• Title/Summary/Keyword: 인산화반응

Search Result 33, Processing Time 0.119 seconds

Effect of Parathyroid Hormone and Calcitonin on the Enzyme and Mineral Metabolism of Bone Cells and Phosphorylation (뼈 세포의 효소 및 무기질대사에 미치는 PTH와 Calcitonin 호르몬의 효과의 인산화 반응)

  • 정차권
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
    • /
    • v.28 no.8
    • /
    • pp.737-748
    • /
    • 1995
  • Osteoblast(OBL) cells were isolated from ICR Swiss neonatal mouse calvarial tissues and cultured in a CO2 incubator with minimum essential medium (MEM) containing 0.25g BSA. The cells were cultured for 7 days and were treated with bovine parathyroid hormone (bPTH, 1-34) and calcitonin(CT). Enzyme activities related to mineral metabolism and other biochemical actions within the bone cells including protein phosphorylation were investigated. In other experiments using cultured calvarial bone tissues, hormones were treated for 24, 48, 72 or 96 hours. The activities of $\beta$-glucuronidase enzymes involved in bone collagen synthesis and mineral deposits were increased by 8% with bPTH and were inhibited with CT treatment, while those were 67% increase treated with bPTH and CT together. On the other hand, alkaline phophatase(AP) activities were inhibited by PTH hormone at all the time courses observed. Protein phosphorylation reaction in OBL was mediated by bPTH, cAMP and ionized Ca. Phosphorylation was observed in different cell fractions including homogenate, membrane and cytosol. The number of proteins phosphorylated by PTH, cAMP, and Ca were 10, 5, and 9, respectively. Most of the protein kinases(PKs) were existed in cytosolic compartment. In membrane fractions, two bPTH-dependent-PKs (70K, 50K Da) were observed of which 70K Da protein was also Ca-dependent. Most of the cAMP-dependent PKs were regulated via bPTH. 70K, 50K, 5K, 19K, 16K, 10.5K phosphoproteins regulated by Ca share the same pathways as those by bPTH-dependent proteins. Ca seems to regulate PK activities differently from cAMP.

  • PDF

Synthesis of ion Exchange Fiber Containing Amidoxime and Phosphoric Acid Groups and Its Uranium Adsorption Properties (아미드옥심기와 인산기가 함유된 이온 교환 섬유의 합성 및 우라늄 흡착 특성)

  • 황택성;박진원
    • Polymer(Korea)
    • /
    • v.27 no.3
    • /
    • pp.242-248
    • /
    • 2003
  • PP-g-(AN/Sty) was synthesized by grafting with acrylonitrile (AN) and styrene (Sty) onto PP staple fiber using an electron beam accelerator and followed by amidoximination and phosphorylation. Mole fraction of AN in the graft chain increased with the increase of the AN content in the monomer mixture. The highest AN grafting yield of 45% was obtained at a monomer ratio of 40 vol% AN/60 vol% Sty. Mole fraction of AN in the graft chain decreased with the increase of methanol amount used its solvent. As reaction temperature increased, the grafting yield of copolymer increased and reached equilibrium at 50$^{\circ}C$. Amount of amidoxime group in fibrous ion exchanger was increased as increasing amount of hydroxylamine, and the maximum content of amidoxime group was observed at 5.8 mmol/g with the 9 wt% hydroxylamine concentration. Content of phosphorous group in fibrous ion exchanger increased up to 0.5 N phosphoric acid concentration, and then leveled off. The adsorption ability of the copolymer for uranyl ion by the chelating adsorbents was in the following order : bifunctional PP-g-(AN/sty) > amidoximated PP-g-(AN/Sty) > phosphorylated PP-g-(AN/Sty).

