• Title, Summary, Keyword: 인과관계

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Examination of Generating Mechanism Concerning Father's Participation in Child-rearing (맞벌이 가정 부친의 육아참가 발생과정)

  • Park, Ji-Sun;Kondo, Rie;Kim, Jung-Suk;Sasai, Tsukasa;Takahashi, Shigesato;Park, Chun-Man;Nakajima, Kazuo
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.57-70
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    • 2009
  • Objectives: This purpose of this study was to make clear the fitness to data of the causality model related to father's child-rearing participation in a double-income household. Methods: Subjects of this survey consisted of the fathers of 2,006 households that use 21 day-care centers and 4 kindergartens whose cooperation was received via the city government departments that have jurisdiction over day-care centers and kindergartens in cities A and B in prefecture I and in city C in prefecture II (city A: 499 households; city B: 1,113 households; city C: 988 households). The surveyed items consisted of the father's age, the father's educational history, the number of children, the age of the youngest child, the father's parental-role awareness, the father's daily working hours, the father's return-home time, and child-rearing participation by the father. Results: The fit indices were found to be CFI = 0.912, GFI = 0.948, and RMSEA = 0.082. Regarding the path coefficients, the path coefficient of the pathway from the age of the youngest child to the father's parent positivity (0.08) and the path coefficient of the pathway from the father's parent positivity to child-rearing participation (0.19) were both at statistically significant levels. Also, the father's return-home time and the working hours, which were considered as disincentives exhibited a direct effect on child-rearing participation without being influenced by the father's parent positivity or parent negativity. The path coefficient of the pathway from return-home time to child-rearing participation was -0.43, and the path coefficient of the pathway from working hours to child-rearing participation was -0.13. The value of the path coefficient expressing the relationship between the return-home time and working hours was 0.80. Conclusion: Authors infered that it'll be the basic material to build a generation mechanism about vanity and father's child-rearing participation appropriately as a result of this research.

Association between Kawasaki disease and acute respiratory viral infections (가와사끼병과 급성 호흡기 바이러스 감염증의 연관성에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Eun Young;Eun, Byung Wook;Kim, Nam Hee;Lee, Jina;Choi, Eun Hwa;Lee, Hoan Jong;Choi, Jung Yun
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.11
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    • pp.1241-1248
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    • 2009
  • Purpose:The etiology of Kawasaki disease (KD) is still unknown. Recently, an association between human coronavirus NL63 (HCoV-NL63) and KD was implicated. Hence, we attempted to determine the association between KD and acute respiratory viral infections. Methods:Nasopharyngeal aspirate samples were obtained from 54 patients diagnosed with KD at the Seoul National University (SNU) Children's Hospital and SNU-Bundang Hospital between October 2003 and September 2006. Viral diagnoses of 11 respiratory viruses were made using multiplex reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR): respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), adenovirus, rhinovirus (RV), parainfluenza viruses (PIVs) 1 and 3, influenza viruses (IFVs) A and B, human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human bocavirus (HBoV), HCoV OC43/229E, and HCoV-NL63. Clinical data were reviewed retrospectively. Results:The median age was 32 months (6 months-10.4 years). Respiratory symptoms were observed in 37 patients (69%). The following respiratory viruses were identified in 12 patients (22%): RV (n=4), PIV-3 (n=2), HBoV (n=2), and adenovirus, RSV, PIV-1, IFV-A, and HCoV-NL63 (n=1). Co-infection with PIV-3 and RV was observed in one patient. Respiratory symptoms were observed in 7 (58.3%) and 30 (71.4%) patients of the virus-positive and virus-negative groups (P>0.05). Response rate to intravenous immunoglobulin administration was 67% (n=8) and 86% (n=36) in the virus- positive and virus-negative groups (P>0.05). Conclusion:Respiratory symptoms were commonly observed in KD patients but the association between respiratory viruses and KD were not found. Large multicenter-based investigations are required to confirm the association between acute respiratory viral infections and KD.

