• Title, Summary, Keyword: 인공절리

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The Effect of Cement Milk Grouting on the Deformation Behavior of Artifcial Rock Joints (시멘트현탁액 주입에 의한 신선한 암석절리의 역학적 특성 변화)

  • 김태혁;이정인
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.180-195
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    • 2000
  • Grouting has been practiced as a reliable technique to improve the mechanical properties of rock mass. But, the study of ground improvement by greeting is rare especially in jointed rock mass. In this study, joint compression test and direct shear test were performed on pure rock joint and cement milk grouted rock joint to examine the grouting effect on the property of rock joint. In the pure rock joint compression test, joint closure varied non-linearly with normal stress. But after cement milk grouting, the normal deformation characteristics of the joint was linear at the low normal stress level. As normal stress increased. deformation of the sample rapidly increased due to the stress concentration at the joint asperities. Peak shear strength of the grouted joint in low normal stress was higher than that of non-grouted joint due to the cohesion, decreased exponetially as the grout thickness increased. Thus after cement milk grouting, the failure envelope modified to a curve that has cohesion due to grout material hydration with decreased friction angle. Shear stiffness and peak dilation angle of the grouted joint decreased as the grout thickness increased. The peak shear strength from the direct shear test on grouted rock joint was represented by an empirical equation as a fuction of grout thickness and roughness mean amplitude.

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Dynamic Frictional Behavior of Artificial Rough Rock Joints under Dynamic Loading (진동하중 하에서 거친 암석 절리면의 동력 마찰거동)

  • Jeon Seok-Won;Park Byung-Ki
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.166-178
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    • 2006
  • Recently, the frequency of occurring dynamic events such as earthquakes, explosives blasting and other types of vibration has been increasing. Besides, the chances of exposure for rock discontinuities to free faces get higher as the scale of rock mass structures become larger. For that reason, the frictional behavior of rock joints under dynamic conditions needs to be investigated. In this study, artificially fractured rock joint specimens were prepared in order to examine the dynamic frictional behavior of rough rock joint. Roughness of each specimen was characterized by measuring surface topography using a laser profilometer and a series of shaking table tests was carried out. For mated joints, the static friction angle back-calculated ken the yield acceleration was $2.7^{\circ}$ lower than the tilt angle on average. The averaged dynamic friction angle for unmated joints was $1.8^{\circ}$ lower than the tilt angle. Displacement patterns of sliding block were classified into 4 types and proved to be related to the first order asperity of rock joint. The tilt angle and the static friction angle for mated joints seem to be correlated to micro average inclination angle which represents the second order asperity. The tilt angle and the dynamic friction angle for unmated Joints, however, have no correlation with roughness parameters. Friction angles obtained by shaking table test were lower than those by direct shear test.

An Experimental Study for the Hydraulic Behavior of Artificial Rock Joint under Compression and Shear Loading (압축과 전단 하중을 받는 인공 암석 절리의 수리적 거동에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 이희석;박연주;유광호;이희근
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.45-58
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    • 2000
  • Cyclic shear test system, which is capable of measuring flow rate inside rock joint, was established to investigate the hydraulic behavior of rough rock joints under various loading conditions. Laboratory hydraulic tests during compression and shear were conducted for artificial rough rock joints. Prior to tests, aperture characteristics of specimens were examined by measuring surface topography. Permeability changes under compression were well approximated with several hydraulic model. Hydraulic behavior conformed to dilation characteristics in the first stage, and permeability increased with increase of dilation. As the shear displacement progressed, flow rate became somewhat constant due to gouge production and offset of apertures. Hydraulic behavior under cyclic shear loading was also influenced by the degradation of asperities and gouge production. In addition. the relation between hydraulic aperture and mechanical aperture under compression and shear loading was investigated and compared.

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A Experimental Study for the Mechanical Behavior of Rock Joints under Cyclic Shear Loading (주기전단 하중하의 암석 절리의 역학적 거동에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 이희석;박연준;유광호;이희근
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.350-363
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    • 1999
  • The precision cyclic shear test system was established to investigate the mechanical characteristics of rough rock joints under cyclic loading conditions. Laboratory cyclic shear tests were conducted for saw-cut joints and artificial rough rock joints using Hwangdeung granite and Yeosan marble. Surface roughness and aperture characteristics of specimens were examined by measuring surface topography using the laser profilometer. Peak shear strength, phase difference during loading and unloading, and anisotropic shear behavior were investigated throughout the cyclic shear test results. These features and their subsequent variations in each loading cycle are significantly dependent upon the second order asperities and the strength of intact rock. It was observed that degradation of asperities for rough rock joints under cyclic shear loading followed the exponential degradation laws of asperity angle and that the mechanism for asperity degradation would be different depending upon the normal stress level, roughness of joint surface and the loading stage.

