• Title, Summary, Keyword: 인산화반응

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Synthesis of Crosslinked Chitosan Phosphate and Its Metal Ion Adsorption Characteristics (I)-Crosslinking and Phosphorylation of Chitosan- (인산화 가교 키토산의 합성 및 금속이온 흡착 특성(I)-키토산의 가교 및 인산화 반응-)

  • 이종순;홍성일전동원
    • Textile Science and Engineering
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    • v.31 no.12
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    • pp.966-975
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    • 1994
  • Chitosan. a natural biodegradable polymer, was crosslinked with epichlorohydrin in alkaline condition and phosphorylated with P2O5 in methanesulfonic acid to use as a chelating polymer. Insolubility of crosslinking reaction product in acidic solution confirmed that crosslinking was occurred favorably by epichlorohydrin and it was proved that a swelling ratio of crosslinked chitosan(c-chitosan) in acetic acid solution could be thought as a measure of degree of crosslinking. Crofslinking mechanism was presumed from the various crosslinking methods. The effects of crosslinking ratio and phosphorylation conditions(amount of phosphorus-pentoxide, temperature and time) on the phosphorylation of c-chitosan were investigated.

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Effect of Phosphate Fertilizer and Manure in Reducing Cadmium Phytoavailability in Radish-grown Soil (중금속 오염 농경지에서 축분퇴비와 인산비료의 혼용시용에 의한 카드뮴 식물이용성 저감효과)

  • Hong, Chang-Oh;Kim, Sang-Yoon;Kim, Pil-Joo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.30 no.3
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    • pp.261-267
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    • 2011
  • ACKGROUND: Cadmium (Cd) has long been recognized as one of most toxic elements. Application of organic amendments and phosphate fertilizers can decrease the bioavailability of heavy metals in contaminated soil. METHODS AND RESULTS: This study was conducted to evaluate effect of combined application of phosphate fertilizer and manure in reducing cadmium phytoavailability in heavy metal contaminated soil. Phosphate fertilizers [Fused and super phosphate (FSP) and $K_2HPO_4$ (DPP)] and manure (M) were applied as single application (FSP, DPP, and M) to combined application (FSP+M and DPP+M) before radish seeding. $K_2HPO_4$ decreased $NH_4OAc$ extractable Cd and plant Cd concentration, mainly due to increases in soil pH and negative charge. However, FSP increased $NH_4OAc$ extractable Cd and plant Cd concentration. Manure significantly increased soil pH and negative charge. Combined application of phosphate fertilizer and manure were much more effective in reducing Cd phytoavailability than a simple application of each component. Calculated solubility diagram indicated that Cd concentrations in the solution of soils amended with phosphate fertilizers and manure were undersaturated with respect to all potential Cd minerals [$Cd_3(PO_4)_2$, $CdCO_3$, $Cd(OH)_2$, and $CdHPO_4$]. Plant Cd concentration and $NH_4OAc$ extractable Cd were negatively related to soil pH and negative charge. CONCLUSION: Alleviation of Cd phytoavailability with phosphate fertilizer and manure can be attributed primarily to Cd immobilization due to the increase in soil pH and negative charge rather than Cd and phosphate precipitation. Therefore, combined application of alkaline phosphate materials and manure is effective for reducing Cd phytoavailability.

A Study on the Immobilization of Lipase and Its Application for the Synthesis of Glycerides (리파제의 고정화 및 글리세리드 합성반응으로의 응용에 관한 연구)

  • Chung, Dae-won;Song, Jhea-hyun;Paik, Min-jung
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.16 no.6
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    • pp.731-736
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    • 2005
  • In this paper, immobilization of lipase (Rhizomucor miehei, Rhm) onto ion-exchange resin pretreated with oleic acid and its application were studied. Immobilization efficiency was reached to 82% when weakly basic anion exchange resin, Duolite A-568, was used. Immobilized Rhm was stable in water, chloroform and hexane, however, unstable in alcoholic solvents. When immobilized Rhm was applied to the esterification reaction of glycerol and fatty acid, content of DG in the product mixture was ca. 80 mol% and 1,3-DG in total DG reached to 98%.