Dissociative Symptoms in Patients with Somatization Disorder (신체화 장애 환자의 해리 증상)

  • Kim, Seong-Hwan;Choe, Byeong-Moo;Kim, Yoon-Won;Hahn, Hong-Moo
    • Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.116-123
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    • 1999
  • Objectives : The authors attempted to assess how much the mechanism of dissociation affects somatization disorder patients psychopathologically, and explore the relationship between sexual or physical abuse and somatic symptoms in somatization disorder patients. Methods : The authors administered the Dissociative Experiences Scales-Korean version(DESK) and Dissociative Disorders Interview Schedule to 25 patients with somatization disorder and 51 normal subjects. Results : There were no significant demographic differences between patient and control groups. The mean score of DES-K for patient group was 18.2, and 10.0 for the control group. The percentage of the individuals with high scores(20 and over) was 36.0 in the patient group and 7.8 in the control group, respectively. The percentage of the individuals with sexual and/or physical abuse was 16.0 in the patient group and zero in the control group. Our results showed that DES-K scores were not influenced by the factor of age or religion in either group, but the scores of the patients with somatization disorder were significantly higher than those in the normal subjects. Conclusion : There was an implication that the mechanism of dissociation affects issues of psychopathogenesis and psychopathology in Korean patients with somatization disorder, even though they have different sociocultural backgrounds in comparison to Western patients. The authors suggest it is useful to focus attention on childhood abuse and dissociation in the evaluation and dynamic psychotherapy of patients with somatization disorder.

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Clinical Study of Hypophosphatemic Rickets (저인산혈성 구루병에 대한 임상적 고찰)

  • Lee Chang-Jin;Cho Hee-Yeon;Kang Ju- Hyung;Shin Choong-Ho;Ha Il-Soo;Cheong Hae-Il;Yang Sei-Won;Choe Yong
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.195-204
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: Hypophosphatemic rickets is a hereditary disease, characterized by hypophosphatemia due to renal phosphate wasting, impaired renal production of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$, rachitic bone deformities and impaired growth. The purpose of this study is to provide clinical profiles of patients with hypophosphatemic rickets in our hospital. Methods: Between July 1983 and February 2004, 56 patients were diagnosed as having hypophosphatemic rickets. The medical records of these patients were reviewed retrospectively. Clinical manifestations, family histories, laboratory data, treatment outcomes were described. Results: Fifty six patients were enrolled in this study. The average age at symptom onset and diagnosis were 20 months and 5 years respectively. Fourteen patients had family histories. The main clinical manifestations were bow legs and short stature. There was a significant negative correlation between the ages and the height z-scores at the time of diagnosis(r=-0.47, P=0.005). Initial laboratory data showed normocalcemia, hypophosphatemia, elevated serum alkaline phosphatase, decreased tubular reabsorption of phosphate and a normal range of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin $D_3$ Radiographic examinations of bone revealed fraying, widening and cupping of the metaphyseal ends. Treatment consisted of Joulie solution and vitamin D metabolites, and resulted in improved biochemical and radiographic findings. However, height z-scores remained essentially unchanged(P=0.224). Complications of treatment were frequently observed, including hyperparathyroidism, nephrocalcinosis, and hypercalciuria. Sixteen patients had corrective osteotomy and 4 of them underwent leg lengthening together. Conclusion: There was a gap of several years between the onset of symptoms and the diagnosis. Early treatment seems to be essential to growth. For the earlier treatment, the offsprings of affected parents should be followed up closely.