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A Numerical Study on the Correlation between Joint Roughness and Hydraulic Characteristics (절리면 거칠기와 수리특성의 상관성에 관한 수치해석적 연구)

  • Lee, Seung-Joong;Kim, Byung-Ryeol;Choi, Sung-Oong
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.176-186
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    • 2014
  • Roughness, aperture and filling material of rock joint are widely considered to affect the hydraulic characteristics of joint. Among these factors, in this study, the joint roughness was examined with artificial joint profiles generated by Monte Carlo simulating on the original profiles suggested by Barton and Choubey(1977). Original profiles and revised profiles were combined to establish flow channel models, in which the hydraulic characteristics were analyzed numerically on the basis of minimum aperture changes and flow channel shapes. Maximum flow rate was identified at the growing point of flow area after passing through minimum aperture generated by the two profiles, and it was resulted that maximum flow rate is inversely proportional to minimum aperture. Maximum flow rate per unit area showed different values because flow channel shapes and minimum aperture locations are different in each model. In flow channel, mechanical aperture showed approximately 1.07 ~ 3.00 times larger than hydraulic aperture. In this study, mechanical and hydraulic aperture were concluded to be closely related to $A_i$ value, and their relations can be denoted by $e_m=0.519A^{0.7169_i}$ and $e_h=0.6182A^{0.239}_i$, respectively.

Generation of a 3D Artificial Joint Surface and Characterization of Its Roughness (삼차원 인공 절리면의 생성과 이에 대한 거칠기 특성 평가)

  • Choi, Seung-Beum;Lee, Sudeuk;Jeon, Seokwon
    • Tunnel and Underground Space
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    • v.26 no.6
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    • pp.516-523
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    • 2016
  • Roughness of a joint surface is one of the most important parameters that affects the mechanical and hydraulic behavior of rock mass. Therefore, various studies on making constitutive model and/or roughness quantification have been conducted in experimental and empirical manners. Advances in recent 3D printing technology can be utilized to generate a joint surface with a specific roughness. In this study, a reliable technique to generate a rough joint surface was introduced and its quantitative assessment was made. Random midpoint displacement method was applied to generate a joint surface and the distribution of $Z_2$ was investigated to assess its roughness. As a result, a certain roughness can be embodied by controlling input parameters and furthermore it was able to generate a joint surface with specific roughness anisotropy.

종유굴의 형태분류와 지배요인에 관한 연구

  • 박병수
    • Journal of the Speleological Society of Korea
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    • v.5 no.6
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    • pp.16-19
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    • 1980
  • 동굴을 구분하는 데는 그 기준이 다양하다. 예를 든다면 성인상으로 구분할 수 있고 형태상으로, 그리고 규모별 토질 영역별 고도별 지리적 위치별 등등으로 구분할 수 있다. 먼저 성인상으로는 석회동굴, 용암굴, 침식굴, 절리굴, 인공동굴 등으로 대별되는데 그중 침식굴은 해식동과 하식굴로 다시 세분된다.(중략)

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한국동굴의 유형 구분

  • 홍시환
    • Journal of the Speleological Society of Korea
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    • v.16 no.17
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    • pp.34-46
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    • 1988
  • 동굴은 분류하는 학자나 기준에 따라 다양하게 구분할 수 있는데 예를들면 형태성, 성인ㆍ상, 규모별, 위치별, 지질영역별, 생물생태상등으로 구분할 수 있다. 먼저 성태상으로는 석회동굴, 화산굴, 침식굴, 절리굴, 인공동굴 등으로 대별되는 그 중 침식굴은 해식굴과 하식굴로 다시 세분한다. 즉, 석회동굴은 협의로는 종유굴이라고 하는데 이른바 이차생성물인 종유석이 형성되어 있는 동굴을 가리킨다.(중략)

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Laboratory Study of the Shear Characteristics of Fault Gouges Around Mt. Gumjung, Busan (부산 금정산일대에 분포하는 단층비지의 전단특성에 관한 실험적 고찰)

  • Woo, Ik
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.113-121
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    • 2012
  • The mechanical characteristics of a fault gouge from near Mt. Kumjung in Kumjung-Gu, Busan, were estimated from laboratory tests on different joint models. Fault gouge samples and joint samples in biotite granite were obtained from boreholes in the study area that had penetrated small faults associated with the Dongnae and Yangsan faults. XRD and SEM analyses revealed that for the fault gouge consists of several clay minerals with tabular structure (kaolinite, montmorillonite, illite, sericite), which could cause the considerable reduction of shear strength when wet. The shear strength of the fault gouge was obtained from direct shear tests of the fault gouge itself and from direct shear tests of several natural/artificial joint surfaces coated with fault gouge. The results indicate that the reduction of shear strength is more abrupt for the joint surfaces coated with fault gouge compared with uncoated joint surfaces, and that the friction angle of the fault gouge between joint surfaces is much lower than the internal friction angle of the fault gouge itself. Fault gouges in contact with rock, therefore, could have a stronger negative effect on the stability of structures in rock masses than the fault gouge itself.

