is exceeded during loading, the localized shearing in a fault zone will result in weakness with mean stresses in the fault becoming lower than those in the surrounding rock. It can be expected that such stress gradients will induce fluid flow towards the faults zone.

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Stability Estimation of the Pillar between Twin Tunnels Considering Various Site Conditions (다양한 현장조건을 고려한 병설터널 필라의 안정성평가)

  • Kim, Ju-Hwan;Kim, Jong-Woo
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.109-119
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    • 2017
  • A lot of twin tunnels were modelled with different pillar widths, rock mass classes and stress ratios in order to consider various site conditions, and the stabilities of the pillars were estimated by numerical analyses and scaled model tests. The strength-stress ratios of the pillar were obtained from three different methods which were using the stresses appeared at the middle point, the whole average and the left/right edges of the pillar. The strength-stress ratio of the pillar edges showed relatively conservative values among them, and it was also practically consistent with the tunnel excavating steps comprising the construction sequence analyses which included the partial excavation and the support system. Scaled model tests were also performed to investigate the tunnel stability, where it was found that cracks were progressively generated from the pillar edges toward the middle point of the pillar. Therefore, in order to both prevent the local damage of pillar and conservatively estimate the tunnel stability, it was thought to be an appropriate method using the strength-stress ratio obtained from the left/right edges of the pillar.