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A Study of the Evolving Process of Wealthy Major Donors' Sharing Lives in Korea (부유층의 기부과정에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Chul-Hee;Kim, Mi-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.59 no.2
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    • pp.5-38
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    • 2007
  • This study attempts to develop a theory on the evolving process of wealthy major donors' sharing lives in Korea through a grounded theory approach. To conduct this study, the researchers have in-depth interviews with 11 exemplary wealthy major donors who have more than one million US dollars in his or her own asset and donate more than ten thousand US dollars annually. In data analysis, this study identifies 161 concepts on the evolving process of wealthy major donors' sharing lives; and the concepts are categorized with 33 sub-categories and 14 categories. In the paradigm model on the evolving process of wealthy major donors' sharing lives, it is identified that the central phenomenon, 'practicing sharing lives as noblesse oblige', is related with the causal conditions such as 'learning through memories and observation', 'realizing my duties', and 'emphasizing'; and the central phenomenon is related with the contingent conditions such as 'being sensitive to external evaluation', 'having limited information on giving', 'distrusting donation related environments'. The action/interactional sequences such as 'utilizing relationships' and 'strengthening active participation' are accomplished by moderating conditions such as 'having internal and external supports' and 'guiding by firm conviction'. It reveals that as a result, wealthy major donors enjoy the feeling of becoming a ideal and true wealthy person, establish sharing lives as firm and major parts of overall lives, and experience strong desires for better future and society. In this study, 'generous sharing that shares personal heritages and social benefits' is analyzed as a core category; it shows that sharing of wealthy major donors is related to the characteristics of generosity practice based on moral self-benefiting rather than complete altruistic characteristics or self-sacrificial characteristics. The process analysis reveals that it has the following stages: first, initial giving by exposure to causes or requests; second, routine practice of giving; third, evolution of practice of giving with gradual expansion in quantities and qualities; and fourth, living with giving. In the process, the following four types are identified: devoted wealthy donors for sharing, wealthy donors practicing sharing in daily life, wealthy donors practicing sharing with learning on external stimulus, and wealthy donors practicing sharing on empathy. Finally, this study discusses both meanings of identifying and developing a theory on the evolving process of wealthy major donors' sharing lives and implications of the research results in cultivating and developing potential wealthy major donors in Korea.

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Phosphorous Removal in a Free Water Surface Wetland Constructed on the Gwangju Stream Floodplain (광주천 고수부지에 조성한 자유수면인공습지의 인 제거)

  • Yang, Hong-Mo
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.100-109
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    • 2012
  • Removal rates of $PO_4-P$ and TP in a free water surface wetland system were investigated. The system was established in 2008 on a floodplain in the middle reach of the Gwangju Stream flowing through Gwangju City. Its dimensions were 46 meters in length and 5 meters in width. Two year old Typha angustifloria L. growing in pots were planted on half of the area and Zizania latifolia Turcz on the other half in 2008. Stream water was funneled into the wetlands by gravity flow, and its effluent was discharged back into the stream. The influent volume was controlled by valves and water depth was adjusted by wires. Volume and water quality of inflow and outflow were analyzed from January to December in 2010. Inflow into the system averaged approximately $710m^3/day$ and hydraulic residence time was about 1.5 hours. Average influent and effluent $PO_4-P$ concentration were 0.144 and 0.103mg/L, respectively, and $PO_4-P$ abatement amounted to 28.6%. Influent and effluent TP concentration averaged 0.333 and 0.262mg/L, respectively, and TP retention reached to 20.7%.$PO_4-P$ removal rate(%) during plant growing season(31.448) was significantly high(p<0.001) when compared with that during plant non-growing season(25.829). TP abatement rate(%) during plant growing season(27.230) was also significantly high(p<0.001) when compared with that of the non-growing season(14.856). Major phosphorous removals in the system resulted from adsorption of phosphorous in the litter-soil layers; sedimentation of particulate phosphorous and Ca, Al, Fe bounded phosphates; and absorption of phosphorous by emergent plants. The adsorption and sedimentation occurred throughout the year, however, the absorption took place during plant growing season. This resulted in higher removals of $PO_4-P$ and TP during plant growing season.