Effect of Intracellular Calcium Chelator on Phosphorylation of Spinal N-Methyl-D-Aspartate Receptor following Electroacupuncture Stimulation in Rats (칼슘 저해제가 전침자극에 의한 척수 N-Methyl-D-Aspartate 수용체 인산화에 미치는 영향)

  • Jung, Taek-Guen;Cho, Sung-Woo;Kang, Yeon-Kyeong;Chang, Dong-Ho;Lee, In-Seon
    • Journal of Korean Medicine Rehabilitation
    • /
    • v.20 no.1
    • /
    • pp.27-36
    • /
    • 2010
  • Objectives : We investigated the role of intracellular calcium chelator, bis-(2-aminophenoxy)-ethane-N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid(BAPTA), on the modulation of phosphorylation of the spinal N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor(NMDAR) NR1 and NR2B subunits following electroacupuncture(EA). Methods : Bilateral 2 Hz EA stimulation with 1.0 mA was delivered at those acupoints corresponding to Zusanli(ST36) and Sanyinjiao(SP6) in man via needles for 30min. Results : EA analgesia was reduced by intra-peritoneal injection at a higher dose of BAPTA from termination of EA stimulation. At 60 min after EA treatment, the total number of c-fos-immunostained neurons in each regions of the dorsal horn in the $L_{4-5}$ segments was decreased by BAPTA injection, especially in nucleus proprius. The mean integrated optical density (IOD) of NR1 and NR2B subunits were increased only in superficial laminae of EA-treated rats when compared with normal rats. However, the mean IOD of pNR1 was significantly decreased by BAPTA injection in both the superficial laminae and neck region and pNR2B in the superficial laminae. Western blot analyses confirmed the decreased expression of pNR1 and pNR2B. Conclusions : We concluded that intracellular calcium may well play an important role in EA analgesia by modulating the phosphorylation state of spinal NMDAR subunits.

Chemical Reactions in Surfactant Solution (I). Substituent Effects of 2-Alkylbenzimidazolide ions on Dephosphorylation in CTABr Solutions (계면활성제 용액속에서의 화학반응 (제1보). 미셀용액속에서의 탈인산화 반응에 미치는 2-알킬벤즈이미다졸음이온들의 치환기효과)

  • Young-Seuk Hong;Chan-Sik Park;Jung-Bae Kim
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
    • /
    • v.29 no.5
    • /
    • pp.522-532
    • /
    • 1985
  • The reactions of p-nitrophenyldiphenylphosphate (p-NPDPP) with anions of benzimidazole (BI) and its 2-alkyl derivatives (R-BI) are strongly catalyzed by the micelles of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTABr). On the other hand, the first order rate constants $(k'_{R-BI^-})$ and the second order rate constants $(k_{m(R-BI^-)})$ of the reactions mediated by R-$BI^-$in the micellar pseudophase are much smaller than those mediated by $BI^-$. In order to explain the slower rates of the micellar reactions mediated by R-$BI^-$, we compared the concentration-ratios ([R-$BI^-$]/[$BI^-$]) with the first order rate constant-ratios $(k'_{R-BI^-}/k'_{BI^-})$ and the second order constant-ratios $(k_{m(R-BI^-)}/k_{m(BI^-)})$ for the reactions taking place in the micellar pseudophase. The rate constant-ratios were much smaller than the concentration-ratios. For example in a 5 ${\times}10^{-4}$M butyl-BI solution, the two ratios were 0.089 and 0.430 (for the first order) respectively, and in a $10^{-4}$M butyl-BI solution the former was 0.100 (for the second order). This predicts that the reactivities of R-$BI^-$ in the micellar pseudophase are much smaller than that of $BI^-$. Based on the values of several kinetic parameters measured for dephosphorylation of p-NPDPP mediated by R-$BI^-$, a schemetic model is proposed. Due to the hydrophobicity and the steric effect of the alkyl substituents, these groups would penetrate into the core of the micelle for stabilization by van der Waals interaction with long cetyl groups of CTABr. Consequently, the movements of R-$BI^-$ bound to the micelle should be restricted, leading to decreased collison frequencies between the nucleophiles and p-NPDPP. We refer this as an "anchor effect". This effect became more predominent when a larger alky group in R-BI was employed and when a greater concentration of R-BI was used.

