• Title, Summary, Keyword: 인과관계

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정유사 주유소간 휘발유 가격발견에 관한 연구

  • Park, Hae-Seon
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.21 no.3
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    • pp.493-517
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    • 2012
  • This paper analyzes a price discovery process for gasoline among branded and independent stations in Korea using a vector error correction model (VECM) and directed acyclic graphs (DAG). Two data sets for daily prices of medium level gasoline running from April 15, 2008 to May 31, 2009 and from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2011 are used for empirical analysis. Empirical results show that S-OIL has an exogeneity and played a important role in the flow of price information in the market in the first period. In the second period, SK energy played a key role in price discovery process in the market. The price of NH-OIL stations do not cause the price of any other stations, which implies that the entrance of new branded stations with lower gasoline price to market has no influence on gasoline prices of retail markets.

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Design of Class and Causality Model for Diagnosis System of an Emergency Generator in Nuclear Plant (원전 비상 발전기의 고장진단시스템을 위한 클래스 및 인과관계 모형 설계)

  • Ha, Chang-Seung;Part, Jong-Il
    • Journal of the Korea Society of Computer and Information
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.125-132
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    • 2006
  • The construction of an emergency generator's diagnosis system for the preparation of emergency in nuclear plant is vital. To construct a knowledge base of the diagnosis system, the classes and a causality model should be designed. In order to design those elements, at first. object of the diagnosis system should be defined. After the investigation of normal and abnormal states. the external knowledge such as entities and activities is extracted, that the operational principle of the system. For the conversion of the extracted external knowledge to the internal one, the entities are defined as classes and the activities converted into the causality. Through the recursive configuration of the causality and proper examination, the diagnosis knowledge applicable to the knowledge base is completed. In this paper, it is possible to construct a knowledge base with high portability since the independence of design model is considered through the decision table.

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A Study on the Necessity of Limitation for Legal Liability in Marine Accidents (해양사고에 있어서 책임귀속의 제한 필요성에 관한 연구)

  • Ji, Sang-Won
    • Journal of Navigation and Port Research
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.251-255
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    • 2010
  • A marine accident is caused various legal liability such as compensation for damages on civil law, responsibility on the Criminal Code and administrative sanctions. The results occurred by any acts is not connected directly to the legal responsibility. As a prior condition for these legal liabilities, it is required the causation between the act caused and the occurrence of the effect. It is very difficult to find out the cause in marine accidents, because of trouble of a proof security, the place occurred, time difference between accident and investigation point of time etc.. However, finding out the correct cause is an element important to prevent similar accident and to determine the liability reverted. The logical concept of the causation is not limited, but there is early necessity to limit it in the liability reverted. Therefore, this study aims to suggest reasonable standard to determine liability reverted in marine accidents.

Is Backwards Causation Possible? (후향적인 인과성은 가능한가?)

  • Ahn, Gan-Hun
    • Journal of Korean Philosophical Society
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    • v.105
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    • pp.269-290
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    • 2008
  • The purpose of this paper is to explore the possibility of backwards causation. For study, this paper was divided into four views as follows: The first view was sometimes suggested by the people such as M. Dummett who distinguished observers from behaviors. According to observers' view, backwards causation is impossible, whereas behaviors' view possible. However, in a real or genuine sense, it is incorrect for us to argue for impossibility of backwards causation from the observer aspect. The second view was supported by J. H. Schmidt. He analyzed the possibility of backwards causation in terms of macro and micro level analysis about the causal events. According to micro level analysis, backwards causation is possible, but macro level analysis impossible. Usually the latter makes the former something miraculous. Under the macro level analysis, backwards causation, at first, seems to be miraculous phenomena which belongs to the micro level analysis. The third view had to do with physical equation, and the fourth view physical phenomena, respectively. John Earman argued for the backwards causation by the transformation from Lorentz­-Dirac equation to a second-order integro-differential one in the field of electrodynamic acceleration. His argument was criticized because of his misunderstanding about the relationship between two equations. On the other hand, Phil Dowe defended a version of Reichenbach's own theory about the direction of causation founded on the fork asymmetrical causal relation. However his view was different from Reichenbach's because the former defended the backwards causation model of Bell phenomena in quantum mechanics. On the contrary, Reichenbach put stressed on the priority of cause in the causal process. Subjectivism has recently been defended by H. Price, under the label of perspectivism. According to him, in a certain sense causal asymmetry is not in the world, but is rather a product of our own asymmetric perspective on the world. He also suggested causal net, the symmetry of microphysics, and so on. As mentioned above, there are many kind of suggestions of backwards causation. However none of them replaced objectively the main streams of the direction of causal process. The main stream has been usually defended by pragmatical ground. That is, effects do not precede their causes although causes cannot be without their effects.

