• Title, Summary, Keyword: 장단도

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The Universality of Using Beats of Mudanggut (무당굿 장단 활용의 보편성)

  • Hong, Teahan
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
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    • no.34
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    • pp.215-240
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    • 2017
  • This paper reviewed the aspects of using Seoul gut and Hwanghaedo gut, which are gangshingut(exorcism by possessed shamans), and Gyeonggidodanggut and Southern coast byeolshingut, which are seseupmugut(exorcism by hereditary shamans), and based on that, examined the universality of using beats of mudanggut. This study should have examined the use of beats in donghaeangut and honamgut and it was the limitation of this paper. While it examined the universality and mentioned several cases of donghaeangut, this paper will have a clearer point when it studies the use of beats in donghaeangut. Through the process, this study tried to present that though the groups and aspects of performance differ from region to region, the universal principle may be the same. The beats used in gut of different regions have clearly different systems. Depending on performers and ways of performance, different beats are used. As for the system of beats, the name of beats and composition has uniqueness but there are similarities when compared to gut of other regions. In this paper, this was called universality. It means that there are significant differences in the composition of shaman songs, ways of performance, and use of beats but the system of beats is the same. Different aspects of using beats depending on performers are also regional universality. In Seoul gut, the use of beats is different depending on whether a janggujaebi performs gut in the sitting position, singing shamanistic songs or a shaman performs gut in the standing position. Gyeonggidodanggut is representative when it comes to the use of beats being clearly distinguished depending on performers. Beats differ depending on whether the performer is Miji or Sani. Also it is common that through the use of beats they convey the significance of performing shaman songs. It is found in the gut of all areas to express the meaning of cheongshin and oshin and this is seen more conspicuously when expressing some beats are closely related to the status of spirits. In Seoul gut, as the name sangsanjangdan and byeolsangjangdan show, the name of spirits are used as the name of beats and gut of all regions express the significance of expelling spirits through the use of beats. It means that ways of performance differ depending on regions, but there is an awareness of spirits, the main agent of gut. Though seseupmugut has weaker awareness than gangshingut and there are not various factors of performance that show divine power, the use of beats reveal that there is awareness about spirits.

Relative Duration of Consonants in Spontaneous Speech - on Russian Double Consonants (자연발화에서의 자음의 상대적 길이에 관한 실험음성학적 연구 - 현대 러시아어 이중자음을 대상으로)

  • Choi Moon-jeong
    • Proceedings of the Acoustical Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.351-354
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    • 1999
  • 본고는 현대 러시아어 이중자음1의 장단 발음 경향을 연구하는 과정에서 채택된 실험음성학적 방법론을 상술하는 것을 목적으로 하며, 자연 발화에서의 자음의 상대적 길이를 설정하는 문제와, 그 상대적 길이를 고려하여 자음의 장단을 결정하는 문제를 다룬다. 자음의 상대적 길이는 해당 이중자음과 그 자음을 둘러싼 모음 전체의 길이에 대한 해당 자음의 길이의 비율을 백분율로 환산한 것으로 설정한다. 그 상대적 길이의 관점에서 자음의 장단 결정을 위한 기준을 마련하기 위하여 러시아어 자음의 장단 인지에 관한 실험을 실시하였으며, 그 결과 이중자음의 장단음 구별 불가 구간을 설정하였고, 그것을 자음의 장단 결정에서 기준으로 사용하였다.

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중국음악과 한국음악의 리듬

  • 전인평
    • Proceedings of the KSPS conference
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    • pp.372-377
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    • 1996
  • 우리나라에서는 리듬을 장단이라고도 한다. 장단은 그 말이 뜻하는 바와 같이 대부분 길고 짧은 음이 모인 부가 리듬형이다. 이것은 서양음악의 분할리듬과 대조되는 것이다. 우리나라 음악의 리듬은 길고 짧은 음이 모여 장단을 이룬다. 그래서 3박은 2+1, 5박은 3+2, 8박은 5+3, 10박은 6+4, 16박은 11+5의 장단이다. 중국음악의 리듬은 대개 1자1음식(syllabic)이다. 그리고 4언1구 5언절귀 7언절귀 등 시형은 여러 가지가 있지만, 대부분 4박으로 부른다. 그래서 한국음악은 중국음악에 비하여 리듬이 복잡하다. 이것은 우리말이 중국어보다 리듬이 복잡하기 때문이다.