Vibrio Vulnificus Induces the Inflammation of Mouse Ileal Epithelium: Involvement of Protein Kinase C and Nuclear Factor-Kappa B (회장 상피세포에서 비브리오균(Vibrio vulnificus)의 염증 유도 기작 연구: protein kinase C와 nuclear factor kappa-B의 관련성)

  • Han, Gi Yeon;Jung, Young Hyun;Jang, Kyung Ku;Choi, Sang Ho;Lee, Sei-Jung
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.664-670
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    • 2014
  • In the present study, we investigate the role of V. vulnificus in promoting the inflammation of mouse ileal ephitelium and its related signaling pathways. ICR mice were infected orally with V. vulnificus ($1{\times}10^9CFU$) for 16 h as a representative model of food-borne infection. To find the major portal of entry of V. vulnificus in mouse intestine, we have measured the levels of bacterial colonization in small intestine, colon, spleen, and liver. V. vulnificus appeared to colonize in intestine and colon in the order of ileum >> jejunum> colon, but lack in the duodenum, spleen, and liver. V. vulnificus in ileum caused severe necrotizing enteritis and showed shortened villi heights accompanied by an expanded width and inflammation, compared with the control mice. V. vulnificus induced ileal epithelium inflammation by activating phosphorylation of PKC and membrane translocation of $PKC{\alpha}$. V. vulnificus induced the phosphorylation of ERK and JNK, but did not affect p38 MAPK phosphorylation. Notably, V. vulnificus stimulated the I-${\kappa}B$-dependent phosphorylation of NF-${\kappa}B$ in mouse ileal epithelium. Finally, the ileal infection of V. vulnificus resulted in a significant increase in expression of proinflammatory cytokines and Toll-like receptors, respectively, compared to the control. Collectively, our results indicate that V. vulnificus induces ileal epithelium inflammation by increasing NF-${\kappa}B$ phosphorylation via activation of PKC, ERK, and JNK, which is critical for host defense mechanism in food-borne infection by V. vulnificus.

Conversion of Methanol to Hydrocarbons over Heteropoly Acids(II) (헤테로폴리산 촉매에 의한 탄화수소로의 메탄올 전환반응(II))

  • Hong, Seong-Soo;Lim, Ki-Chul;Lee, Ho-In
    • Applied Chemistry for Engineering
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.335-341
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    • 1993
  • In the conversion of methanol, the effect of acide property of heteropoly compounds on the catalytic activity was investigated. The pretreatment of Cu-exchanged 12-tungstophosphoric acid with hydrogen enhanced both the selectivity for propane and the conversion of methanol, and the pretreatment of Al-exchanged 12-tungstophosphoric acid with water enhanced the acid strength of the catalyst. The water added into the reactant decreased the conversion of methanol, while the pretreatment temperature did not affect it but the propylene/propane ratio. Various partially-substituted Al salts of 12-tungstophosphoric acid showed different catalytic activities depending on the degree of Al-substitution.

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The Measurement Method Using Hydrogen Peroxide for Quantification of Phosphate Ion Poisoning of Pt Based Catalyst (과산화수소를 이용한 Pt계 촉매의 인산 이온 피독 특성 정량 평가 방법)

  • Yang, Seungwon;Park, Jeongjin;Chung, Yongjin;Kwon, Yongchai
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.57 no.3
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    • pp.438-443
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    • 2019
  • A new measurement method is suggested to quantify the phosphate poisoning of cathodic Pt catalyst for HT-PEMFC. To do that, hydrogen peroxide was used as an indicator to reduce the error which has been occurred in conventional electrochemical measurement such as CV or ORR RDE with high concentration of phosphate ions. As a result, the current density induced from the reaction of hydrogen peroxide decomposition increased proportionally to the concentration of phosphate ion while the conventional methods show has a significant error with high concentration of phosphate ion. Thus, it is confirmed that the suggested way is superior to the conventional measurement method for the quantification of phosphate ion poisoning in an atmosphere similar to the actual operation condition of HT-PEMFC.

Nickel recovery and phosphorus removal from spent electroless Nickel-plating solution (무전해 니켈도금 폐액으로부터 니켈회수와 인의 제거방법)

