• Title/Summary/Keyword: 입자상물질

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Size Distributions of Trace Elements in Airborn Particulates Collected using Drum impactor at Gosan, Jeju Island : Measurements in Springtime 2002 (DRUM impactor를 이용한 대기 입자상 물질 중 원소성분의 입경분포 특성 : 제주도 고산지역의 2002년 봄철 (3.29-5.30) 측정 연구)

  • 한진석;문광주;류성윤;안준영;공부주;홍유덕;김영준
    • Journal of Korean Society for Atmospheric Environment
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.555-569
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    • 2004
  • Size -segregated measurements of aerosol composition using 8-stage DRUM impactor are used to determine the transport of natural and anthropogenic aerosols at Gosan site from 29 March to 30 May in 2002. Separation of ambient aerosols by DRUM impactor offers many Advantages over other standard filtration techniques. Some of the most important advantages are the ability to segregate into details by particle tire, to better preserve chemical integrity since the air stream doesn't pars through the deposit, to collect samples as a function of time, and to have a wide variety of impaction surfaces available to match analytical needs. Although the transport of Yellow sand is a well-known phenomenon in springtime, the result of measurement shows that not only soil dust but also anthropogenic aerosols, including sulfur, enriched trace metals such as Pb, Ni, Zn. Cu, Cr, As, Se, Br, are transported to Gosan in springtime. This study combines the size- and time-resolved aerosol composition measurements with isentropic, backward air-mass trajectories in order to identify some potential source regions of anthropogenic aerosols. As a result, during the NYS period, the average concentration of PM$_{10}$ was 46$\mu\textrm{g}$/㎥, Si, Al. S, Fe, Cl, K, Ca were higher than 1,000 ng/㎥ and Ti was about 100 ng/㎥. The concentrations of Zn, Mn, Cu. Pb, Br, Rb, V, Cr, Ni. At, Se ranged between 1 and 70 ng/㎥. More than 50% typical soil elements, tuck as Al, Si, Fe, Cd. Ti, Cr, Cu, Br. were distributed in a coarse particle range(5.0-12${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$). In other hand, anthropogenic pollutants, luck as S, N, Vi, were mainly distributed in a fine particle range (0.09-0.56${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$). During the YS period, PM$_{10}$ increased about 8 times than NYS period, and main soil elements, such as Al, Si, S, K, V, Mn, Fe also doubled in coarse particle range (1.15-12${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$). But Zn, As, Pb, Cu and Se, which distributed in the time aerosols (0.09-0.56${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$), were on the same level with or decreased than NYS period. Finally. except the YS Period, coarse particles (2.5-12${\mu}{\textrm}{m}$) are inferred to be influenced by soil, coal combustion, waste incineration, ferrous and nonferrous sources through similar pathways with Yellow Sand. But fine particles have different sources, such as coal combustion, gasoline vehicle, biomass burning, oil or coal combustion, nonferrous and ferrous metal sources, which are transported from China, Korea peninsula and local sources.ces.

A Study on the Factors Affecting the Air Environment in Chungnam Province - Focusing on Cheonan, Dangjin, and Seosan (충남 대기환경 영향요인에 관한 연구 - 천안, 당진, 서산 등을 중심으로)

  • Hwang, Kyu-Won;Kim, Jinyoung;Kwon, Young-Ju
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.118-127
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    • 2021
  • Recently, the public's interest in the air environment has increased, and public health is threatened by fine particulate matter. Furthermore, the government continues efforts to improve air quality by expanding the monitoring of air pollutants and reinforcing environmental standards. Since air quality differs depending on the region in the Korean Peninsula, it is currently necessary to identify the cause and search for influencing factors. In this study, the atmospheric environment and regional differences in cities located in the Chungnam Province were observed. As a research method, regression analysis was performed for weather conditions, such as temperature, wind speed, precipitation, and season and targeted at air pollutants, such as SO2, NO2, CO, O3, PM10, and PM2.5, as well as heavy metals contained in particulate matter, such as Pb, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, As, Mn, Fe, Al, Ca, and Mg. In the case of PM10, the concentrations of Mn(0.4884) in Cheonan, CO(0.3329) in Dangjin, and Mg(0.5691) in Seosan were highest. In the case of PM2.5, Cheonan NO2(0.4759), Dangjin CO(0.4128), and Seosan NO2(0.3715) were significantly affected. In summary, the influencing factors vary according to the region in Chungnam province in terms of air quality, and there is a difference in the degree of contribution. Therefore, it is considered that the Korean government's management of air quality is required for each region.

