• Title, Summary, Keyword: 자기회귀시차 분포모형

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국내금융자산의 시장위험 추정에 있어서 ARCH류 모형의 유용성 평가

  • Yu, Il-Seong
    • The Korean Journal of Financial Studies
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.157-176
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    • 2005
  • 본 연구는 KOSPI자산 포트폴리오에 대한 VaR를 다양한 ARCH류 모형을 사용하여 추정하고 이들의 예측능력을 평가하였다. 활용된 모형은 우선 기본적인 GARCH(1,1)모형과 레버리지 효과를 감안한 TGARCH모형, 다양한 ARCH모형을 포괄할 수 있는 PGARCH모형, 변동성의 영속성을 고려한 IGARCH모형이 포함되었다. 모형 상호간의 성과비교에 추가하여 ARCH류 모형에서 수익률예측오차의 분포에 따라서 VaR의 예측성과가 얼마나 차이가 발생하는가를 확인하기 위하여 정규분포와 Student-t분포의 성과를 비교하였다. 마지막으로 VaR 추정시에 조건부평균을 무시하는 관례가 어느정도 타당성이 있는지를 확인하기 위하여 1시차 자기회귀과정에 입각한 조건부 평균을 감안한 결과를 검토하였다. ARCH류 모형에서 모형 설명력은 보다 정교한 모형인 TGARCH모형이나 PGARCH모형이 우월하게 나타났지만, VaR의 예측능력 우월성으로 이어지지는 않았다. Student-t분포를 가정한 경우 VaR모형 사후검증성과는 정규분포를 가정한 경우보다 모든 신뢰수준에서 개선되었으며, 조건부평균의 제거는 Student-t분포 가정하에서는 적합하지 않은 것으로 나타났다. ARCH류 모형에서 가장 단순한 형태인 IGARCH모형의 예측성과가 다른 모형들에 비하여 뒤떨어지지 않으며, 더욱 제약된 형태인 RiskMetrics의 EWMA모형이 사후검증에서 우수한 성과를 보여 단순한 모형의 유용성을 확인시켜주고 있다.

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A Comparative Study on the Forecasting Accuracy of Econometric Models :Domestic Total Freight Volume in South Korea (계량경제모형간 국내 총화물물동량 예측정확도 비교 연구)

  • Chung, Sung Hwan;Kang, Kyung Woo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Transportation
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.61-69
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    • 2015
  • This study compares the forecasting accuracy of five econometric models on domestic total freight volume in South Korea. Applied five models are as follows: Ordinary Least Square model, Partial Adjustment model, Reduced Autoregressive Distributed Lag model, Vector Autoregressive model, Time Varying Parameter model. Estimating models and forecasting are carried out based on annual data of domestic freight volume and an index of industrial production during 1970~2011. 1-year, 3-year, and 5-year ahead forecasting performance of five models was compared using the recursive forecasting method. Additionally, two forecasting periods were set to compare forecasting accuracy according to the size of future volatility. As a result, the Time Varying Parameter model showed the best accuracy for forecasting periods having fluctuations, whereas the Vector Autoregressive model showed better performance for forecasting periods with gradual changes.

Theoretical and Empirical Issues in Conducting an Economic Analysis of Damage in Price-Fixing Litigation: Application to a Transportation Fuel Market (담합관련 손해배상 소송의 경제분석에서 고려해야 할 이론 및 실증적 쟁점: 수송용 연료시장에의 적용)

  • Moon, Choon-Geol
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.187-224
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    • 2014
  • We present key issues to consider in estimating damages from price-fixing cases and then apply the procedure addressing those issues to a transportation fuel market. Among the five methods of overcharge calculation, the regression analysis incorporating the yardstick method is the best. If the price equation relates the domestic price to the foreign price and the exchange rate as in the transportation fuel market, the functional form satisfying both logical consistency and modeling flexibility is the log-log functional form. If the data under analysis is of time series in nature, then the ARDL model should be the base model for each market and the regression analysis incorporating the yardstick method combines these ARDL equations to account for inter-market correlation and arrange constant terms and collusion-period dummies across component equations appropriately so as to identify the overcharge parameter. We propose a two-step test for the benchmarked market: (a) conduct market-by-market Spearman or Kendall test for randomness of the individual market price series first and (b) then conduct across-market Friedman test for homogeneity of the market price series. Statistical significance is the minimal requirement to establish the alleged proposition in the world of uncertainty. Between the sensitivity analysis and the model selection process for the best fitting model, the latter is far more important in the economic analysis of damage in price-fixing litigation. We applied our framework to a transportation fuel market and could not reject the null hypothesis of no overcharge.

The Impact of Nuclear Power Generation on Wholesale Electricity Market Price (원자력발전이 전력가격에 미치는 영향 분석)

  • Jung, Sukwan;Lim, Nara;Won, DooHwan
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.629-655
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    • 2015
  • Nuclear power generation is a major power source which accounts for more than 30% of domestic electricity generation. Electricity market needs to secure stability of base load. This study aimed at analyzing relationships between nuclear power generation and wholesale electricity price (SMP: System Marginal Price) in Korea. For this we conducted ARDL(Autoregressive Distributed Lag) approach and Granger causality test. We found that in terms of total effects nuclear power supply had a positive relationship with SMP while nuclear capacity had a negative relationship with SMP. There is a unidirectional Granger causality from nuclear power supply to SMP while the reverse was not. Nuclear power is closely related to SMP and provides useful information for decision making.