A Study on Causality among Trading Volume of Pyeongtaek Port, Incheon Inner Harbor and Incheon North Harbor (인천내항, 인천북항, 평택항간 물동량의 인과관계 분석)

  • Yoo, Heonjong;Ahn, Seung-Bum
    • Journal of Korea Port Economic Association
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.255-273
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    • 2014
  • The purpose of this paper is to examine the causal relationship among the trading volume of Pyeongtaek port, Incheon Inner Harbor, Incheon North Harbor. Methodologically, Granger causality, impulse response function, and variance decomposition based on VAR are used. The results indicate that Pyeongtaek port trading volume positive shock has positive effects on Incheon North Harbor. In addition, Incheon Inner Harbor trading volumes positive shock has negative effects on Pyeongtaek port. The results also suggest that the volume of Pyeongtaek port Granger-causes the volume of Incheon North Harbor, but not vice versa. The volume of Incheon Inner Harbor Granger-causes the volume of Pyeongtaek port. Based on these results, we suggest that port authorities have to focus on policies that would promote copetition between port of Pyeongtaek and Incheon in the world harbor industry.

The Causal Relationship between Telecommunications Investment and Economic Growth (정보통신 투자와 경제성장의 인과관계 분석)

  • Kim, B.H.;Kim, S.K.
    • Electronics and Telecommunications Trends
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    • v.9 no.4
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    • pp.35-41
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    • 1994
  • 본 고는 한국을 포함한 17개국의 OECD 국가의 9개년간의 시계열자료와 횡단 자료를 결합한 panel 자료를 가지고 전기통신 투자와 경제 성장간의 인과 관계를 분석한다. 결과로 전기 통신 투자와 경제 성장 간의 상호적인 인과 관계를 확인한다. 이에 따라 2015년까지 정보 통신 기반 투자가 우리나라의 경제 성장에 영향을 미칠뿐만 아니라 경제가 성장함에 따라 정보 통신 투자가 유발된다는 사실을 경험적으로 제시한다.

Analysis of the Causal Relationship of Perspectives of Balanced Scorecard for SCM (균형성과표의 네 관점에 대한 인과관계 분석 : SCM 추진기업들의 경영성과를 중심으로)

  • Jang, Hyeong-Wook
    • Journal of the Korea Industrial Information Systems Research
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2006
  • This study constructs a causal relationship model of balance scorecard(BSC) performance in supply chain management(SCM). According to the results, the sample companies show the causal relationship of learning and growth performance, internal process performance, customer performance, and financial Performance indices in SCM. And this study implies that BSC performance indices gives, through direct causal relations among them, impact on the ultimate financial performance of firms.

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The Rise of Cognitive Science (인지과학의 대두)

  • Lee, Seung-Chong
    • Annual Conference on Human and Language Technology
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    • pp.375-380
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    • 1997
  • "모든 사람은 죽는다"라는 믿음을 내용으로 하는 마음의 상태가 "그 사람도 죽는다"라는 믿음을 내용으로 하는 마음의 상태를 인과적으로 야기하는가? 두 믿음 사이의 미시적 얼개가 인과 관계를 골자로 하고 있다는 사실에서 그 미시적 얼개에 수반하는 거시적 얼개도 인과 관계라는 사실이 함축되는가? 거시적 얼개를 물리적 관점에서 보자면 두 믿음 사이의 관계는 인과적이다. 그러나 거시적 얼개의 포인트는 미시적 얼개와는 달리 물리적 인과성에만 맞춰져 있지 않다. 한 믿음에서 다른 믿음으로의 이행에서 그 포인트는 믿음의 신경생리학적 토대가 아니라 믿음의 의미에 있다. 따라서 양자 사이의 이행 관계는 추론이나 바램 등과 같은 인간의 해석적 의미 연관의 관점에서 서술되는 것이 더 자연스럽고 이치에 맞는다.

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The Longitudinal Relation between Stressors and Depression of Men in Baby Boom Generation (베이비붐 세대 남성의 스트레스 요인과 우울의 종단적 인과관계)

  • Sung, Jun Mo
    • Korean Journal of Social Welfare
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    • v.64 no.4
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    • pp.285-310
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    • 2012
  • This study examined the causal relationship of between stressors and depression using the wave 1~4 of Korean Welfare Panel Study by social stress theory. According to the result, the level of depression and depressed group was decreased in the course of time. As a panel regression analysis, Factors affecting the reduction of depression was upward of the income hierarchy, increase the satisfaction of family and social relationships, and residential satisfaction. Based on the results, the author suggested that social work policies and intervention direction should decrease social stress factors with causality to depression of the men in baby boom generation.

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