• Title, Summary, Keyword: 인산화반응

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Inhibitory Effect of Scopoletin Isolated from Sorbus commixta on TNF-α-Induced Inflammation in Human Vascular Endothelial EA.hy926 Cells through NF-κB Signaling Pathway Suppression (마가목 수피에서 분리한 scopoletin의 EA.hy926 혈관내피세포에서 NF-κB 신호전달을 통한 TNF-α로 유도된 혈관염증 저해 효과)

  • Kang, Hye Ryung;Kim, Hyo Jung;Kim, Bomi;Kim, Sun-Gun;So, Jai-Hyun;Cho, Soo Jeong;Kwon, Hyun Sook
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.343-351
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    • 2020
  • Sorbus commixta Hedl. has traditionally been used as a remedy for cough, asthma, and other bronchial disorders. In this study, three major triterpenoids-lupeol, β-sitosterol, and ursolic acid and a coumarin, scopoletin, were isolated from a CHCl3-soluble fragment of the bark of S. commixta. Their structures were identified by spectroscopic analyses, including mass spectrometry (MS), 1D-, and 2D- nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (NMR), as well as by comparing the data with data reported in the literature. Scopoletin was isolated from this plant for the first time. It is a nutraceutical compound contained in many plants that has been reported to exert diverse biological activities, including anti-inflammatory effects. This study examined the inhibitory effect of scopoletin on TNF-α-induced vascular endothelial inflammation. Unlike the marginal impact of other compounds against low-density lipoprotein (LDL) oxidation and vascular endothelial inflammation, scopoletin showed remarkable activity on LDL oxidation (IC50 = 10.2 μM) and exerted vascular anti-inflammatory effects in EA.hy926 human endothelial cells activated by TNF-α. It suppressed the expression of adhesion molecules, such as ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and E-selectin, and blocked the adhesion between THP-1 monocytes and EA. hy926 endothelial cells. It also inhibited TNF-α-induced NF-κB translocation from the cytosol to the nucleus. Moreover, IκBα phosphorylation, which was increased by TNF-α treatment, was reduced after treatment with scopoletin. Thus, scopoletin inhibited TNF-α-induced vascular inflammation in endothelial cells by suppressing the NF-κB signaling pathway. These results demonstrate that owing to its anti-inflammatory activity in the vascular endothelium, scopoletin has the potential to inhibit atherosclerosis development.

Inhibitory Effects of Asparagus cochinchinensis in LPS-Stimulated BV-2 Microglial Cells through Regulation of Neuroinflammatory Mediators, the MAP Kinase Pathway, and the Cell Cycle (Lipopolysaccharide로 자극된 BV-2 미세교세포에서 신경염증 매개체, MAP kinase경로, 세포주기의 조절에 의한 천문동(Asparagus cochinchinensis)의 저해효과)

  • Lee, Hyun Ah;Kim, Ji Eun;Choi, Jun Young;Sung, Ji Eun;Youn, Woo Bin;Son, Hong Joo;Lee, Hee Seob;Kang, Hyun-Gu;Hwang, Dae Youn
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.4
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    • pp.331-342
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    • 2020
  • The suppression of neuroinflammatory responses in microglial cells can be considered a key target for improving the progression of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Huntington's disease (HD). Asparagus cochinchinensis has traditionally been used as a medicine to treat fever, cough, kidney disease, breast cancer, inflammatory diseases, and brain diseases. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective mechanism of an aqueous extract from A. cochinchinensis root (AEAC), particularly its anti-inflammatory effects on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-activated BV-2 microglial cells. BV-2 cells were treated with four different concentrations of AEAC. No significant toxicity was detected in BV-2 cells treated with AEAC. Nitric oxide (NO), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) mRNA, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) mRNA levels were 21% lower in the AEAC+LPS group than in the Vehicle+LPS group. Lower proinflammatory (TNF-α and IL-1β) and anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-6 and IL-10) levels were also detected in the AEAC+LPS group than in the Vehicle+LPS group, albeit at varying rates. Moreover, the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) members after LPS treatment was significantly recovered in the AEAC-pretreated group compared to the Vehicle+LPS group, enhancement of the phosphorylation of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) members after LPS treatment was significantly recovered in the AEAC-pretreated group, while cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase caused by LPS treatment was less severe in the AEAC+LPS group. The increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation induced by LPS treatment was also lower in the AEAC-pretreated group than in the Vehicle+LPS group. This is the first study to show that AEAC exerts anti-neuroinflammatory activity against LPS stimulation by regulating the MAPK signaling pathway, the cell cycle, and ROS production.

