• Title, Summary, Keyword: 작업기억 부담

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Effects of Working Memory Load on Negative Facial Emotion Processing: an ERP study (작업기억 부담이 부적 얼굴정서 처리에 미치는 영향: ERP 연구)

  • Park, Taejin;Kim, Junghee
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.39-59
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    • 2018
  • To elucidate the effect of working memory (WM) load on negative facial emotion processing, we examined ERP components (P1 and N170) elicited by fearful and neutral expressions each of which was presented during 0-back (low-WM load) or 2-back (high-WM load) tasks. During N-back tasks, visual objects were presented one by one as targets and each of facial expressions was presented as a passively observed stimulus during intervals between targets. Behavioral results showed more accurate and fast responses at low-WM load condition compared to high-WM load condition. Analysis of mean amplitudes of P1 on the occipital region showed significant WM load effect (high-WM load > low-WM load) but showed nonsignificant facial emotion effect. Analysis of mean amplitudes of N170 on the posterior occipito-temporal region showed significant overall facial emotion effect (fearful > neutral), but, in detail, significant facial emotion effect was observed only at low-WM load condition on the left hemisphere, but was observed at high-WM load condition as well as low-WM load condition on the right hemisphere. To summarize, facial emotion effect observed by N170 amplitudes was modulated by WM load only on the left hemisphere. These results show that early emotional processing of negative facial expression could be eliminated or reduced by high load of WM on the left hemisphere, but could not be eliminated by high load on the right hemisphere, and suggest right hemispheric lateralization of negative facial emotion processing.

The Effects of Working Memory Load on Word Frequency (작업기억 부하가 단어빈도에 미치는 효과)

  • Lee, Chang-Hoan;Oh, Ji-Hyang;Pyun, Sung-Bom;Lim, Heui-Seok
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.567-571
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    • 2009
  • This study was conducted in order to investigate the role of working memory in word recognition. As a preliminary step in tackling this topic, word frequency and working memory load were manipulated in a naming task. The results showed that word frequency is significantly involved with the working memory load. The effects of working memory load were greater in low-frequency word processing than in high-frequency word processing. These results indicat that working memory is involved more in the processing of low-frequency words. The implications for the teaching of children at the early reading acquisition stage are discussed in this paper.

Individual Differences in Working Memory: Inhibition of Irrelevant Information (작업기억의 개인차: 무관련 정보 억제의 차이)

  • Yoo, Hyun-Joo;Lee, Jung-Mo;Kim, Mi-Ra
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.207-229
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    • 2006
  • Two experiments examined the relation of working memory capacity and the inhibition mechanism in working memory. Experiment 1 demonstrated that the high WM span group inhibited irrelevant information selectively and the low WM span group maintained both relevant and irrelevant information within WM. Experiment 2 showed that there were similar patterns of response time between high and low WM span groups in the lexical decision task. These results suggest that the ability to maintain relevant information and inhibit irrelevant information selectively in WM is an important factor of individual differences in working memory.

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The Influence of Learner Factors on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning: Negative Emotion and Working Memory (외국어 어휘 학습에서 학습자 요인의 영향: 부적 정서와 작업기억)

  • Min, Sungki;Lee, Yoonhyoung
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.15 no.4
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    • pp.545-555
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    • 2015
  • We investigated the influence of negative emotion such as state-trait anxiety and depression and working memory (WM) on Foreign Language Vocabulary Learning (FLVL) of South Korean university students. Also, its implications for developing contents for FLVL were discerned. To do so, state-trait anxiety and depression inventories as well as four kinds of WM test were performed for 132 undergraduate students. Participants also had two semantic learning sessions for Swahili words. The mean scores of negative emotions were normal level. The results of structural equation modeling (SEM) showed that there was no effect of negative emotion on FLVL, while direct effects of the negative emotion on WM and the WM on FLVL were significant. Such results suggested that FLVL would be weakened, with the result that WM had been impaired by negative emotions. These outcomes suggested that when developing FLVL content for university students, it is necessary to consider the negative emotions of foreign language learners and to develop the contents for FLVL in the light of WM load.

Distortion of the Visual Working Memory Induced by Stroop Interference (스트룹 간섭에 의한 시각작업기억의 왜곡 현상)

  • Kim, Daegyu;Hyun, Joo-Seok
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.27-51
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    • 2015
  • The present study tested the effect of a top-down influence on recalling the colors of Stroop words. Participants remembered the colors of 1, 2, 3 or 6 Stroop words. After 1 second of a memory delay, they were asked to recall the color of a cued Stroop word by selecting out its corresponding color on a color-wheel stimulus. The correct recall was defined when the participants chose a color that was within ${\pm}45^{\circ}$ from the exact location of Stroop word's color on the color-wheel. Otherwise, the recall was defined as incorrect. The analyses of the frequency distribution of the participants' responses in the error trials showed that the probability of choosing the color-name of the target Stroop word was higher than the probability of other five color-names on the color-wheel. Further analyses showed that increasing the number of Stroop words to manipulate memory load did not affect the probability of the Stroop interference. These results indicate that the top-down interference by Stroop manipulation may induce systematic distortion of the stored representation in visual working memory.

