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A Study on Automatic Classification Model of Documents Based on Korean Standard Industrial Classification (한국표준산업분류를 기준으로 한 문서의 자동 분류 모델에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Jae-Seong;Jun, Seung-Pyo;Yoo, Hyoung Sun
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.221-241
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    • 2018
  • As we enter the knowledge society, the importance of information as a new form of capital is being emphasized. The importance of information classification is also increasing for efficient management of digital information produced exponentially. In this study, we tried to automatically classify and provide tailored information that can help companies decide to make technology commercialization. Therefore, we propose a method to classify information based on Korea Standard Industry Classification (KSIC), which indicates the business characteristics of enterprises. The classification of information or documents has been largely based on machine learning, but there is not enough training data categorized on the basis of KSIC. Therefore, this study applied the method of calculating similarity between documents. Specifically, a method and a model for presenting the most appropriate KSIC code are proposed by collecting explanatory texts of each code of KSIC and calculating the similarity with the classification object document using the vector space model. The IPC data were collected and classified by KSIC. And then verified the methodology by comparing it with the KSIC-IPC concordance table provided by the Korean Intellectual Property Office. As a result of the verification, the highest agreement was obtained when the LT method, which is a kind of TF-IDF calculation formula, was applied. At this time, the degree of match of the first rank matching KSIC was 53% and the cumulative match of the fifth ranking was 76%. Through this, it can be confirmed that KSIC classification of technology, industry, and market information that SMEs need more quantitatively and objectively is possible. In addition, it is considered that the methods and results provided in this study can be used as a basic data to help the qualitative judgment of experts in creating a linkage table between heterogeneous classification systems.

A Study on the Effect of Using Sentiment Lexicon in Opinion Classification (오피니언 분류의 감성사전 활용효과에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Seungwoo;Kim, Namgyu
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.20 no.1
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    • pp.133-148
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    • 2014
  • Recently, with the advent of various information channels, the number of has continued to grow. The main cause of this phenomenon can be found in the significant increase of unstructured data, as the use of smart devices enables users to create data in the form of text, audio, images, and video. In various types of unstructured data, the user's opinion and a variety of information is clearly expressed in text data such as news, reports, papers, and various articles. Thus, active attempts have been made to create new value by analyzing these texts. The representative techniques used in text analysis are text mining and opinion mining. These share certain important characteristics; for example, they not only use text documents as input data, but also use many natural language processing techniques such as filtering and parsing. Therefore, opinion mining is usually recognized as a sub-concept of text mining, or, in many cases, the two terms are used interchangeably in the literature. Suppose that the purpose of a certain classification analysis is to predict a positive or negative opinion contained in some documents. If we focus on the classification process, the analysis can be regarded as a traditional text mining case. However, if we observe that the target of the analysis is a positive or negative opinion, the analysis can be regarded as a typical example of opinion mining. In other words, two methods (i.e., text mining and opinion mining) are available for opinion classification. Thus, in order to distinguish between the two, a precise definition of each method is needed. In this paper, we found that it is very difficult to distinguish between the two methods clearly with respect to the purpose of analysis and the type of results. We conclude that the most definitive criterion to distinguish text mining from opinion mining is whether an analysis utilizes any kind of sentiment lexicon. We first established two prediction models, one based on opinion mining and the other on text mining. Next, we compared the main processes used by the two prediction models. Finally, we compared their prediction accuracy. We then analyzed 2,000 movie reviews. The results revealed that the prediction model based on opinion mining showed higher average prediction accuracy compared to the text mining model. Moreover, in the lift chart generated by the opinion mining based model, the prediction accuracy for the documents with strong certainty was higher than that for the documents with weak certainty. Most of all, opinion mining has a meaningful advantage in that it can reduce learning time dramatically, because a sentiment lexicon generated once can be reused in a similar application domain. Additionally, the classification results can be clearly explained by using a sentiment lexicon. This study has two limitations. First, the results of the experiments cannot be generalized, mainly because the experiment is limited to a small number of movie reviews. Additionally, various parameters in the parsing and filtering steps of the text mining may have affected the accuracy of the prediction models. However, this research contributes a performance and comparison of text mining analysis and opinion mining analysis for opinion classification. In future research, a more precise evaluation of the two methods should be made through intensive experiments.