Study on the Technological System of the Cooperative Cultivation of Paddy Rice in Korea (수도집단재배의 기술체계에 관한 연구)

  • Min-Shin Cho
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.129-177
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    • 1970
  • For the purpose of establishing the systematized technical scheme of the cooperative rice cultivation which has most significant impact to improve rice productivity and the farm management, the author have studied the cultivation practices, and the variation of rice growth and yield between the cooperative rice cultivation and the individual rice cultivation at random selected 18 paddy fields. The author also have investigated through comparative method on the cultivation practices, management, organization and operation scheme of the two different rice cultivation methods at 460 paddy fields. The economic feasibility has been ana lysed and added in this report. The results obtained from this study are summarized as follows; 1. In the nursery, the average amount of fertilizer application, especially, phosphate and potassium, and the frequency of chemicals spray for the disease, insect and pest control at the cooperative rice cultivation are significantly higher than those of the individual rice cultivation. 2. The cultivation techniques of the cooperative rice farming after the transplanting can be characterized by a) the earlier transplanting of rice, b) the denser hills per unit area and the lesser number of seedlings per hill, c) the application of larger quantities of fertilizer including nitrogen, phosphate and potassium, d) more divided application of fertilizers, split doses of the nitrogen and potassium, e) the increased frequencies of the chemicals spray for the prevention of disease, insect and pest damages. 3. The rate of lodging in the cooperative rice cultivation was slightly higher than that of the individual rice cultivation, however, the losses of rice yield owing to the occurrence of rice stem borer and grass leaf roller in the cooperative rice cultivation were lower than that of the individual rice cultivation. 4. The culm length, panicle length, straw weight and grain-straw ratio are respectively higher at the cooperative rice cultivation, moreover, the higher variation of the above factors due to different localities of the paddy fields found at the individual rice cultivation. 5. The number of panicles, number of flowers per panicle and the weight of 1, 000 grains, those contributing components to the rice yield were significantly greater in the cooperative rice cultivation, however, not clear difference in the maturing rate was observed. The variation coefficient of the yield component in the cooperative cultivation showed lower than that or the individual rice cultivation. 6. The average yield of brown rice per 10 are in the cooperative rice cultivation obtained 459.0 kilograms while that of the individual rice cultivation brought 374.8 kilograms. The yield of brown rice in the cooperative rice cultivation increased 84.2 kilogram per 10 are over the individual rice cultivation. With lower variation coefficient of the brown rice yield in the cooperative rice cultivation, it can be said that uniformed higher yield could be obtained through the cooperative rice cultivation. 7. Highly significant positive correlations shown between the seeding date and the number of flowers per panicle, the chemical spray and the number of flowers per panicle, the transplanting date and the number of flowers per panicle, phosphate application and yield, potassium application and maturing rate, the split application of fertilizers and yield. Whilst the significant negative correlation was shown between the transplanting date and the maturing rate 8. The results of investigation from 480 paddy fields obtained through comparative method on the following items are identical in general with those obtained at 18 paddy fields: Application of fertilizers, chemical