  • PDF

Nucleophilic Effect of Alkylbenzimidazole and Micellar Effect of Cetylpyridinium chloride(CPyCl) on Dephosphorylation of Diphenyl-4-nitrophenylphosphinate(DPNPIN) (Diphenyl-4-nitrophenylphosphinate(DPNPIN)의 탈인산화반응에 미치는 Alkylbenzimidazole의 친핵적 및 Cetylpyridinium chloride(CPyCl) 미셀 촉매효과)

  • Kim, Jeung-Bea;Kim, Hak-Yoon
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
    • /
    • v.19 no.5
    • /
    • pp.565-575
    • /
    • 2010
  • This study is mainly focused on micellar effect of cetylpyridinium chloride(CPyCl) solution including alkylbenzimidazole(R-BI) on dephosphorylation of diphenyl-4-nitrophenylphosphinate(DPNPIN) in carbonate buffer(pH 10.7). The reactions of DPNPIN with R-BI$^{\ominus}$ are strongly catalyzed by the micelles of CPyCl. Dephosphorylation of DPNPIN is accelerated by BI$^{\ominus}$ ion in $10^{-2}M$ carbonate buffer(pH 10.7) of $4{\times}10^{-3}M$ CPyCl solution up to 100 times as compared with the reaction in carbonate buffer by no BI solution of $4{\times}10^{-3}M$ CPyCl. The value of pseudo first order rate constant($k^m_{BI}$) of the reaction in CPyCl solution reached a maximum rate constant increasing micelle concentration. Such rate maxima are typical of micellar catalyzed bimolecular reactions. The reaction mediated by R-BI$^{\ominus}$ in micellar solutions are obviously slower than those by BI$^{\ominus}$, and the reaction rate were decreased with increase of lengths of alkyl groups. It seems due to steric effect of alkyl groups of R-BI$^{\ominus}$ in Stern layer of micellar solution. The surfactant reagent, cetylpyridinium chloride(CPyCl), strongly catalyzes the reaction of diphenyl-4-nitrophenylphosphinate(DPNPIN) with alkylbenzimidazole (R-BI) and its anion(R-BI$^{\ominus}$) in carbonate buffer(pH 10.7). For example, $4{\times}10^{-3}M$ CPyCl in $1{\times}10^{-4}M$ BI solution increase the rate constant ($k_{\Psi}=1.0{\times}10^{-2}sec^{-1}$) of the dephosphorylation by a factor ca.14, when compared with reaction ($k_{\Psi}=7.3{\times}10^{-4}sec^{-1}$) in $1{\times}10^{-4}M$ BI solution(without CPyCl). And no CPyCl solution, in $1{\times}10^{-4}M$ BI solution increase the rate constant ($k_{\Psi}=7.3{\times}10^{-4}sec^{-1}$) of the dephosphorylation by a factor ca.36, when compared with reaction ($k_{\Psi}=2.0{\times}10^{-5}sec^{-1}$) in water solution(without BI). This predicts that the reactivities of R-BI$^{\ominus}$ in the micellar pseudophase are much smaller than that of BI$^{\ominus}$. Due to the hydrophobicity and steric effect of alkyl group substituents, these groups would penetrate into the core of the micelle for stabilization by van der Waals interaction with long alkyl groups of CPyCl.

Dephosphorylation of Isopropyl phenyl-4-nitrophenylphosphinate (IPNPIN) onto 2-Alkylbenzimidazolide Anion in CTABr Micellar Solution (CTABr 미셀 용액속에서 2-Alkylbenzimidazole 음이온에 의해 추진되는 Isopropyl phenyl-4-nitrophenyl phosphinate(IPNPIN)의 탈인산화반응)