Exposures to Ultrafine Particles, PM2.5 and PM10 in Cooking and Non-Cooking Areas of Department Stores in Seoul (서울시 백화점 내 조리지역과 비조리지역의 입자상 물질 (Ultrafine Particles, PM2.5, PM10) 노출)

  • Cho, Hyeri;Gu, Seulgi;Kim, Jeonghoon;Kim, Satbyul;Lee, Kiyoung
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.144-150
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    • 2013
  • Objectives: Cooking activity in indoor environments can generate particulate matter. The objective of this study was to determine the concentrations of ultrafine particles (UFP), $PM_{2.5}$, and $PM_{10}$ in cooking and non-cooking areas of major department stores in Seoul. Methods: Eighteen department stores in Seoul, Korea were measured for concentrations of particulate matter. Using real-time monitors, concentrations of UFP, $PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$ were simultaneously measured in cooking and non-cooking areas on the floor with a food court and a non-cooking floor. Results: The concentrations of UFP, $PM_{2.5}$ and $PM_{10}$ were significantly higher in cooking areas than in noncooking areas and non-cooking floors (p<0.05). UFP and $PM_{2.5}$ were significantly correlated in cooking areas and non-cooking areas but not in non-cooking floors. $PM_{2.5}$ were consisted of approximately 81% in $PM_{10}$ and highly correlated with $PM_{10}$ in all places. Conclusion: A higher correlation between UFP and $PM_{2.5}$ was shown on cooking floor than on non-cooking floor in department stores. High levels of fine particles were caused by cooking activities at food courts. The further management of PM is needed to improve the indoor PM levels at food courts in department stores.

Transport and management of diffuse pollutants using low impact development technologies applied to highly urbanized land uses (고도화 도시지역에 적용된 LID 기법의 비점오염물질 관리 및 이동)

  • Geronimo, F.K.F.;Choi, H.S.;Kim, L.H.
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.173-180
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to understand factors affecting TSS and heavy metals transport on the road, parking lot and roof. During storm events, heavy metals, which were mostly attached to TSS, were also transported when TSS was washed off in the road, parking lot and roof. This finding may be supported by the significant correlations between TSS load and total and soluble heavy metals load including Cr, Fe, Cu, and Pb (Pearson r value: 0.52 to 0.73; probability p value<0.01). Generation and transport of TSS and heavy metals were greater in the road and parking lot compared to the roof due to vehicular activities, slope and greater catchment areas of these sites. It was found that TSS transport during peak flows of storm events ranges from 65% to 75% implying that by controlling peak flows, TSS transportation to nearby water bodies may be decreased. Depending on the target TSS and heavy metal reduction, sizing of low impact development (LID) technologies and green infrastructures (GI) such as infiltration trench, tree box filter, and rain garden may be calculated. Future researchers were recommended to assess the limitations of the systems and determine the design considerations for these types of facilities.

A Study on the Fine Dust Removal Equipment of Pressurized Water type for the Removal of Exhaust Gas Fine Dust and Volatile Organic Compounds from the Non-industrial combustion plant (비산업 연소 사업장 배출 가스상 미세먼지와 휘발성 유기 화합물 제거를 위한 가압수식 미세먼지 제거 장치 연구)

  • Youn, Jae-Seo;Kim, Sang-Min;Lee, Ye-Ji;Noh, Seong-Yeo
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.11
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    • pp.506-512
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    • 2018
  • The fine dust generated in the home and restaurant business occupies a low ratio of about 4% of the total fine dust emissions. However, at the foodservice business, the rate of change of the pollutant concentration is very high, so that the temporary fine dust concentration can be measured up to 60 times. The pollutants generated from non-industrial combustion plants consist of particulate fine dust and gaseous organic compounds. To remove these pollutants, cleaning dust collection system, which is an effective system for simultaneous removal of gaseous and particulate matter, is applied. This is a method of increasing the probability of diffusion capture of the Brownian motion by pressurized liquid injection method using the atomizing nozzle. The dust removal efficiency of the fine dust collecting system was analyzed by nozzle spraying air pressure condition and angle using the manufactured fine dust removing system. As a result, it was confirmed that the efficiency of removal of fine dust and gaseous organic compounds was more than 90%. The developed system is expected to be highly usable in the future because it can remove particulate dust from the existing plant hood system without any installation cost.

Ag-Loaded LaSrCoFeO3 Perovskite Nano-Fibrous Web for Effective Soot Oxidation (Ag 담지된 LaSrCoFeO3 섬유상 perovskite 촉매의 탄소 입자상 물질의 산화반응)