A Research in Applying Big Data and Artificial Intelligence on Defense Metadata using Multi Repository Meta-Data Management (MRMM) (국방 빅데이터/인공지능 활성화를 위한 다중메타데이터 저장소 관리시스템(MRMM) 기술 연구)

  • Shin, Philip Wootaek;Lee, Jinhee;Kim, Jeongwoo;Shin, Dongsun;Lee, Youngsang;Hwang, Seung Ho
    • Journal of Internet Computing and Services
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.169-178
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    • 2020
  • The reductions of troops/human resources, and improvement in combat power have made Korean Department of Defense actively adapt 4th Industrial Revolution technology (Artificial Intelligence, Big Data). The defense information system has been developed in various ways according to the task and the uniqueness of each military. In order to take full advantage of the 4th Industrial Revolution technology, it is necessary to improve the closed defense datamanagement system.However, the establishment and usage of data standards in all information systems for the utilization of defense big data and artificial intelligence has limitations due to security issues, business characteristics of each military, anddifficulty in standardizing large-scale systems. Based on the interworking requirements of each system, data sharing is limited through direct linkage through interoperability agreement between systems. In order to implement smart defense using the 4th Industrial Revolution technology, it is urgent to prepare a system that can share defense data and make good use of it. To technically support the defense, it is critical to develop Multi Repository Meta-Data Management (MRMM) that supports systematic standard management of defense data that manages enterprise standard and standard mapping for each system and promotes data interoperability through linkage between standards which obeys the Defense Interoperability Management Development Guidelines. We introduced MRMM, and implemented by using vocabulary similarity using machine learning and statistical approach. Based on MRMM, We expect to simplify the standardization integration of all military databases using artificial intelligence and bigdata. This will lead to huge reduction of defense budget while increasing combat power for implementing smart defense.

Query-based Answer Extraction using Korean Dependency Parsing (의존 구문 분석을 이용한 질의 기반 정답 추출)

  • Lee, Dokyoung;Kim, Mintae;Kim, Wooju
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.161-177
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    • 2019
  • In this paper, we study the performance improvement of the answer extraction in Question-Answering system by using sentence dependency parsing result. The Question-Answering (QA) system consists of query analysis, which is a method of analyzing the user's query, and answer extraction, which is a method to extract appropriate answers in the document. And various studies have been conducted on two methods. In order to improve the performance of answer extraction, it is necessary to accurately reflect the grammatical information of sentences. In Korean, because word order structure is free and omission of sentence components is frequent, dependency parsing is a good way to analyze Korean syntax. Therefore, in this study, we improved the performance of the answer extraction by adding the features generated by dependency parsing analysis to the inputs of the answer extraction model (Bidirectional LSTM-CRF). The process of generating the dependency graph embedding consists of the steps of generating the dependency graph from the dependency parsing result and learning the embedding of the graph. In this study, we compared the performance of the answer extraction model when inputting basic word features generated without the dependency parsing and the performance of the model when inputting the addition of the Eojeol tag feature and dependency graph embedding feature. Since dependency parsing is performed on a basic unit of an Eojeol, which is a component of sentences separated by a space, the tag information of the Eojeol can be obtained as a result of the dependency parsing. The Eojeol tag feature means the tag information of the Eojeol. The process of generating the dependency graph embedding consists of the steps of generating the dependency graph from the dependency parsing result and learning the embedding of the graph. From the dependency parsing result, a graph is generated from the Eojeol to the node, the dependency between the Eojeol to the edge, and the Eojeol tag to the node label. In this process, an undirected graph is generated or a directed graph is generated according to whether or not the dependency relation direction is considered. To obtain the embedding of the graph, we used Graph2Vec, which is a method of finding the embedding of the graph by the subgraphs constituting a graph. We can specify the maximum path length between nodes in the process of finding subgraphs of a graph. If the maximum path length between nodes is 1, graph embedding is generated only by direct dependency between Eojeol, and graph embedding is generated including indirect dependencies as the maximum path length between nodes becomes larger. In the experiment, the maximum path length between nodes is adjusted differently from 1 to 3 depending on whether direction of dependency is considered or not, and the performance of answer extraction is measured. Experimental results show that both Eojeol tag feature and dependency graph embedding feature improve the performance of answer extraction. In particular, considering the direction of the dependency relation and extracting the dependency graph generated with the maximum path length of 1 in the subgraph extraction process in Graph2Vec as the input of the model, the highest answer extraction performance was shown. As a result of these experiments, we concluded that it is better to take into account the direction of dependence and to consider only the direct connection rather than the indirect dependence between the words. The significance of this study is as follows. First, we improved the performance of answer extraction by adding features using dependency parsing results, taking into account the characteristics of Korean, which is free of word order structure and omission of sentence components. Second, we generated feature of dependency parsing result by learning - based graph embedding method without defining the pattern of dependency between Eojeol. Future research directions are as follows. In this study, the features generated as a result of the dependency parsing are applied only to the answer extraction model in order to grasp the meaning. However, in the future, if the performance is confirmed by applying the features to various natural language processing models such as sentiment analysis or name entity recognition, the validity of the features can be verified more accurately.