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A study of contextual assimilation manifested in Korean long/short vowel contrast (한국어 장단모음의 음가의 차이에서 나타나는 주변동화현상(contextual assimilation)에 대하여)

  • Kong Su-Jin;Moon Seung-Jae
    • Proceedings of the Acoustical Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.281-284
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    • 2002
  • 본 연구는 우리말 장단모음의 특성을 분석하는 것을 목표로 한다. 쓰여져 있는 문장에서 장단 모음을 구별할 줄 사람들 중 남자 3명을 선정하여 7개의 모음(/ㅣ, ㅐ, ㅏ, ㅓ, ㅗ, ㅜ, ㅡ/)을 발음하게 한 후, 각 장단 모음 쌍의 길이, 피치, 음가를 측정하였다. 그 결과, 장단모음이 사라졌다는 일부 주장과는 달리 모든 화자에게서 통계학적으로 유의한 길이의 차이를 관찰하였으며 대부분의 경우에 피치와 음가(F2)도 유의한 차이가 남을 발견하였다. 그러나 이 관찰된 음가의 차이는 모음 자체의 음가의 차이가 아니라 다음에 따라오는 조사의 모음의 영향으로 인한 주변동화현상(contextual assimilation)에 의한 것으로 추정된다. 즉, 장모음은 길이가 긴 까닭에 자신의 음가를 충분히 실현한 반면 단모음은 다음에 나오는 모음의 음가의 영향을 강하게 받는 것으로 나타났다.

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The effects of axis ratio and rotation angle on flows around an elliptical cylinder (타원의 장단축 비율과 회전 각도에 의한 유동 변화)

  • O, Geun-U
    • Proceeding of EDISON Challenge
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    • pp.619-624
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    • 2014
  • 본 논문에서는 타원형 실린더 주위의 유동과 항력 및 양력 계수의 변화를 관찰하였다. EDISON_CFD를 이용하여 자유 유동(free stream)에서 타원형 실린더의 장단축 비율과 회전된 각도의 변화에 따라 실린더 후방의 유동과 압력 분포의 변화를 보고, 이에 따른 항력 계수 및 양력 계수의 변화를 시뮬레이션 하였다. 또한, 채널 유동 내에서 벽 근접에 따른 유동 변화와 항력 및 양력 계수의 변화를 관찰하였다.

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A Study on Pitch-rate and Time-Rate Modifications for Speech Synthesis (합성음 구현을 위한 음의 억양과 장단변화 연구)

  • 하정호
    • Proceedings of the Acoustical Society of Korea Conference
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    • pp.328-333
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    • 1994
  • 합성의 궁극적 목표는 어휘의 제한 없이 어떠한 말이라도 자연스럽게 다양한 음색과 속도로 합성해 내는 것이다. 따라서 음성합성 시스템의 성능은 전하고자 하는 정보를 얼마나 정확한 발음으로, 자여스럽게 합성음을 만들 수 있는가에 달려있다. 우수한 성능을 갖는 음성합성 시스템을 구현하기 위해서는운율법에서 산출된 음의 억양과 장단변환을 효과적으로 적용시킬 수 있는 음향신호처리 알고리즘이 필요하다. 본 논문은 운율법에 따라 합성음을 적은 계산량을 유지하면서 시간영역에서 음색은 그대로 유지하면서 억양변환하고, 알맞는 속도로 장단변환하는 알고리즘을 개발하였다. 이를 이용하여 음편인 기본음만을 가지고 원하는 음 높이와 길이의 합성음을 산출하였다. 본 논문에서는 음의 억양과 장단변환을 위한 알고리즘을 제안하였으며, 이를 아카펠라음의 합성에 응용하였으며, 이러한 알고리즘은 자동음성서비스나 예약시스템 등을 적은 데이터베이스로 다양하게 합성할 수있음을 보였다.