Analysis of the Effect of Korea's Environmentally Harmful Subsidy Reform in the Electric Power Sector : Mainly on its Industrial Cross-subsidies Reform (우리나라 전력부문의 환경유해보조금 개편 효과분석 : 산업용 교차보조금 개편을 중심으로)

  • Kang, Man-Ok;Hwang, Uk
    • Journal of Environmental Policy
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.57-81
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    • 2010
  • Since the Republic of Korea is highly dependent on fossil fuels despite high oil prices, it urgently needs to renew its economic and social system to cut carbon emissions and achieve green growth. Therefore, reforming or eliminating subsidies related to the use of fossil fuels is a timely and oppropriate policy recommendation for Korea. It would be a win-win deal for Korean society as it would not only reduce the use of environmentally harmful fossil fuels but also enhance economic efficiency. In particular, cross-subsidies for industrial, agricultural and night thermal-storage power services make up more than 80 percent of all subsidies provided to the entire electric power industry sector of Korea. Of these cross-subsidies, this paper analyzes the electricity subsidy for industries, which takes up the largest share (about KRW 1.6583 trillion yearly), among the environmentally harmful subsidies in the electric power sector. Thus, the paper focuses on the analysis of ripple effect anticipated when this is reformed. To examine the effects of this subsidy reform, price elasticities were estimated using the ARDL (autoregressive distributed lag) model and quarterly data from 1990 to 2007. The main results of this study show that 1) annual energy demand for electric power in the industrial sector would drop by 12,475,930MWh and 2) $CO_2$ emissions would plummet by 2,644,897 tons per year if the subsidy were reformed. We can deduct from this that the abolition of environmentally harmful subsidies in the electric power sector in the Republic of Korea would considerably contribute to $CO_2$ emissions abatement in the country.

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Estimation of the Elasticity of Energy Demand and Performance of the Second Energy Tax Reform in Korea (수요탄력성 추정을 통한 2차 에너지 세제개편의 성과평가)

  • Kang, Man-Ok;Lee, Sang-Yong;Cho, Jangyul
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.1-29
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    • 2008
  • The goal of this study is to analyze the effects of the second energy tax reform of the transportation sector in Korea. For this purpose, we estimated the elasticities of energy demand(for gasoline, diesel and LPG) by using the ARDL(Auto-Regressive Distributed Lag) Model during the period of 1997 and 2005. We have the empirical results that the demand for diesel would decrease as much as of 382 million barrel per year and the demand for LPG would increase as much as of 20 million barrel per year since 2007. The second energy tax reform would also result in the decrease of 27,346 ton of air pollutants and 0.96 million ton of carbon dioxide per year. This shows that the second energy tax reform would have achieved its own policy goals by reducing energy demand and improving the quality of environment.

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A Study on Estimating Tourism Elasticities using Autoregressive Distributed Lag(ARDL) model (ARDL 모형을 이용한 관광탄력성 추정에 대한 연구)

  • Lee, Kyung-Hee;Kim, Kyung-Soo
    • Management & Information Systems Review
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.81-92
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    • 2017
  • This study was to investigate the elasticity in tourism demand of Chinese tourists visiting Malaysia through ARDL models by using Chinese tourists arrivals, GDP, CPI, transportation costs and others. When China was implementing an open-door policy with foreign countries in the early 15th century, the movement of Chinese was very limited, and then communication between China and other countries was very weak. However, the Chinese government persistently and entirely implemented an open-door policy by participating in the World Trade Organization(WTO) in 2001. The Chinese government has opened the economy through foreign direct investment by providing various incentives for foreign investment. As a result, inbound and outbound Chinese movements increased in the early 21st century. China was one of the top five most visited tourist destinations in the world by 2016, and also Chinese tourists traveling abroad increased, so they made Malaysia a popular tourists destination because of increase sharply to around 1.41 million. This study examined the significance of major economic factors affecting the increase in Chinese tourists arriving in Malaysia. Other factors that induced their arrival included income, tourism prices, transportation costs and promotional activities. Short-run shocks from the Asian economic crisis and the outbreak of SARS were included to understand how tourism demand in Malaysia was affected. Finally this study found that the combination of the ARDL and the Error Correction Model were useful to statistically estimate the elasticities of tourism demand.

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Estimation of Potential Supply of Offset from Household Electric Appliances (가정용 전자기기의 잠재 상쇄 공급량 추정)

  • Jin, Hyun Joung;Kim, Jeong In;You, Eun Young;Park, Seo Hwa
    • Environmental and Resource Economics Review
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.463-488
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    • 2015
  • A more detailed design of offset system is needed according to the emission trading system started in 2015. This study aims to estimate the supply of potential offset that can be secured by expanding high-efficiency household electric appliances. The target commodities for analysis are three different householding electric appliances: TV, washing machine, electric fan, refrigerator and air conditioner. By using the ARDL model, we estimated the coefficients of diffusion of these high-efficiency appliances from 2016 to 2022. Then, the potential supply of offset was drawn by calculating the amount of electricity saving by efficiency improvement and by applying the rates of carbon exchange. Supposing that the electricity savings rates of high-efficiency appliances are each 10% and 20%, the accumulated carbon decrement in 2022 was respectively $361,899CO_2t$ and $723,797CO_2t$. The appliance that showed the biggest carbon decrement was air conditioner, and the second biggest was refrigerator and the next was TV, followed by washing machine, electric fan.