Export Control System based on Case Based Reasoning: Design and Evaluation (사례 기반 지능형 수출통제 시스템 : 설계와 평가)

  • Hong, Woneui;Kim, Uihyun;Cho, Sinhee;Kim, Sansung;Yi, Mun Yong;Shin, Donghoon
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.109-131
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    • 2014
  • As the demand of nuclear power plant equipment is continuously growing worldwide, the importance of handling nuclear strategic materials is also increasing. While the number of cases submitted for the exports of nuclear-power commodity and technology is dramatically increasing, preadjudication (or prescreening to be simple) of strategic materials has been done so far by experts of a long-time experience and extensive field knowledge. However, there is severe shortage of experts in this domain, not to mention that it takes a long time to develop an expert. Because human experts must manually evaluate all the documents submitted for export permission, the current practice of nuclear material export is neither time-efficient nor cost-effective. Toward alleviating the problem of relying on costly human experts only, our research proposes a new system designed to help field experts make their decisions more effectively and efficiently. The proposed system is built upon case-based reasoning, which in essence extracts key features from the existing cases, compares the features with the features of a new case, and derives a solution for the new case by referencing similar cases and their solutions. Our research proposes a framework of case-based reasoning system, designs a case-based reasoning system for the control of nuclear material exports, and evaluates the performance of alternative keyword extraction methods (full automatic, full manual, and semi-automatic). A keyword extraction method is an essential component of the case-based reasoning system as it is used to extract key features of the cases. The full automatic method was conducted using TF-IDF, which is a widely used de facto standard method for representative keyword extraction in text mining. TF (Term Frequency) is based on the frequency count of the term within a document, showing how important the term is within a document while IDF (Inverted Document Frequency) is based on the infrequency of the term within a document set, showing how uniquely the term represents the document. The results show that the semi-automatic approach, which is based on the collaboration of machine and human, is the most effective solution regardless of whether the human is a field expert or a student who majors in nuclear engineering. Moreover, we propose a new approach of computing nuclear document similarity along with a new framework of document analysis. The proposed algorithm of nuclear document similarity considers both document-to-document similarity (${\alpha}$) and document-to-nuclear system similarity (${\beta}$), in order to derive the final score (${\gamma}$) for the decision of whether the presented case is of strategic material or not. The final score (${\gamma}$) represents a document similarity between the past cases and the new case. The score is induced by not only exploiting conventional TF-IDF, but utilizing a nuclear system similarity score, which takes the context of nuclear system domain into account. Finally, the system retrieves top-3 documents stored in the case base that are considered as the most similar cases with regard to the new case, and provides them with the degree of credibility. With this final score and the credibility score, it becomes easier for a user to see which documents in the case base are more worthy of looking up so that the user can make a proper decision with relatively lower cost. The evaluation of the system has been conducted by developing a prototype and testing with field data. The system workflows and outcomes have been verified by the field experts. This research is expected to contribute the growth of knowledge service industry by proposing a new system that can effectively reduce the burden of relying on costly human experts for the export control of nuclear materials and that can be considered as a meaningful example of knowledge service application.