  • Kim, Yu-Sang;Jeong, Gwang-Mi
    • Proceedings of the Korean Institute of Surface Engineering Conference
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    • pp.312-313
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    • 2015
  • 무전해 도금은 석출응력이 낮고 작업하기가 용이하기 때문에 산업분야에 있어서 중요한 역할을 한다. 무전해 도금 공정에 있어서, 니켈금속은 차아인산염, 아미노보레인 혹은 수소화붕소 화합물($HBF_4$)에 의한 니켈이온의 화학적 환원에 의해 도금된다. 환원반응이 진행함에 따라서 도금액 중에서 니켈과 차아인산염 이온은 감소한다. 이에 이러한 이온을 보충하기 위하여 도금액 중에 황산니켈과 차아인산나트륨이 일반적으로 첨가된다. 하지만 축적된 인산염, 황산염, 나트륨과 이외의 물질이 전착 박막의 품질을 떨어뜨리고 도금액은 폐기되기도 한다. 니켈회수 속도는 종래의 50% 이하였던 것이 90%이상으로 향상되었다. 이온교환법은 니켈도금 폐액으로부터 니켈회수에 필요한 친환경적이고 원가절감의 기술이라고 사료된다. 특히, 갈탄이 저렴하고 양이온 교환성능이 뛰어나다. 이유는 -COOH, -OH 등의 기능성 그룹을 갖기 때문이다. Fe-P 화합물은 식물에 유용하지 못하고 마그네슘과 칼슘 기반의 석출물은 저렴하고 취급이 용이하며 비료와 같이 재활용이 가능하기 때문에 일반적인 인의 제거 수단이 될 수 있다. 본고에서는 니켈도금 폐액으로부터 인을 제거하는 데 $Ca(OH)_2$, $CaCl_2$$CaCO_3$를 채택하여 인이 제거되는 정도를 비교하였고 니켈회수율을 높이기 위하여 갈탄을 사용하였다.

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Partial Purification of OsCPK11 from Rice Seedlings and Its Biochemical Characterization (벼 유식물에서 OsCPK11의 부분 정제 및 생화학적 특성 규명)

  • Shin, Jae-Hwa;Kim, Sung-Ha
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.137-146
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    • 2020
  • Calcium is one of the important secondary signaling molecules in plant cells. Calcium-dependent protein kinases (CDPK)-the sensor proteins of Ca2+ and phosphorylating enzymes-are the most abundant serine/threonine kinases in plant cells. They convert and transmit signals in response to various stimuli, resulting in specific responses in plants. In rice, 31 CDPK gene families have been identified, which are mainly involved in plant growth and development and are known to play roles in response to various stress conditions. However, little is known about the biochemical characteristics of CDPK proteins. In this study, OsCPK11-a CDPK in rice-was partially purified, and its biochemical characteristics were found. Partially purified OsCPK11 from rice seedlings was obtained by three-step column chromatography that involved anion exchange chromatography consisting of DEAE, hydrophobic interaction chromatography consisting of phenyl-Sepharose, and gel filtration chromatography consisting of Sephacryl-200HR. An in vitro kinase assay using partially purified OsCPK11 was also performed. This partially purified OsCPK11 had a molecular weight of 54 kDa and showed a strong hydrophobic interaction with the hydrophobic resin. In vitro kinase assay showed that the OsCPK11 also had Ca2+-dependent autophosphorylation activity. The OsCPK11 phosphorylated histone III-S, and the optimum pH for its kinase activity was found to be 7.5~8.0. The native OsCPK11 shared several biochemical characteristics with recombinant OsCPK11 studied previously, and both had Ca2+-dependent autophosphorylation activity and favored histone III-S as a substrate for kinase activity, which also had a Ca2+-dependence.

Chemical Reactions in Surfactant Solutions (Ⅳ) : Micellar Rate Effect on Reactions of Hydroxide and o-Iodosobenzoate Ions with Organic Phosphinates (계면활성제 용액속에서의 화학반응 (제 4 보) : $OH^-$ 및 o-Iodosobenzoate 이온에 의한 유기 포스피네이트의 탈인산화 반응에 미치는 CTAX 미셀의 영향)

  • Hong, Yeong Seok;Kim, Hyeon Muk
    • Journal of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.38 no.10
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    • pp.753-762
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    • 1994
  • Dephosphorylation of diphenyl- or isopropylphenyl-4-nitrophenylphosphinate (DPNPIN or IPNPIN) mediated by $OH^-$ or o-iodosobenzoate ion ($IB^-$) are relatively slow in aqueous solution. The reactions in CTAX micellar solutions are, however, very accelerated, because CTAX micelles can accommodate both reactants in their Stern layer in which they can easily react, while hydrophilic $OH^-$(or $IB^-$) and hydrophobic phosphinates are not mixed in water. Even though the concentrations (> $10^{-3}$ M) of $OH^-$(or $IB^-$) in CTAX solutions are much larger amounts than those ($6{\times}10^{-6}$ M) of phosphinates, the rate constants of the dephosphorylations are largely influenced by change of the concentration of the ions, which means that the reactions are not followed by the pseudo first order kinetics. In comparison to effect of the counter ions of CTAX in the reactions, CTACl is more effective on the dephosphorylation of DPNPIN (or IPNPIN) than CTABr due to easier expelling of $Cl^-$ ion by $OH^-$(or $IB^-$) ion from the micelle, because of easier solvation $Cl^-$ ion by water molecules. The reactivity of IPNPIN with $OH^-$(or $IB^-$) is lower than that of DPNPIN. The reason seems that the 'bulky' isopropyl group of IPNPIN hinders the attack of the nucleophiles. The mechanism of reaction of IPNPIN with IB- ion concluded as 'nucleophilic' instead of 'general basic' by a trapping experiment and a measured kinetic isotope effect.