  • Kim, Jeung-Bea
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
    • /
    • v.21 no.5
    • /
    • pp.585-596
    • /
    • 2012
  • This study is mainly focused on micellar effect of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide(CTABr) solution including alkylbenzimidazole(R-BI) on dephosphorylation of isopropyl-4-nitrophenylphosphinate(IPNPIN) in carbonate buffer(pH 10.7). The reactions of IPNPIN with R-$BI^{\ominus}$ are strongly catalyzed by the micelles of CTABr. Dephosphorylation of IPNPIN is accelerated by $BI^{\ominus}$ ion in $10^{-2}$ M carbonate buffer(pH 10.7) of $4{\times}10^{-3}$ M CTABr solution up to 89 times as compared with the reaction in carbonate buffer by no benzimidazole(BI) solution of $4{\times}10^{-3}$ M CTABr. The value of pseudo first order rate constant($k_{\Psi}$) of the reaction in CTABr solution reached a maximum rate constant increasing micelle concentration. Such rate maxima are typical of micellar catalyzed bimolecular reactions. The reaction mediated by R-$BI^{\ominus}$ in micellar solutions are obviously slower than those by $BI^{\ominus}$, and the reaction rate were decreased with increase of lengths of alkyl groups. It seems due to steric effect of alkyl groups of R-$BI^{\ominus}$ in Stern layer of micellar solution. The surfactant reagent, CTABr, strongly catalyzes the reaction of IPNPIN with R-BI and its anion(R-$BI^{\ominus}$) in carbonate buffer(pH 10.7). For example, $4{\times}10^{-3}$ M CTABr in $1{\times}10^{-4}$ M BI solution increase the rate constant($k_{\Psi}=98.5{\times}10^{-3}\;sec^{-1}$) of the dephosphorylation by a factor ca.25, when compared with reaction($k_{\Psi}=3.9{\times}10^{-4}\;sec^{-1}$) in $1{\times}10^{-4}$ M BI solution(without CTABr). And no CTABr solution, in $1{\times}10^{-4}$ M BI solution increase the rate constant($k_{\Psi}=3.9{\times}10^{-4}\;sec^{-1}$) of the dephosphorylation by a factor ca.39, when compared with reaction ($k_{\Psi}=1.0{\times}10^{-5}\;sec^{-1}$) in water solution(without BI). This predicts that the reactivities of R-$BI^{\ominus}$ in the micellar pseudophase are much smaller than that of $BI^{\ominus}$. Due to the hydrophobicity and steric effect of alkyl group substituents, these groups would penetrate into the core of the micelle for stabilization by van der Waals interaction with long alkyl groups of CTABr.

Identification of Amino Acids Involved in the Sensory Function of the PrrB Histidine Kinase by Site-directed Mutagenesis (Site-directed mutagenesis에 의한 PrrB histidine kinase의 신호인지 기능에 관련된 아미노산의 발굴)

  • Kim Yong-Jin;Ko In-Jeong;Oh Jeong-Il
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.16 no.3
    • /
    • pp.485-492
    • /
    • 2006
  • The PrrBA two-component system is one of the major regulatory systems that control expression of photosynthesis genes in response to changes in oxygen tension in the anoxygenic photosynthetic bacterium, Rhodobacter sphaeroides. The system consists of the PrrB histidine kinase and the PrrA response regulator. The N-terminal transmembrane domain of PrrB serves as a signal-sensing domain and comprises six transmembrane helices forming three periplasmic loops and two cytoplasmic loops. The $3^{rd}$ and $4^{th}$ transmembrane helices and the $2^{nd}$ periplasmic loop were suggested to play a crucial role in redox-sensory function. In this study we demonstrated that mutations of Asp-90, Gln-93, Leu-94, Leu-98, and Asn-106 in the $2^{nd}$ periplasmic loop and its neighboring region led to severe defects in PrrB sensory function, indicating that these amino acids might be related to the redox-sensing function of PrrB. The mutant forms (D90E, D90N, and D90A) of PrrB were heterologously overexpressed in Escherichia coli, purified by means of affinity chromatography and their autokinase activities were comparatively assessed. The D90N form of PrrB was shown to possess higher autokinase activity than the wild-type form of PrrB, whereas the D90E form of PrrB displayed lower autokinase activity than the wild-type form of PrrB. The D90A mutation led to the loss of PrrB autokinase activity.