spray for the control of disease, insects and pests both in the nursery and the paddy field, transplanting date, transplanting density, split application of fertilizers and yield n the paddy fields. a) The number of rice varieties used in the cooperative rice cultivation were 13 varieties while the individual rice cultivation used 47 varieties. b) The cooperative rice cultivation has more successfully adopted improved cultivation techniques such as the practice of seed disinfection, adoption of recommended seeding amount, fall ploughing, application of red soil, introduction of power tillers, the rectangular-type transplanting, midsummer drainage and the periodical irrigation. 9. The following results were also obtained from the same investigation and they are: a) In the cooperative rice cultivation, the greater part of the important practices have been carried out through cooperative operation including seed disinfection, ploughing, application of red soil and compost, the control of disease, insects and pests, harvest, threshing and transportation of the products. b) The labor input to the nursery bed and water control in the cooperative rice cultivation was less than that of the individual rice cultivation while the higher rate of labor input was resulted in the red soil and compost application. 10. From the investigation on the organization and operation scheme of the cooperative rice cultivation, the following results were obtained: a) The size of cooperative rice cultivation farm was varied from. 3 ha to 7 ha and 5 ha farm. occupied 55.9 percent of the total farms. And a single cooperative farm was consisted of 10 to 20 plots of paddies. b) The educational back ground of the staff members involved in the cooperative rice cultivation was superior than that of the individual rice cultivation. c) All of the farmers who participated to the questionaires have responded that the cooperative rice cultivation could promise the increased rice yield mainly through the introduction of the improved method of fertilizer application and the effective control of diseases, insects and pests damages. And the majority of farmers were also in the opinion that preparation of the materials and labor input can be timely carried out and the labor requirement for the rice cultivation possibly be saved through the cooperative rice cultivation. d) The farmers who have expressed their wishes to continue and to make further development of the cooperative rice cultivation was 74.5 percent of total farmers participated to the questionaires. 11. From the analysis of economical feasibility on the two different methods of cultivation, the following results were obtained: a) The value of operation cost for the compost, chemical fertilizers, agricultural chemicals and labor input in the cooperative rice cultivation was respectively higher by 335 won, 199 won, 288 won and 303 won over the individual rice cultivation. However, the other production costs showed no distinct differences between the two cultivation methods. b) Although the total value of expenses for the fertilizers, agricultural chemicals, labor input and etc. in the cooperative rice cultivation were approximately doubled to the amount of the individual rice cultivation, the net income, substracted operation costs from the gross income, was obtained 24, 302 won in the cooperative rice cultivation and 20, 168 won was obtained from the individual rice cultivation. Thereby, it can be said that net income from the cooperative rice cultivation increased 4, 134 won over the individual rice cultivation. It was revealed in this study that the cooperative rice cultivation has not only contributed to increment of the farm income through higher yield but also showed as an effective means to introduce highly improved cultivation techniques to the farmers. It may also be concluded, therefore, the cooperative rice cultivation shall continuously renovate the rice production process of the farmers.

