• Title/Summary/Keyword: 인산화반응

Search Result 235, Processing Time 0.119 seconds

Phosphorus Modified Co/Al2O3 Fischer-Tropsch Catalyst for a Slurry Phase CSTR with Enhanced Hydrothermal and Mechanical Stability (수열특성 및 기계적 안정성의 개선으로 슬러리상 CSTR에 적합한 P 첨가 알루미나 기반의 Fischer-Tropsch 합성용 코발트 촉매)

  • Jung, Gyu-In;Ha, Kyoung-Su;Park, Seon-Ju;Kim, Du-Eil;Woo, Min-Hee;Jun, Ki-Won;Bae, Jong-Wook;Kang, Yong
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
    • /
    • v.50 no.2
    • /
    • pp.229-237
    • /
    • 2012
  • Phosphorus was incorporated into Co/$Al_2O_3$ catalyst for FTS by impregnating an acidic precursor, phosphoric acid, in ${\gamma}-Al_2O_3$ support to improve the mechanical strength, the hydrothermal stability of the catalyst particle, and the catalytic performance as well. Surface characterization techniques such as FT-IR revealed that $AlPO_4$ phase was generated on the surface of the P-modified catalyst. The addition of phosphorus was found to alleviate the interaction between cobalt and alumina surface, and to increase reducibility of catalyst. The catalytic activity such as $C_{5+}$ productivity and turnover frequency (TOF) was calculated to evaluate catalytic performance. The influence of calcination temperature of the $Al_2O_3$ containing 2 wt.% P on the catalytic performance was also investigated. Through hydrothermal stability test and XRD analysis, the P-modified catalyst had strong resistant to the pressurized and hot $H_2O$. The mechanical strength of the P-modified catalyst was also examined through an in-house fluidized-bed vessel, and it was found that the catalyst fragmentation could be successfully suppressed with P. Taken as a whole, the best performance was shown to be at 1~2 wt.% P in alumina and at the calcination temperature of $500^{\circ}C$.

The City Rhinoreaction Research of the Corn Feed for the Heavy Metal Removal of the Pig Ordure Sludge Using the Citric Acid and Stability Evaluation (구연산을 이용한 돈분슬러지의 중금속 제거 및 안정성평가를 위한 사료용 옥수수의 시비반응 연구)

  • Oh, Tae-Seok;Kim, Chang-Ho;Choi, Bong-Su
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
    • /
    • v.31 no.4
    • /
    • pp.395-408
    • /
    • 2011
  • The study which it sees exclusions the copper and the zinc which contain in pig sludge, It study pig sludge resources fertilizer production which are rational, pig sludge resources fertilizers after seeding, silage corn it investigates growth characteristics and forage value, the result which investigates pig sludge resources fertilizers effectiveness with afterwards is same. With fertilizer ingredients in pig sludge chemical qualities, the content of the nitrogen and the phosphoric acid comes 4.4% to be 6.29%, pH 7.02 and content of the copper and the zinc which is a heavy metal which contains in pig sludge with 805 mg/kg and 1,704 mg/kg, it is a restrictive standard of the fertilizer, 300 mg/kg and 900 mg/kg it sees to be high, it manufactures citric acid 1 hydrate with the organic acid solution, heavy metals of pig sludge where it is a mixture ratio of the organic acid solution, it divides to 25%, 50%, 75% and 100% 4 kind levels, the result which measures the heavy metal exclusion ratio of the copper and the zinc, the mixture ratio of the organic acid solution to be many exclusion ratio of the copper and the zinc is showing a just interrelation, from organic acid solution 100% level content of pig sludge remains copper and zinc 330.03 mg/kg and 41.28 mg/kg, it shows the exclusion ratio of copper 59% zinc 97%. 'Cheonganok' growth characteristics with citric acid 1 hydrate, Treatment 2 and control growth characteristics etc, it exclusion the copper and the zinc it doesn't appear on significant difference statistically but, treatment 3 after only pig sludge in resources disposal where it seeding, growth characteristics of leaf area etc. is badness, it compares in control and treatment 2 the growth characteristics badness, it is appearing, it is caused by with disease and insects occurrence of $Ostrinia$ $furnacalis$ and brown spot, the damage was many. From forage value, Treatment 2 where it exclusion the heavy metal with the citric acid 1 hydrate with control it compares and there are not significant difference from crude protein and ADF and NDF contents etc., seeding only Pig Sludge in resources disposal treatment 3, it is caused by with $Ostrinia$ $furnacalis$ etc., trunk and aging of the leaf to be high ADF content is low. but from crude protein, the nitrogen ingredient which pig sludge has and interrelation it seemed and high numerical value were confirmed.