Beta-4 Integrin Transfection, Cloning and Functional Assay in Squamous Cell Carcinoma (Beta-4 Integrin 유전자 주입, 클로닝과 편평상피암에서의 Beta-4 Integrin 기능에 관한 연구)

  • Kim Young-Min;Carey Tomas E.
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
    • /
    • v.13 no.2
    • /
    • pp.169-179
    • /
    • 1997
  • 서론 : Laminin의 수용기로 알려진 Integrin $\alpha6\beta4$의 세포내 표현 정도는 편평상피암을 위시한 여러 악성종양의 전이능력 및 예후와 밀접한 상관관계가 없다고 알려져 있다. 이 Integrin은 Laminin과 같은 세포와 리간드와 결합하면 상피세포의 기저막 지주 구조물인 hemidesmosome의 세포체질 요소(cytoskeletal element)와 연관되어 그 결과 세포의 기저막과 세포내 케라틴을 연결하는 역할을 한다. Integrin $\alpha6\beta4$는 구조적으로 다른 많은 integrin들과 달리 $\beta$4의 세포질내 영역(cytoplasmic domain)이 특징적으로 크다. 이 세포질내 영역 $\beta$4 integrin의 기능은 아직 밝혀지지 않고 있으나 아마 세포 성장의 신호전달 및 악성종양의 특징인 침윤 전이에 관련할 것으로 보아지고 있다. 재료 및 방법: 저자들은 우선 $\beta$4 integrin의 wild type s-DNA와 $\beta$4 세포질내 영역(cytoplasmic domain) 및 $\beta$4의 tyrosine 인산화 반응 부위가 각각 결손된 c-DNA를 PCR을 통하여 합성하여 pRc/CMV 벡터에 삽입한 후 원래 $\beta$4 integrin의 발현이 결집된 인간 방광암 세포에 Calcium phosphate precipitation 방법으로 주입(transfection)시켜 형질변환된 세포를 면역형광법, Flow cytometry 및 Immunoprecipitation 방법으로 클로닝하여 wild type $\beta$4-full length(Clone FL), truncated $\beta$4-cytoplasmic domain(C1one CD), 및 mutated $\beta$4-tyrosine phosphorylation site (Clone M)을 얻었다. 암 세포의 부착 및 침투 능력의 기능적 연구로 모노 클로날 항체와 fibronectin, laminin, Matrigel을 단백질 기질로 사용하였으며 결과 비교를 위하여 pRc/CMV 벡터만 주입시켰던 클로운과 방광암 세포주를 $\beta$4 integrin 음성 대조군으로 또한 이 Integrin의 높은 발현을 보이는 두경부 편평상피암 세포주를 양성 대조군으로 이용하였다. 결과 : 세포부착능력에 있어서 온전한 $\beta$4 cytoplasmic domain이 존재하는 클로운이 laminin에 강한 부착능력을 보였으나 fibronectin의 부착정도는 $\beta$4 integrin의 표현정도와 관계없이 모든 클로운에서 비슷하였다. Matrigel을 투과하는 암세포 침윤 능력에서는 $\beta$4 integrin의 표현이 존재하는 클로운들이 투과 능력이 높았으나 세포외 리간드가 없는 control membrane을 사용하였을 때와 비교하여 투과능력의 차이를 보이지 않았다. 결론 : 유전자 주입(transfection) 방법으로 integrin의 다양한 클로운의 합성이 가능하여 이 Integrin의 암 세포의 부착 및 침투 능력에서의 기능을 규명 할 수 있게 한다. $\beta$4 integrin은 편평상피 암세포의 부착에 있어서 세포외 리간드 laminin과 특이 결합하여 부착 능력을 높이는 중요한 역할을 하며 편평상피 암세포의 침투에 있어서는 $\beta$4 integrin의 표현이 침투 능력을 높이는 역할을 하나 이때에는 laminin과 같은 리간드와의 특이 결합에 의존하지는 않는 것으로 사료된다.