  • Lee, Chanmin;Jeon, Yukwon;Hwang, Ho Jung;Ji, Yunseong;Kwon, Ohchan;Jeon, Ok Sung;Shul, Yong-Gun
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.57 no.4
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    • pp.584-588
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    • 2019
  • The catalytic combustion of particulate matter (PM) is one of the key technologies to meet emission standards of diesel engine system. Therefore, we herein suggest Ag loaded $La_{0.6}Sr_{0.4}Co_{0.2}Fe_{0.8}O_3$ perovskite web catalyst. They were produced by the electrospinning method. FE-SEM, EDS mapping, XRD, XPS were studied to investigate the crystal and morphological structures of loaded Ag particles and $La_{0.6}Sr_{0.4}Co_{0.2}Fe_{0.8}O_3$ perovskite web catalyst. Following the catalytic soot oxidation, we found that the Ag loaded $La_{0.6}Sr_{0.4}Co_{0.2}Fe_{0.8}O_3$ perovskiteweb catalyst showed the higher catalytic activities (e.g., $T_{50}=490^{\circ}C$) than the only $La_{0.6}Sr_{0.4}Co_{0.2}Fe_{0.8}O_3$ perovskite web catalyst (e.g., $T_{50}=586^{\circ}C$). Thus, this finding suggests that Ag loaded $La_{0.6}Sr_{0.4}Co_{0.2}Fe_{0.8}O_3$ perovskite web catalyst can be a promising candidate for enhancing the soot oxidation.

Characteristics of stormwter runoff from highways with unit traffic volume (고속도로 자동차 통행량에 따른 강우유출수 유출 특성 분석)

  • Choi, Jiyeon;Hong, Jungsun;Kang, Heeman;Kim, Lee-Hyung
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.275-281
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    • 2016
  • This study was conducted to analyze the runoff characteristics of the highway depending on the number of vehicles and to provide the installation proposal of an NPS pollution reduction facility. There were a total of 5 monitoring sites used for the study namely, Gyeongbu, Seohaean, Honam and Tongyeoung Dageon highway. Monitoring events started from 2006 until 2015 having a total of 44 storm events. According to monitoring statistics, the average antecedent dry days (ADD) and rainfall was 6.2 days and 19.2 mm, respectively. The Gyeongbu Highway (H-4) was recorded having the highest Average Daily Traffic and Catchment Area (ADT/CA) with $49.4car/day{\cdot}m^2$ while other site were less than $10car/day{\cdot}m^2$. The average concentration of the NPS pollutants generated from monitoring sites were 63.5 mg/L(TSS), 24.9 mg/L(BOD), 3.35 mg/L(TN), 0.63 mg/L(TP) and 298 ug/L(Total Zn). This exhibited lower values in comparison to the remarks of highway related runoff EMC values published in Korea. Moreover, through the results of the correlation analysis between the contaminant concentration and ADT/CA, $R^2$ value of SS showed the highest correlation with 585. Through the correlation equation between ADT/CA and EMC of TSS, when there is 73.7 mg/L of TSS EMC found from a domestic highway, ADT/CA ratio is normally $13car/day{\cdot}m^2$. Therefore, in a case of more than 13 cars passing through a certain area, the area can be considered and present as the point of generation of nonpoint source pollutants. Also, in this study, since it considered a unit area ADT indicated in previous studies, it was determined that it has a high applicability and utilization in generalized units than conventional study which were conventionally done.

Experimental Research on the Power Improvement by Increasing Intake pressure in a 1.4 L Turbocharged CNG Port Injection Spark Ignition Engine (1.4L 급 터보 CNG 엔진에서 흡기압력 상승에 따른 출력 증대 효과에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jeong-Woo;Park, Cheol-Woong;Bae, Jong-Won;Kim, Chang-Gi;Lee, Sun-Youp;Kim, Yong-Rae
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Gas
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.90-96
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    • 2019
  • Natural gas has been regarded as one of major alternative fuels, because of the increment of mining shale gas and supplying PNG(Pipeline Natural Gas) from Russia. Thus, it needs to broaden the usage of natural gas as the increasing its supplement. In this situation, application of natural gas on the transport area is a good suggestion to reduce exhaust emissions such as CO2(carbon dioxides) and soot from vehicles. For this reason, natural gas can be applied to SI(spark ignition) engines due to its anti-knocking and low auto-ignitibility characteristics. Recently, since turbocharged SI engine has been widely used, it needs to apply natural gas on the turbocharged SI engine. However, there is a major challenge for using natural gas on turbocharged SI engine, because it is hard to make natural gas direct injection in the cylinder, while gasoline is possible. As a result, there is a loss of fresh air when natural gas is injected by MPI (multi-point injection) method under the same intake pressure with gasoline-fueled condition. It brings the power reduction. Therefore, in this research, intake pressure was increased by controling the turbocharger system under natural gas-fueled condition to improve power output. The goal of improved power is the same level with that of gasoline-fueled condition under the maximum torque condition of each engine speed. As a result, the maximum power levels, which are the same with those of gasoline-fueled conditions, with improved brake thermal efficiency could be achieved for each engine speed (from 2,000 to 6,000 rpm) by increasing intake pressure 5-27 % compared to those of gasoline-fueled conditions.