Effect of Growth Regulators on th Growth and Vitamin C Biosynthesis During Germingation of Soybean (콩나물 생장과 비타민C의 생합성에 대한 생장조절제의 영향)

  • Kim, Sang-Ock
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
    • /
    • v.17 no.2
    • /
    • pp.115-124
    • /
    • 1988
  • This study was carried out to realize the effect of gibberllic acid$(GA_3)$, 1-naphthaleneacetic acid(NAA) and indole-3-acetic acid(IAA) on the biosynthesis of vitamin C. The relation between carbohydrate metabolism and vitamin C production in soybean sprouts was also investigated. Growth, vitamin C content, protein, galactonolactone dehydrogenase(GLD), ribulose diphosphate carboxylase(RuDpCO) and RNA level in the plastid and cytoplasm were determined. The effects of protein and respiratory inhibitors on the growth and vitamin C production were also examined. The most favourable growth of soybean sprouts was observed at the level of NAA $10^{-8}M,\;IAA10^{-6}M\;and\;GA_3\;10^{-5}M$ in the single treatment, respectively, and also favourable at levels of $GA_3\;10^{-5}M+NAA\;10^{-9}M\;and\;GA_3\;10^{-5}M+IAA\;10^{-9}M$ in the case of mixed treatment. The excellent growth was observed at the level IAA $10^{-6}M$ among all the single and mixed treatments. When the soybean sprouts were treated with NAA $10^{-8}M,\;IAA\;10^{-6}M\;GA_3\;10^{-5}M,\;GA_3\;10^{-8}M+IAA\;10^{-6}M,\;and\;GA_3\;10^{-5}M+IAA\;10^{-9}M$, the maximum growth rate was observed at the level of IAA $10^{-6}M$ and the conten of vitamin C was 24.26mg% which was 1.6 times higher than that of the control. RuDpCO was inhibited by the chloramphenicol at the concentration that did not inhibit the growth but the activities of NADP-GDH, GLD and vitamin C content were not affected. These results showed that the biosynthesis of viamin C had nothing to do with the activity of chloroplastic RNA but with cytoplasm. The highest vitamin C content was found at the the level of IAA $10^{-6}M$, where the GLD activity increased up 1.8 times of the control. The concentration of IAA $10^{-6}M$ promoted the biosynthesis of RNa and protein both in chloroplast and cytoplasm, especially in the cytoplasm. Thus it suggeted that IAA affected vitamin C biosynthesis by regulating RNA level in the cytoplasm. 2,4-Dinitrophenol as an uncoupler of oxidative phosphorylation did not inhibit the vitamin C biosynthesis, however, all of the respiratory inhibitors severely inhibited the growth and vitamin C biosynthesis.

  • PDF

Alteration of Lipid Metabolism Related Proteins in Liver of High-Fat Fed Obese Mice (고지방식이 비만쥐의 지방관련 단백질의 변화)

  • Seo, Eun-Hui;Han, Ying;Park, So-Young;Koh, Hyong-Jong;Lee, Hye-Jeong
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.20 no.7
    • /
    • pp.1019-1026
    • /
    • 2010
  • Obesity and being overweight are strongly associated with the development of metabolic disease such as diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia. High-fat diet (HFD) is one of the most important factors which cause obesity. In this study, C57BL/6 mice were treated with a HFD for 22 weeks in order to induce obesity and hyperglycemia. Twenty-two weeks later, body weight and plasma glucose level of the HFD group were significantly increased, compared with the normal diet (ND) group. Intra-peritoneal glucose tolerance test (IPGTT) showed glucose intolerance in the HFD group compared with the ND group. These results confirmed that a HFD induced obesity and hyperglycemia in C57BL/6 mice. Plasma levels of triglyceride (TG) and total cholesterol (TC) were increased in the HFD group compared with the ND group. Hepatic levels of TG and TC were also increased by a HFD. To investigate the alteration of lipid metabolism in liver, proteins which are related to lipid metabolism were observed. Among lipid synthesis related enzymes, fatty acid synthase (FAS) and glycerol phosphate acyl transferase (GPAT) were significantly increased in the HFD group. Apolipoprotein B (apoB) and microsomal triglyceride transport protein (MTP), which are related to lipid transport, were significantly increased in the HFD group. Interestingly, protein level and phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), which is known as a metabolic regulator, were significantly increased in the HFD group compared with the ND group. In the present study we suggest that HFD may physiologically increase the proteins which are related with lipid synthesis and lipid transport, but that HFD may paradoxically induce the activation of AMPK.