A Study on Differences of Contents and Tones of Arguments among Newspapers Using Text Mining Analysis (텍스트 마이닝을 활용한 신문사에 따른 내용 및 논조 차이점 분석)

  • Kam, Miah;Song, Min
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.53-77
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    • 2012
  • This study analyses the difference of contents and tones of arguments among three Korean major newspapers, the Kyunghyang Shinmoon, the HanKyoreh, and the Dong-A Ilbo. It is commonly accepted that newspapers in Korea explicitly deliver their own tone of arguments when they talk about some sensitive issues and topics. It could be controversial if readers of newspapers read the news without being aware of the type of tones of arguments because the contents and the tones of arguments can affect readers easily. Thus it is very desirable to have a new tool that can inform the readers of what tone of argument a newspaper has. This study presents the results of clustering and classification techniques as part of text mining analysis. We focus on six main subjects such as Culture, Politics, International, Editorial-opinion, Eco-business and National issues in newspapers, and attempt to identify differences and similarities among the newspapers. The basic unit of text mining analysis is a paragraph of news articles. This study uses a keyword-network analysis tool and visualizes relationships among keywords to make it easier to see the differences. Newspaper articles were gathered from KINDS, the Korean integrated news database system. KINDS preserves news articles of the Kyunghyang Shinmun, the HanKyoreh and the Dong-A Ilbo and these are open to the public. This study used these three Korean major newspapers from KINDS. About 3,030 articles from 2008 to 2012 were used. International, national issues and politics sections were gathered with some specific issues. The International section was collected with the keyword of 'Nuclear weapon of North Korea.' The National issues section was collected with the keyword of '4-major-river.' The Politics section was collected with the keyword of 'Tonghap-Jinbo Dang.' All of the articles from April 2012 to May 2012 of Eco-business, Culture and Editorial-opinion sections were also collected. All of the collected data were handled and edited into paragraphs. We got rid of stop-words using the Lucene Korean Module. We calculated keyword co-occurrence counts from the paired co-occurrence list of keywords in a paragraph. We made a co-occurrence matrix from the list. Once the co-occurrence matrix was built, we used the Cosine coefficient matrix as input for PFNet(Pathfinder Network). In order to analyze these three newspapers and find out the significant keywords in each paper, we analyzed the list of 10 highest frequency keywords and keyword-networks of 20 highest ranking frequency keywords to closely examine the relationships and show the detailed network map among keywords. We used NodeXL software to visualize the PFNet. After drawing all the networks, we compared the results with the classification results. Classification was firstly handled to identify how the tone of argument of a newspaper is different from others. Then, to analyze tones of arguments, all the paragraphs were divided into two types of tones, Positive tone and Negative tone. To identify and classify all of the tones of paragraphs and articles we had collected, supervised learning technique was used. The Na$\ddot{i}$ve Bayesian classifier algorithm provided in the MALLET package was used to classify all the paragraphs in articles. After classification, Precision, Recall and F-value were used to evaluate the results of classification. Based on the results of this study, three subjects such as Culture, Eco-business and Politics showed some differences in contents and tones of arguments among these three newspapers. In addition, for the National issues, tones of arguments on 4-major-rivers project were different from each other. It seems three newspapers have their own specific tone of argument in those sections. And keyword-networks showed different shapes with each other in the same period in the same section. It means that frequently appeared keywords in articles are different and their contents are comprised with different keywords. And the Positive-Negative classification showed the possibility of classifying newspapers' tones of arguments compared to others. These results indicate that the approach in this study is promising to be extended as a new tool to identify the different tones of arguments of newspapers.