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The Effect of ${\Delta}^{12}PGJ2$ and $PPAR{\Gamma}$ Agonist on the Proliferation and Differentiation of Osteoblast ((${\Delta}^{12}PGJ_2$ 및 PPAR 감마 길항체가 조골세포의 증식 및 분화에 미치는 효과)

  • Heo, Jeong-Mi;Kim, Kyoung-Wha;Chung, Kyoung-Wook;Lee, Hye-Joon;Rhyu, In-Chul;Ku, Young;Chung, Chong-Pyoung
    • Journal of Periodontal and Implant Science
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.133-152
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    • 2005
  • 1. 목적 Prostaglandin은 치주질환과 관련된 국소적 골 대사에 중요한 역할을 한다. ${\Delta}^{12}PGJ_2$는 생체 내에서 혈장의 존재 하에 형성되는 천연 $PGD_2$ 대사산물이며 peroxisome- proliferator에 의해 활성화되는 감마 수용체 (PPAR ${\Gamma}$)에 대해 높은 친화성을 갖는 리간드로서 핵 수용체군에 속하는 전사조절인자이다. 이 연구의 목적은 골화 과정에서 ${\Delta}^{12}PGJ_2$의 역할을 규명하기 위해, 조골세포주의 증식과 분화에 미치는 영향과 그에 관련된 세포기전을 조사하는 데에 있다. 2. 방법 인간 골육종세포주인 Saos-2 (ATCC.HTB 85)와 쥐의 조골세포주 (MC3T3-E1)를 배양한 후 실험군에 농도가 각각 $10^{-5}$, $10^{-6}$, $10^{-7}$, $10^{-8}$, $10^{-9}$ 몰인 ${\Delta}^{12}PGJ_2$와 ciglitazone (합성 PPAR 감마 길항체)를 첨가하였다. 조골세포에서 PPAR 감마의 발현을 관찰하기 위해 역전사효소-중합효소연쇄반응(RT-PCR)을 특정한 primer를 이용하여 시행하였다. 세포 증식은 1일, 2일, 3 일째에 MIT 분석법으로 측정하였고, 2 일째에 알칼리성 인산효소 (ALPase) 생산을 측정하였다. 위의 결과에서 얻은 적정한 농도에서 다양한 조골세포 분화의 표지자들-제 1 형 교원질, 알칼리성 인산효소, osteopontin 및 bone sialoprotein-에 대한 간이 정량적 역전사효소-중합효소연쇄반응 (semiquantitative RT-PCR)을 실시하였으며 골결절 형성에 대한 효과를 알아보고자 석회화 분석도 시행하였다. 3. 결과 ${\Delta}^{12}PGJ_2$와 ciglitazone 모두 Saos-2 세포주의 증식을 촉진시켰다 .$10^{-8}$ 몰의 ${\Delta}^{12}PGJ_2$$10^{-6}$몰의 ciglitazone을 첨가한 실험군을 대조군과 비교했을 때, 시간에 비례하여 세포 증식률이 증가되었다. 알칼리성 인산효소의 활성화 검사에서도 증식률에서와 유사한 결과를 보여주었다. 간이 정량적 RT-PCR에서는 ${\Delta}^{12}PGJ_2$로 처리한 군의 경우 제 1 형 교원질, 알칼리성 인산효소, osteopontin, 그리고 bone sialoprotein의 상대적 mRNA 수준이 유의하게 높았다. 석회화 분석에서는 MC3T3-E1 세포를 $10^{-6}$ 몰의 ${\Delta}^{12}PGJ_2$로 처리한 군과 $10^{-5}$ 몰의 ciglitazone으로 처리한 군에서 현저한 골결절 형성을 보였다. 이러한 결과들은 ${\Delta}^{12}PGJ_2$가 유용한 골 유도물질이 될 수 있으며 또한 그 작용기전이 PPAR 감마-의존형 경로와 연관되어 있음을 보여준다.