Anti-Inflammatory Effects of Picrasma Quassioides (D.DON) BENN Leaves Extracts (소태나무 잎 추출물의 항염증 효과)

  • Jung, Yeon Seop;Eun, Cheong Su;Jung, Young Tae;Kim, Hyun Jeong;Yu, Mi Hee
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.23 no.5
    • /
    • pp.629-636
    • /
    • 2013
  • This study was performed to evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of methanol extract from the leaves of Picrasma quassioides BENNET (PLME). The antioxidant effects of PLME were measured based on polyphenol and flavonoid contents. PLME was found to have $367.52{\mu}g/mg$ and $46.61{\mu}g/mg$ high polyphenol and flavonoid contents. Cell viability was determined by MTT assay. The production of nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin $E_2$ ($PGE_2$) was measured by Griess assay and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In order to effectively anti-inflammatory agents, we examined the inhibitory effects on the production of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced NO and $PGE_2$ in RAW 264.7 cells. PLME significantly decreased the production of NO and $PGE_2$ in a dose-dependent manner, and also reduced the expression of iNOS, a COX-2 protein. In addition, PLME reduced the NF-${\kappa}B$, $I{\kappa}B$ phosphorylation in RAW 264.7 cells upon stimulation with LPS (100 ng/ml) for 24 h. These results provide evidence for the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of Picrasma quassioides leaves.

A Formulated Korean Red Ginseng Extract Inhibited Nitric Oxide Production through Akt- and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase-dependent Heme Oxygenase-1 Upregulation in Lipoteichoic Acid-stimulated Microglial Cells (홍삼추출액은 lipoteichoic acid로 자극된 소교세포에서 Akt 및 MAPK 의존적으로 heme oxygenase-1 발현을 유도함으로써 NO 생성을 억제함)

  • Shin, Ji Eun;Lee, Kyungmin;Kim, Ji-Hee;Madhi, Iskander;Kim, YoungHee
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.29 no.4
    • /
    • pp.402-409
    • /
    • 2019
  • Korean red ginseng made from steaming and drying fresh ginseng has long been used as a traditional herbal medicine due to its effects on the immune, endocrine, and central nerve systems and its anti-inflammatory activity. In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanism responsible for the anti-inflammatory effects of a formulated Korean red ginseng extract (RGE) in response to lipoteichoic acid (LTA), a cell wall component of gram-positive bacteria. RGE inhibited LTA-induced nitric oxide (NO) secretion and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression in BV-2 microglial cells, without affecting cell viability. RGE also inhibited nuclear translocation of nuclear factor kappa B ($NF-{\kappa}B$) p65 and degradation of $I{\kappa}B-{\alpha}$. In addition, RGE increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in a dose-dependent manner, and the inhibitory effect of RGE on iNOS expression was abrogated by small interfering RNA-mediated knockdown of HO-1. Moreover, RGE induced nuclear translocation of nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a transcription factor that regulates HO-1 expression. Furthermore, the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI-3K) inhibitor and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) inhibitors suppressed RGE-mediated expression of HO-1, and RGE enhanced the phosphorylation of Akt, extracellular signal-regulated kinases (ERKs), p38, and c-JUN N-terminal kinases (JNKs). These results suggested that RGE suppressed the production of NO, a proinflammatory mediator, by inducing HO-1 expression via PI-3K/Akt- and MAPK-dependent signaling in LTA-stimulated microglia. The findings indicate that RGE could be used for the treatment of neuroinflammation induced by grampositive bacteria and that it may have therapeutic potential for various neuroinflammation-associated disorders.