Analysis of Success Cases of InsurTech and Digital Insurance Platform Based on Artificial Intelligence Technologies: Focused on Ping An Insurance Group Ltd. in China (인공지능 기술 기반 인슈어테크와 디지털보험플랫폼 성공사례 분석: 중국 평안보험그룹을 중심으로)

  • Lee, JaeWon;Oh, SangJin
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.71-90
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    • 2020
  • Recently, the global insurance industry is rapidly developing digital transformation through the use of artificial intelligence technologies such as machine learning, natural language processing, and deep learning. As a result, more and more foreign insurers have achieved the success of artificial intelligence technology-based InsurTech and platform business, and Ping An Insurance Group Ltd., China's largest private company, is leading China's global fourth industrial revolution with remarkable achievements in InsurTech and Digital Platform as a result of its constant innovation, using 'finance and technology' and 'finance and ecosystem' as keywords for companies. In response, this study analyzed the InsurTech and platform business activities of Ping An Insurance Group Ltd. through the ser-M analysis model to provide strategic implications for revitalizing AI technology-based businesses of domestic insurers. The ser-M analysis model has been studied so that the vision and leadership of the CEO, the historical environment of the enterprise, the utilization of various resources, and the unique mechanism relationships can be interpreted in an integrated manner as a frame that can be interpreted in terms of the subject, environment, resource and mechanism. As a result of the case analysis, Ping An Insurance Group Ltd. has achieved cost reduction and customer service development by digitally innovating its entire business area such as sales, underwriting, claims, and loan service by utilizing core artificial intelligence technologies such as facial, voice, and facial expression recognition. In addition, "online data in China" and "the vast offline data and insights accumulated by the company" were combined with new technologies such as artificial intelligence and big data analysis to build a digital platform that integrates financial services and digital service businesses. Ping An Insurance Group Ltd. challenged constant innovation, and as of 2019, sales reached $155 billion, ranking seventh among all companies in the Global 2000 rankings selected by Forbes Magazine. Analyzing the background of the success of Ping An Insurance Group Ltd. from the perspective of ser-M, founder Mammingz quickly captured the development of digital technology, market competition and changes in population structure in the era of the fourth industrial revolution, and established a new vision and displayed an agile leadership of digital technology-focused. Based on the strong leadership led by the founder in response to environmental changes, the company has successfully led InsurTech and Platform Business through innovation of internal resources such as investment in artificial intelligence technology, securing excellent professionals, and strengthening big data capabilities, combining external absorption capabilities, and strategic alliances among various industries. Through this success story analysis of Ping An Insurance Group Ltd., the following implications can be given to domestic insurance companies that are preparing for digital transformation. First, CEOs of domestic companies also need to recognize the paradigm shift in industry due to the change in digital technology and quickly arm themselves with digital technology-oriented leadership to spearhead the digital transformation of enterprises. Second, the Korean government should urgently overhaul related laws and systems to further promote the use of data between different industries and provide drastic support such as deregulation, tax benefits and platform provision to help the domestic insurance industry secure global competitiveness. Third, Korean companies also need to make bolder investments in the development of artificial intelligence technology so that systematic securing of internal and external data, training of technical personnel, and patent applications can be expanded, and digital platforms should be quickly established so that diverse customer experiences can be integrated through learned artificial intelligence technology. Finally, since there may be limitations to generalization through a single case of an overseas insurance company, I hope that in the future, more extensive research will be conducted on various management strategies related to artificial intelligence technology by analyzing cases of multiple industries or multiple companies or conducting empirical research.