Livestock Manure Nutrients Flow Analysis of Integrated Crop-Livestock Farming Model Reflecting the Regional Characteristics (지역특성을 고려한 경축순환농업 모형의 가축분뇨 양분 흐름분석)

  • Lee, Joon Hee;Choi, Hong Lim
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.36-46
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    • 2015
  • Integration of crop-livestock farming has been a problem-solving mode for abatement of environmental pollution and recovery of resources in recent years. The objectives of this study were 1) to suggest the customized integration of crop-livestock farming model reflecting the regional characteristics through in-depth analysis of case study and 2) to analyze the livestock nutrients flow in terms of three primary elements as nitrogen(N), phosphorous(P), and potassium(K). The personal interview and survey were carried out in 2012 for a total of 161 farms from four different regions(NS, NW, JJ, YC) in South Korea. The mass balance analysis was used to suggest and evaluate the models for two sites(JJ and YC). The results showed that NS and NW sites produced relatively more livestock manure than the sites of YC and JJ because of the regional differences in livestock numbers and urbanization. The models were suggested for the site JJ and site YC, and 'two track model(energy and resource recovery)' and 'dispersal type model' were assigned respectively. For the nutrient flows, the releasing P and K with new models had increased up to 7%, while N release had decreased down to 15% in both YC and JJ sites compared to the present treatment system. Estimated value showed that there was oversupply of N (719 ton/yr) and $P_2O_5$ (1,269 ton/yr) in YC and deficiency of N (671 ton/yr) and excessive $P_2O_5$ (32 ton/yr) in JJ respectively. Therefore, P runoff has to be considered an eutrophication occurs in rural small stream when an integration of crop-livestock farm system is applied into both sites.

Relationship Between Internet Addiction and Circadian Rhythm in Adults (성인 인터넷 중독과 일주기 리듬의 연관성)

  • Kang, Do Won;Soh, Minah;Lee, Tae Kyeong
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.57-63
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    • 2015
  • Background and Objectives: Internet addiction is an increasing problem in Korea. The previous studies in this area have targeted adolescents and young adults. This study was conducted to examine the risk of internet addiction in Korean adults and the effect of internet addiction on circadian rhythm. Materials and Methods: For this study, 508 subjects were chosen through population proportional sampling to represent the adult population in Korea, 325 of whom were included based on the Alcohol Use Disorder Identification Test-Korea (Audit-K), Zung's Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), drug use in the past year, and suicide attempts. In these subjects, sociodemographic factors including age, gender, and residential area were analyzed, and Young's Internet Addiction Scale (IAS), Morningness-Eveningness Questionnaire (MEQ), and an online survey examining sleep onset time on weekdays and weekends, wake-up time, and caffeinated drink intake were executed. Results: Of the 325 subjects, 136 (41.8%) belonged to a high-risk internet addiction group ($IAS{\geq}40$), and 189 (58.2%) belonged to a normal group (IAS < 40). There was a high proportion of male subjects (p = 0.03) in the high-risk group compared to the normal group. There was a high proportion of younger subjects (p = 0.055) in the high-risk group compared to the normal group, but this difference was not statistically significant. Compared to the normal group, there was a high proportion of the evening type ($MEQ{\leq}41$) in the high-risk group (p = 0.024), who also showed a high proportion of caffeinated drink intake (p < 0.001). Also, the high-risk group was found to go to bed and wake up late, but there was no statistically significant difference with the normal group. Conclusion: This study showed that many adults have a high-risk of internet addiction, and there was a significant correlation between internet addiction and sleep in adult, as has been found in adolescents and early adults. In the future, a longitudinal study will be needed to verify the causal relationship between internet addiction and morningness-eveningness.