Performance assessment of an urban stormwater infiltration trench considering facility maintenance (침투도랑 유지관리를 통한 도시 강우유출수 처리 성능 평가)

  • Reyes, N.J. D.G.;Geronimo, F.K.F.;Choi, H.S.;Kim, L.H.
    • Journal of Wetlands Research
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.424-431
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    • 2018
  • Stormwater runoff containing considerable amounts of pollutants such as particulates, organics, nutrients, and heavy metals contaminate natural bodies of water. At present, best management practices (BMP) intended to reduce the volume and treat pollutants from stormwater runoff were devised to serve as cost-effective measures of stormwater management. However, improper design and lack of proper maintenance can lead to degradation of the facility, making it unable to perform its intended function. This study evaluated an infiltration trench (IT) that went through a series of maintenance operations. 41 monitored rainfall events from 2009 to 2016 were used to evaluate the pollutant removal capabilities of the IT. Assessment of the water quality and hydrological data revealed that the inflow volume was the most relative factor affecting the unit pollutant loads (UPL) entering the facility. Seasonal variations also affected the pollutant removal capabilities of the IT. During the summer season, the increased rainfall depths and runoff volumes diminished the pollutant removal efficiency (RE) of the facility due to increased volumes that washed off larger pollutant loads and caused the IT to overflow. Moreover, the system also exhibited reduced pollutant RE for the winter season due to frozen media layers and chemical-related mechanisms impacted by the low winter temperature. Maintenance operations also posed considerable effects of the performance of the IT. During the first two years of operation, the IT exhibited a decrease in pollutant RE due to aging and lack of proper maintenance. However, some events also showed reduced pollutant RE succeeding the maintenance as a result of disturbed sediments that were not removed from the geotextile. Ultimately, the presented effects of maintenance operations in relation to the pollutant RE of the system may lead to the optimization of maintenance schedules and procedures for BMP of same structure.

Evaluation of Air Quality in the Compost Pilot Plant with Livestock Manure by Operation Types (축분 퇴비화시스템 운용방식에 따른 실내 대기오염 평가)

  • Kim, K.Y.;Choi, H.L.;Ko, H.J.;Kim, C.N.
    • Journal of Animal Science and Technology
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.283-294
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    • 2004
  • Air quality in the livestock waste compost pilot plant at the Colligate Livestock Station was assessed to quantity the emissions of aerial contaminants and evaluate the degree of correlation between them for different operation strategies; with the ventilation types and agitation of compost pile, in this study. The parameters analyzed to reflect the level of air quality in the livestock waste compost pilot plant were the gaseous contaminants; ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and odor concentration, the particulate contaminants; inhalable dust and respirable dust, and the biological contaminants; total airborne bacteria and fungi. The mean concentrations of ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and odor concentration in the compost pilot plant without agitation were 2.45ppm, 19.96ppb, and 15.8 when it was naturally ventilated, and 7.61ppm, 31.36ppb, and 30.2 when mechanically ventilated. Those with agitation were 5.50ppm, 14.69ppb, and 46.4 when naturally ventilated, and 30.12ppm, 39.91ppb, and 205.5 when mechanically ventilated. The mean concentrations of inhalable and respirable dust in the compost pilot plant without agitation were 368.6${\mu}g$/$m^3$ and 96.0${\mu}g$/$m^3$ with natural ventilation, and 283.9${\mu}g$/$m^3$ and 119.5${\mu}g$/$m^3$ with mechanical ventilation. They were also observed with agitation to 208.7${\mu}g$/$m^3$ and 139.8${\mu}g$/$m^3$ with natural ventilation, and 209.2${\mu}g$/$m^3$ and 131.7${\mu}g$/$m^3$ with mechanical ventilation. Averaged concentrations of total airborne bacteria and fungi in the compost pilot plant without agitation were observed to 28,673cfu/$m^3$ and 22,507cfu/$m^3$ with natural ventilation, and 7,462cfu/$m^3$ and 3,228cfu/$m^3$ with mechanical ventilation. They were also observed with agitation to 19,592cfu/$m^3$ and 26,376cfu/$m^3$ with the natural ventilation, and 18,645cfu/$m^3$ and 24,581cfu/$m^3$ with the mechanical ventilation. It showed that the emission rates of gaseous pollutants, such as ammonia, hydrogen sulfide, and odor concentration, in the compost pilot plant operated with the mechanical ventilation and with the agitation of compost pile were higher than those with the natural ventilation and without the agitation. While the concentrations of inhalable dust and total airborne bacteria in the compost pilot plant with the natural ventilation and with the agitation, the concentrations of respirable dust and total airborne fungi in the compost pilot plant with the mechanical ventilation and agitation were higher than those with the natural ventilation and without the agitation of compost pile. It was statistically proved that indoor temperature and relative humidity affected the release of particulates and biological pollutants, and ammonia and hydrogen sulfide were believed primary malodorous compounds emitted from the compost pilot plant.