The Effect of Exercise Intensity on Changes in Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase Expression in the Hippocampus and Cerebral Cortex of Obese Mice (고지방식이로 유도된 비만 마우스의 해마 및 대뇌피질에서 운동강도에 따른 nNOS 발현의 변화)

  • Baek, Kyung-Wan
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.29 no.1
    • /
    • pp.18-28
    • /
    • 2019
  • Recent studies reported that obesity upregulated the expression of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) and regulated particular behavior patterns in animal models. They also reported that ameliorated the increase in nNOS expression and decreased depression and anxiolytic effects. Thus, exercise seems to be an effective strategy for improving brain function by downregulating nNOS. However, the immune response differs greatly, depending on the exercise intensity. The aim of the present study was to investigate differences in brain nNOS expression in obese C57BL/6 mice that performed exercise of different intensities. Obesity was induced in 6-wks-old mice (n=35) by feeding a 60%-fat diet for 6-wks. A control (CON) group (n=14) was fed a normal diet. At the end of the induction 6-wks period of obesity, seven animals in the CON group and obesity-induced group were sacrificed to confirm obesity induction (preliminary experiments and confirmation of visceral fat accumulation). The remaining animals were then used in an 8-wks exercise intervention. Other than the CON (n=7), the obesity-induced animals were divided into the following groups: high-fat diet (HFD, n=7), HFD-low intensity (HFD-LI, n=7, 12 m/min for 75 min), HFD-moderate intensity (HFD-MI, n=7, 15 m/min for 60 min), and HFD-high intensity (HFD-HI, n=7, 18 m/min for 50 min). The exercise was performed on an animal treadmill. The expression of the nNOS protein in the hippocampus was significantly higher in the HFD group as compared with that in the CON group (p<0.01). However, there was no difference in the hippocampal expression of the nNOS protein in the other exercise groups as compared with that in the CON group. In contrast, nNOS expression in the HFD-HI group was significantly lower than that in the HFD-LI group (p<0.05). The expression of phosphorylated Akt (pAkt) was significantly higher in all the exercise groups as compared with that in the CON and HFD groups. There was no difference in the expression of pAkt in the cerebral cortex among groups, and the expression of pAkt in the cerebellum was significantly higher in the HFD-HI group as compared with that in the CON group (p<0.05). There were also no between-group differences in pAkt expression in the cerebellum among the various exercise groups. In conclusion, nNOS seems to be overexpressed in response to obesity, and it appears to be downregulated by exercise. Relatively high-intensity exercise may be effective in improving brain function by downregulating nNOS.

Increased Expression of Phospholipase C-$\gamma1$ Activator Protein, AHNAK in Human Lung Cancer Tissues (인체 폐암조직에서 Phospholipase C-$\gamma1$의 활성화 단백, AHNAK의 발현양상)

  • Oh, Yoon-Jung;Park, Chun-Seong;Choi, So-Yeon;Cheong, Seong-Cheoll;Lee, Sun-Min;Hwang, Sung-Chul;Lee, Yi-Hyeong;Hahn, Myung-Ho;Lee, Kyi-Beom;Ryu, Han-Young;Ha, Mahn-Joon;Bae, Yoon-Su;Rhee, Seo-Goo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
    • /
    • v.47 no.3
    • /
    • pp.347-355
    • /
    • 1999
  • Background: Phospholipase C(PLC) plays a central role in cellular signal transduction and is important in cellular growth, differentiation and transformation. There are currently ten known mammalian isozymes of PLC reported to this date. Hydrolysis of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate($PIP_2$) by PLC produces two important second messengers, inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate($IP_3$) and diacylglycerol. PLC-${\gamma}1$, previously, was known to be activated mainly through growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase. Other mechanisms of activating PLC-yl have been reported such as activation through tau protein in the presence of arachidonic acid in bovine brain and activation by $IP_3$, phosphatidic acid, etc. Very recently, another PLC-${\gamma}1$ activator protein such as tau has been found in bovine lung tissue, which now is considered to be AHNAK protein. But there has been no report concerning AHNAK and its associated disease to this date. In this study, we examined the expression of the PLC-${\gamma}1$ activator, AHNAK, in lung cancer specimens and their paired normal. Methods: From surgically resected human lung cancer tissues taken from twenty-eight patients and their paired normal counterparts, we evaluated expression level of AHNAK protein using immunoblot analysis of total tissue extract Immunohistochemical stain was performed with primary antibody against AHNAK protein. Results: Twenty-two among twenty-eight lung cancer tissues showed overexpression of AHNAK protein (eight of fourteen squamous cell lung cancers, all of fourteen adenocarcinomas). The resulting bands were multiple ranging from 70 to 200 kDa in molecular weight and each band was indistinct and formed a smear, reflecting mobility shift mainly due to proteolysis during extraction process. On immunohistochemistry, lung cancer tissues showed a very heavy, dense staining with anti-AHNAK protein antibody as compared to the surrounding normal lung tissue, coresponding well with the results of the western blot Conclusion: The overexpression of PLC-${\gamma}1$ activator protein, AHNAK in lung cancer may provide evidence that the AHNAK protein and PLC-${\gamma}1$ act in concerted manner in carcinogenesis.