The Effect of Combined Exercise on Brain Function and Sleep Disorder of Sleep Disturbance Rats (복합운동프로그램이 수면장애 모델 쥐의 뇌기능과 수면장애에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Dong-Hyun
    • The Journal of Korean society of community based occupational therapy
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    • v.8 no.3
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    • pp.69-76
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    • 2018
  • Objective : The study was to investigate the neurophysiological approach to the effect of complex exercise on memory, one of brain functions, and the degree of sleep disorder using experimental animals with sleep disorders. Methods : This study carried out a complex exercise that designed in an animal laboratory for 4 days to 16 sleep - disordered model rats. After the exercise, brain function was confirmed with the changes of BDNF in the hippocampus and the change of sleep level was confirmed with the concentration of melatonin in the blood. Results : First, the effect of the complex exercise program on brain function was significantly increased in the experimental group(p<0.01). Second, the effect of complex exercise program on sleep disturbance was significantly increased in the experimental group and control group(p<0.01)(p<0.05). Conclusion : The rate of increase of the elderly in the community is rapidly increasing, and the sleep disorder of the elderly can affect the quality of life of these elderly people. Secondary memory impairment due to sleep disturbances can also be a problem. Although there are many ways to improve sleep disturbance, it has been scientifically proven through experimental animals that sleep and memory can be improved with complex exercise that is not economically, spatially burdensome.

Comprehension Processes and Stuctures of Korean Relative Clause Sentence (한국어 관계절 문장의 이해 과정과 구조)

  • 김영진
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.6 no.2
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    • pp.5-27
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    • 1995
  • Based on the given data if three experiments that measured word-by-word reading times of the Korean relative-clause sentences,parsing strategies and performance structures in comprehending Korean sentences were suggested.First,results of the significantily longer reading time of nouns than verbs suggested that Korean parsing processing would be primarily occurred at nouns.Seond,four parsing strategies were proposed to explain increased reading times,working memory loads,and parallel function effects.Third,performance structures of sentence comprehension were constructed from the interword reading time differences.The proposed strategies and structures seem to account for the patterns of word-by-word reading times of the five types of the Korean relative-clause se various ideas for further experimentation were discussed.

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모바일 및 유비쿼터스 서비스 환경을 지원하는 XML기반의 단일인증 설계

  • Son, Min-Woo;Jeong, Jong-Il;Shin, Dong-Il;Shin, Dong-Kyoo
    • Review of KIISC
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    • v.17 no.5
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    • pp.15-24
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    • 2007
  • 모바일 및 웹 어플리케이션의 통합으로 인해 모바일 사용자들이 접근할 수 있는 서비스의 수는 크게 증가했지만 사용자들은 여러 개의 사용자 이름과 패스워드를 관리해야하는 어려움을 가지고 있다. 이와 유사한 상황은 다양한 종류의 개인장비, 무선 센서, 서버, 서비스 그리고 댁내에서 네트워크화 된 기기들로 구성된 흠 네트워크 환경으로 확장될 수 있다. 최근 디지털 홈 워킹 그룹 (DHWG: Digital Home Working Group)은 보안 강화를 위해 사용자와 기기에 대한 호환성 있는 인증 및 인가 메커니즘을 위한 프레임워크를 준비할 것을 권고하고 있다. 인터넷, 인트라넷 그리고 댁내에 분산된 자원들을 사용하기 위해 각 어플리케이션에 대한 사용자의 인증 및 인가는 반드시 필요하지만 이는 보안 관리와 시스템성능 측면에서는 커다란 부담이 된다. 본 논문에서는 XML기반의 단일인증기술 표준인 SAML (Security Assertion Markup Language)을 이용한 단일인증 아키텍처를 제안한다. 제안된 아키텍처를 기반으로 모바일 및 유비쿼터스 서비스 환경에서 모바일과 홈 기기간에 서로 다른 개체의 인증 및 인가 프로파일 정보의 교환을 가능하게 하므로 분산 환경에서의 보안 관리를 강화할 수 있다. 특히 제안된 아키텍처에서는 고도의 연산능력을 필요로 하는 보안정보의 전자서명 및 암복호 작업을 유선환경에 구성된 고성능의 기기로 전가하고 모바일 기기는 사용자의 인증을 검증할 수 있는 작은 문자열 형태의 artifact를 보유하고 이를 사용자의 인증에 이용함으로써 낮은 컴퓨팅 능력과 기억용량의 한계 같은 모바일 기기의 성능적인 제약을 극복할 수 있게 한다.