균열 암반 대수층 활용 지하수 인공 함양 주입 예비 평가

  • 김형수;백건하;윤윤영;한정상
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Soil and Groundwater Environment Conference
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    • pp.108-112
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    • 2004
  • 균열 암반 대수층에 대한 지하수 인공 함양 주입 가능성을 예비적으로 평가하기 위한 시험을 수행하였다. 지하수 인공 함양 주입 시험이 수행된 지역은 경기도 포천군 이동면이며, 이 지역의 지질은 중립내지 조립질 화강암에 해당된다. 시험 정호에 대한 시추공 내부 촬영 결과, 화강암 내에 부분적으로 절리들이 발달되어 있었으며, 대체로 수직적인 절리 발달이 우세하였다. 2개소에서 인공 함양 주입 시험이 100kgf/$\textrm{cm}^2$ 이상의 확장 팩커로 대상공의 상부를 밀폐한 후 시행되었다. 이중 MW-7호 공에서는, 주입 압력을 5 내지 7kg/$\textrm{cm}^2$으로 조절하여 시간당 약 450$\ell$의 평균 주입률로 시험을 수행하였으며, O-7a 호 공에서는 주입 압력을 4kgf/$\textrm{cm}^2$ 내외, 시간당 약 1,740$\ell$의 평균 주입률로 시험을 수행하였다. MW-7호 공의 시험은 3일간 3회에 걸쳐 각 450분, 200분, 414분 동안 시험이 수행되었으며, O-7a호 공에서는 연속적으로 24시간 동안 인공 함양 주입 시험이 수행되었다. 수행된 지하수 인공 함양 주입시험은 적어도 지하수 상류 구배 구간의 지하 수두를 시험이 수행된 이후에도 24시간 이상 유지하는 것으로 평가되었다. 실험을 통해 주입한 양과 주변 관측공의 수위 상승을 단순 검토한 결과 시험이 수행된 지역의 개략적 유효 공극률을 산정 할 수 있었으며, 그 결과, 이 지역 균열 암반의 유효 공극률은 약 3 내지 6% 인 것으로 평가되었다 국내에서 지하수 인공 함양 방식을 균열 암반 대수층에 활용하여, 지속적인 수자원 관리와 수도 공급을 할 수 있는지를 평가하기 위해서는 앞으로 보다 많은 시험수행과 연구를 통한 검증이 요구된다. 까마중, 냉이, 명아주, 둑새풀 등의 생장에 현저한 조해현상을 나타냈다. 이것으로 보아 억새가 타식물의 생장에 영향을 주는 요인물질은 억새의 뿌리에서 분필되는 것으로 생각된다. 옥수수의 뿌리에서 직접 분필하는 물질이나 옥수수뿌리의 분해물질들은 모두 당귀의 생장을 조해하는 경향이 있었다.기존에 제안된 경험식들에 의한 계산결과 보다 균질화 해석법의 결과가 훨씬 정확함을 주목하여야 한다.c의 범위로서 최대값과 최소값은 4차수(four order)의 차이를 보였다. 단열대의 분포 특성을 파악하기 위하여 지구물리검층을 실시하였고, 각 시험에 의해 획득된 결과들과의 비교를 통하여 유동성이 높은 단열들이 규명되었다. 온도검층은 유동성 단열과 일반적인 단열들을 구별하는 좋은 지시자로 나타났다. 그 결과, N70-80$^{\circ}$W.60-85$^{\circ}$NE/SW, N75-80$^{\circ}$W.25-30$^{\circ}$SW, N50-64$^{\circ}$W.60-85$^{\circ}$NE, N35-45$^{\circ}$E.65-75$^{\circ}$SE, 그리고 N65-72$^{\circ}$E.80$^{\circ}$SE/60$^{\circ}$NW의 단열들이 연구지역의 지하수 흐름을 지배하는 뚜렷한 유동성 단열로 규명되었다.eatments. It was resulted from increase of weight of single cocoon. "Manta"2.5ppm produced 22.2kg of cocoon. It is equal to 9% increase in index, as compared to that of c

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