  • PDF

Effects of Amitriptyline and Imipramine on Superoxide Generation, Myeloperoxidase Release, Leukotriene $B_4$ in Human Neutrophils (Amitriptyline과 Imipramine이 호중구에서의 Superoxide 생성, Myeloperoxidase 유리, Leukotriene $B_4$생성과 칼슘 동원에 나타내는 영향)

  • Shin Yong-Kyoo;Lee Chung-Soo;Lee Kwang-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
    • /
    • v.31 no.1
    • /
    • pp.123-133
    • /
    • 1995
  • A number of tricyclic antidepressants appear to have inhibitory action on calmodulin. Although amitriptyline, imipramine and doxepine have been shown to inhibit calcium uptake, oxidative phosphorylation and ATPase activities, effects of amitriptyline, imipramine and doxepine on functional responses of human neutrophils have not been elucidated. In this study, effects amitriptyline, imipramine and doxepine on superoxide and hydrogen peroxide generation, myeloperoxidase release, leukocriene B4 formation and intracellular calcium level were investigated. Superoxide and hydrogen peroxide production in heat aggregated IgG-activated neutrophils were inhibited by amitriptyline, imipramine and doxepine. EDTA, EGTA, verapamil and bepredil inhibited heat aggregated IgG-induced superoxide production. Chlorpromazine, trifluoperazine, staurosporine and H-7 also inhibited it. PMA-induced superoxide production was inhibited by amitriptyline, imipramine, doxepine, chlorpromazine and H-7. Amitriptyline, imipramine, chlorpromazine and trifluoperazine inhibited the myeloperoxidase release by heat aggregated IgG. Productions of $LTB_4$, and 5-HETE in heat aggregated IgG-activated neutrophils were inhibited by amitriptyline, imipramine and doxepine. In neutrophils, elevation of intracellular calcium induced by heat aggregated IgG was inhibited by amitriptyline, imipramine, doxepine, chlorpromazine and EGTA, while verapamil slightly inhibited increase of intracellular calcium and H-7 did not inhibit it. These results suggest that the inhibitory effect of amitriptyline, imipramine and doxepine on respiratory burst, myeloperoxidase release and LTB4 production in heat aggregated IgG-activated neutrophils appears to be ascribed to the inhibition of calcium mobilization, calmodulin and protein kinase C.

  • PDF

Direct tyrosine phosphorylation of Akt/PKB by epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF 수용체에 의한 Akt/PKB의 tyrosine 인산화에 대한 연구)

  • Bae, Sun-Sik;Choi, Jang-Hyun;Yun, Sung-Ji;Kim, Eun-Kyung;Oh, Yong-Suk;Kim, Chi-Dae;Suh, Pann-Ghill
    • Journal of Life Science
    • /
    • v.17 no.2
    • /
    • pp.185-191
    • /
    • 2007
  • Akt/PKB plays pivotal roles in many physiological responses such as proliferation, differentiation, apoptosis, and angiogenesis. Here we show that tyrosine phosphorylation of Akt/PKB is essential for the subsequent phosphorylation at $Thr^{\308}$. Tyrosine phosphorylation of Akt/PKB was induced by stimulation of COS-7 cells with epidermal growth factor receptor (EGF) and its phosphorylation was significantly enhanced by constitutive targeting of Akt/PKB to the plasma membrane by myristoylation. Interestingly, incubation of affinity purified Myc-tagged Akt/PKB with purified EGF receptor resulted in tyrosine phosphorylation as well as $Ser^{\473}$ phosphorylation of Akt/PKB. In addition, tyrosine-phosphorylated Akt/PKB could directly associate with activated EGF receptor in vitro. Finally, alanine mutation at putative tyrosine phosphorylation site $(Tyr^{\326})$ abolished EGF induced $Thr^{\308}$ phosphorylation of wild type as well as constitutively active form of Akt/PKB. Given these results we suggest here that direct tyrosine phosphorylation of Akt/PKB by EGF receptor could be another mechanism of EGF-induced control of many physiological responses.