Identifying Antecedents of Service Innovation: Based on Service-Dominant Logic and Resource-Advantage Theory (서비스 혁신의 선행요인에 관한 연구: 서비스 지배적 논리와 자원 우위 이론을 중심으로)

  • Ryu, Hyun-Sun;Han, Jin Young
    • Information Systems Review
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.79-106
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    • 2016
  • Service innovation is one means of gaining an advantage in a highly competitive environment. Although numerous studies have stressed the importance of service innovation, traditional good-dominant logic is still used in service innovation literature. Furthermore, few studies have been conducted on the link between service innovation and its antecedents in terms of service-oriented approach. To fill the gap, this article theoretically and empirically examines service innovation and its antecedents and consequences. Based on service-dominant logic and resource advantage theory, the current study aims to understand the effect of antecedents on service innovation as well as to identify the effect of service innovation on firm performance (i.e., non-financial and financial performance). Three service innovation activities, namely service creation-focused innovation, service delivery-focused innovation, and customer interaction-focused innovation, and four antecedents of service innovation, including human resource management capability, collaboration capability, marketing capability, and information technology capability, are identified based on Den Hertog (2000)'s service innovation framework. By using the empirical data collected from 189 service firms in Korea, this study explores the causal relationship among antecedents, service innovation and firm performance. Findings indicate that human resource management and marketing capabilities influence the three types of service innovation, whereas collaboration and information technology capabilities have a significant effect on both service creation-focused innovation and service delivery-focused innovation. In particular, human resource management capability is strongly related to customer interaction-focused innovation. The three types of service innovation have a positive influence on non-financial performance, whereas service delivery-focused innovation and customer interaction-focused innovation positively influence financial performance. These results support the crucial effects of antecedents, such as human resource management, collaboration, marketing and information technology capabilities, on service innovation.

Analysis of the Benthic Nutrient Fluxes from Sediments in Agricultural Reservoirs used as Fishing Spots (낚시터로 활용중인 농업용 저수지의 퇴적물 내 영양염류 용출 분석)

  • Joo, Jin Chul;Choi, Sunhwa;Heo, Namjoo;Liu, Zihan;Jeon, Joon Young;Hur, Jun Wook
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.39 no.11
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    • pp.613-625
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    • 2017
  • For two agricultural reservoirs that are rented for fishing spots, benthic nutrient fluxes experiment were performed two times with two sediments from fishing-effective zone and one sediment from fishing-ineffective zone using laboratory core incubation in oxic and anoxic conditions. During benthic nutrient fluxes experiment, the changes in DO, EC, pH, and ORP in the supernatant were not significantly different between fishing-effective zone and fishing-ineffective zone, and were similar to the sediment-hypolimnetic diffused boundary layer in agricultural reservoir. Except for $NO_3{^-}-N$, more benthic nutrient fluxes of $NH_4{^+}-N$, T-P, and $PO{_4}^{3-}-P$ from sediment to hypolimnetic was measured in anoxic than in oxic conditions (p<0.05). As the DO concentration in hypolimnetic decreases, the microorganism-mediated ammonification is promoted, the nitrification is suppressed, and finally the $NH_4{^+}-N$ diffuses out from sediment to hypolimnetic. Also, the diffusion of T-P and $PO{_4}^{3-}-P$ from sediments to hypolimnetic is accelerated through the dissociation of the phosphorus bound to both organic matters and metal hydroxides. The difference in the benthic nutrient diffusive fluxes between fishing-effective zone and fishing-ineffective zone was not statistically significant (p>0.05). Therefore, it was found that fishing activities did not increase the benthic nutrient diffusive fluxes to a statistically significant level. Due to the short fishing activities of 10 years and the rate-limited diffusion of the laboratory core incubation, the contribution of fishing activities on sediment pollution is estimated to be low. No significant correlation was found between the total amount of nutrients in sediment and the benthic nutrient diffusive fluxes in both aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Therefore, nutrients input from various nonpoint sources of watersheds are considered to be a more dominant factor rather than fishing activities in water quality deterioration, and both aeration and water circulation in hypolimnetic were required to suppress the anoxic environment in agricultural reservoirs.