  • PDF

Environmental Impacts of Food Waste Compost Application on Paddy Soil (음식물쓰레기 퇴비 시용이 논토양에 미치는 영향)

  • So, Kyu-Ho;Seong, Ki-Seog;Seo, Myung-Chul;Hong, Seung-Gil
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
    • /
    • v.40 no.1
    • /
    • pp.85-94
    • /
    • 2007
  • To determine the influence of food waste compost (FWC) application on paddy soil, FWC was applied to the paddy soil and then compared with farmer's practice as to the effects on rice and soil environment. Initially, pig manure compost (PMC) had high content of phosphorus ($15g\;kg^{-1}$) and potassium ($23g\;kg^{-1}$), while FWC had high content of total nitrogen ($13g\;kg^{-1}$) and salinity ($18.5g\;kg^{-1}$). Comparison was also made between chemical fertilizer and FWC use as a trial in the paddy field under the clay loam and sandy loam soil. In the panicle formation stage, chemical fertilizer application was proper in clay loam while PMC application was proper in sandy loam. However, chemical fertilizer produced higher yield compared to compost treatment, both on clay loam and sandy loam with 20~25% and 17~19%, respectively. The lower yield in sandy loam maybe due to slow mineralization of compost such that the crop did not effectively use it. Organic matter content in paddy soil after experiment was higher in FWC and PMC plots compared to that in chemical fertilizer plots. But the other soil properties were comparable. Therefore, the FWC compost had little effect on soil when it use as a trial in paddy field. Likewise, after the application of FWC as a trial, analysis of nitrate nitrogen and ammonium nitrogen in the surface water and 60 cm depth of paddy soil water nine days after planting was done. Results revealed that concentration of ammonium nitrogen was similar to irrigation water while nitrate nitrogen concentration was not detected, and hence did not contribute to water pollution. It is concluded that the application of FWC in the paddy field had not affected on environmental pollution in the paddy field. But its use as compost during rice culture reduced yield quantity. Such study should include selection of compost material, amount and method of compost application.

Inhibitory Effect of Scopoletin Isolated from Sorbus commixta on TNF-α-Induced Inflammation in Human Vascular Endothelial EA.hy926 Cells through NF-κB Signaling Pathway Suppression (마가목 수피에서 분리한 scopoletin의 EA.hy926 혈관내피세포에서 NF-κB 신호전달을 통한 TNF-α로 유도된 혈관염증 저해 효과)

  • Kang, Hye Ryung;Kim, Hyo Jung;Kim, Bomi;Kim, Sun-Gun;So, Jai-Hyun;Cho, Soo Jeong;Kwon, Hyun Sook
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.30 no.4
    • /
    • pp.343-351
    • /
    • 2020
  • Sorbus commixta Hedl. has traditionally been used as a remedy for cough, asthma, and other bronchial disorders. In this study, three major triterpenoids-lupeol, β-sitosterol, and ursolic acid and a coumarin, scopoletin, were isolated from a CHCl3-soluble fragment of the bark of S. commixta. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic analyses, including mass spectrometry (MS), 1D-, and 2D- nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), as well as by comparing the data with data reported in the literature. Scopoletin was isolated from this plant for the first time. It is a nutraceutical compound contained in many plants that has been reported to exert diverse biological activities, including anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the inhibitory effect of scopoletin on TNF-α-induced vascular endothelial inflammation. Unlike the marginal impact of other compounds against low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and vascular endothelial inflammation, scopoletin showed remarkable activity on LDL oxidation (IC50 = 10.2 μM) and exerted vascular anti-inflammatory effects in EA.hy926 human endothelial cells activated by TNF-α. It suppressed the expression of adhesion molecules, such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin, and blocked the adhesion between THP-1 monocytes and EA. hy926 endothelial cells. It also inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus. Moreover, IκBα phosphorylation, which was increased by TNF-α treatment, was reduced after treatment with scopoletin. Thus, scopoletin inhibited TNF-α-induced vascular inflammation in endothelial cells by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that owing to its anti-inflammatory activity in the vascular endothelium, scopoletin has the potential to inhibit atherosclerosis development.