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Studies on Direct Sowing-Dry Paddy Rice Culture in the Middle Part of Korea (중부지방에 있어서의 수도건답직파재배 기술체계확립에 관한 시험연구)

  • Jai-Hyoun Lee
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.7 no.1
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    • pp.1-29
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    • 1969
  • Experiments on rice concerning it s varieties, fertilization, seedling dates and herbicides have been conducted to determine the most desirable method of direct sowing cultivation on dry paddy field land in the middle part of Korea. The results obtained at the Office of Rural Development of Choongnam Province are as follows:. 1. Sixteen different derivatives from the main varieties of low land rice were cultivated on a dry paddy field by the direct sowing method; at the same time, a few varieties were tried adopting the common transplanting cultivation method. The yield and yield factors from these two groups were examined to give the following results: a) Compared to the common transplanting cultivation, the direct sowing method showed remarkably increased number of panicles while the number of flowers per panicle was shown to be significantly decreased. The maturing ratio was detected to be lowered. The yield horn them differed according to the different varieties : good yield was obtained from Hokwang while Norin #25 proved poor when compared with the common transplanting cultivation method. b) Among sixteen varieties tested, Sunsou, Norin #25, Jaigou, Hokwang, Palkueng and Gosi showed comparatively high yields, their yield being more than 325 kilograms per 10 Are, but Nampoong, Paldal, Nongkwang, Norin #29, Eunbangju #101 and Shiro gane showed less yield, their yield being less than 271 kilograms per 10 Are, the relations between the yield and the yield factors can be summarized as follows; Number of varieties and their rice yield. 1) The varieties which were great in the, number of panicles and high in yield=Jaigoun, Hokwang Palkueng and Gosi. 2) The varieties which were low in the number of panicles and high in yield=Sounsou and Norin #25. 3) The varieties which were great in the number of panicles and poor in yield=Eunbangju #101 and Sirogane. 4) The varieties which were poor in the number of panicles and poor in yield: Nampung, Paldal and Norin #29. Number of flowers per panicle and yield. 1) The varieties which were great in the number of flowers per panicle and high in yield: Sounsou, Norin #25 and Gosi. 2) The varieties which were poor in the number of flowers per panicle and high in yield ; Jaigoun, Hokwang and Palkueng. 3) The varieties which were great in the number of flowers per panicle and poor in yield: Paldal and Nampung. 4) The varieties which were poor in the number of flowers per panicle and poor in yield: Norin #29. Eunbangju #101 and Sirogane. Maturing ratio and yield. 1) The varieties which were high in the maturing ratio and high in yield: Jaigoun, Sounsou, Norin #25 and Palkueng. 2) The varieties which were low in the maturing ratio and high in yield: Hokwang and Gosi. 3) The varieties which were early maturing rat io and low in yield: Hokwang and Gosi. 4) The varieties which were late maturing ratio and poor in yield: Eunbangju #101, Nampungand Sirogane 1, 000 grain weight and yield. 1) The varieties which were heavy in 1, 000 grains weight and high in yield=Norin #25 and Hokwang. 2) The varieties which were light in 1, 000 grains weight and high in yield=Sounsou and Jaigoun. 3) The varieties which were heavy in 1, 000 grains weight and poor in yield=Nongkwang and Eunbanju. 4) The varieties which were light in 1, 000 grains weight and poor in yield=Norin #29 and Sirogane. 2. The experiment on fertilization showed that the most desirable amount to be given per 10 Are was 10 kilograms of Nitrogen, 5 kilograms of phosphate and 6 kilograms of potassium; and when the Nitrogen given exceeded 8 kilograms, its effect was better when given in amsll consecutive (split) amounts, while the maturing ratio and the number of the flowers per panicle increased when Nitrogen was given in large amount during the later stage of growth of rice. 3. The experiment on the date and amount of seedling showed that the tested variety, Sunsou gave the best results when planted on the days between 25 April and 10 May. Eight liters per 10 Are were preferable if planted early and 12 liters per 10 Are if planted late. The reason why the later planting gave a lower yield was that the number of flowers per panicle was fewer. 4. The experiment on the irrigation for rice with direct sowing cultivation immersed in water showed that it was the most satisfactory when irrigated on 25th June, 55 days after its seedling, its plot giving the best yield. The plots 10th June and 15th July showed just as good results. However, irrigated later, than 15th July it showed lower yields. 5. Compared to the yield of the plot controlled by the common method, the yield from the plots treated with chemical herbicide such as LOROX, TOK, PCP, SWEP, Mo-338 on dry condition soil seemed poorer, but significant difference was not found statistically. On the other hand in the case where chemical herbicides such as TOK, Mo-338, Stam F-34 or ORDRAM were used after irrigation, the yield from the ORDRAM and TOK treated plots did not show significant differences compared to the common hand weed controling method, but those treated with chemicals other than the above showed a lower yield.

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