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A Study on Anjoon-gut Music in Daejeon - Focused on Sir Shin Seok-bong's Antaek-gut Music- (대전의 앉은굿 음악 연구 - 신석봉 법사의 안택굿을 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Hye-jeong
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.38
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    • pp.5-42
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    • 2005
  • Based on a field investigation of intangible cultural asset # 2, author Sir Shin Seok-bong of Daejeon Metropolitan Cityinvestigated the music of Antaek-gut, which is the base and core of Anjoon-gut, and found the following musical features: A Jang-gu(drum) and Kkoaengkwari(gong) were used to recitethe Sutra(kyungmoon) of Anjoon-gut. The Jang-gu, located on the right side, played an accompaniment role with regular beats when the Sutra was recited. The Kkoaengkwari, located on the left side, played the role of covering the caesura of the Sutra passages, so it is played with various rhythmic variations in accordance with Kojang(鼓杖). This is one way of playing Korean national classical music that has temporary caesuras, depending on the rector's bre! ath or the contents of a Sutra during the Sutra chanting, with the Jang-gu covering the pause with its variation. In other words, when being played in concert, the instruments that play the main melody are at rest while another instrument takes its turn to play the main melody as a form of prolonged sound. The rhythmic cycles of the sutras of Antaek-gut recited with this instrumental accompaniment consist of five types; a) Woemarch-jangdan (a single beat) of 4 meter by 3 bit, b) Dumarch-jangdan (two beats) of 8 meter by 3 bit, c) Saemarch-jangdan (three beats) of 4 meter by 3 bit with a fast tempo, d) Mak-gojang, uniform beats with a standardized rhythm, and e) incomplete beats deviated from the regular beats. Sir Shin Seok-bong chanted Chang (唱), a traditional native song which he called 'Cheong (淸)' with a cycle of 'Dumarch-jangdan' throughout the places of Antaek-gut. Only 'Toesonggyung' a chant for the gate that was the last location of the Antaek, was chanted with a cycle of 'Woemarch-jan! gdan'. In addition, 'Saemarch-jangdan' and 'Mak-gojang' that had comparatively faster tempos than the former two jangdans, were played without a chant when a female shaman was dancing and catching her spirit-invoking wand. The 'Saemarch-jangdan', particularly, was played while dancing began at a relatively slow tempo, then proceeded at a violent tempo and then back again to the slow tempo. This shows one of the representative tempos of our music with a slow-fast-slow tempo. The organizational tones were 'mi-la-do'-re'', and its key tones of 'mi-la-do'' were performed with perfect fourth and minor third, which was the same as those of Menari-tori. However, it did not show a typical Sigimse, an ornamental tone, of Menari-tory, whose first tone, 'mi', is vibrated and its Sigimse is gliding down from the tone 're' to 'do'. That is because the regional tone-tori of Chungcheong-do have a relatively weaker musical expression than that of Gyeongsang-do. In addition, the rhythmic types in accordance with the words of a song for the Antaek-gut music had a comparatively faster tempo than the other sutras. Also, it was only with 'Toesonggyeong' that the tone 'la' continuously appeared throughout the melody and showed 'a syllabic rhythm', while other places consisted of either a 'syncopation' or 'melismatic' rhythm. Finally, according to a brief investigation of the tone organization in accordance with each sutra, the tone 'la' was given more weight. The tone procedure showed a mainly ascending 'la-do'' and the descending 'la-mi' with minor third and perfect fourth. Also, the overall tempo proceeded with M.M.♩.=116-184, while the tempo for the Gut proceeded with M.M.♩.=120-140, which was suitable for reciting a Sutra.

Effect of Music Therapy Using Korean Traditional Rhythmic Modes on the Upper Extremity Function of Elderly People with Dementia (국악장단을 이용한 음악치료가 치매노인의 상지기능 향상에 미치는 영향)

  • Joo, Min Ae;Park, Hye Young
    • The Journal of the Korea Contents Association
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.222-232
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the effect of music therapy using Korean traditional rhythmic modes on the upper extremity function of elderly people with dementia. The subjects of this study were 13 patients at the age of 65 or more with dementia receiving long-term care in a nursing home in B City. It was analyzed that the effects of music therapy through the evaluation of manual function test (MFT), Activities of daily living (ADL), Korea dementia rating scale-2 test before and after the experiment. As a result, both of the scores of MFT and ADL were higher than after music therapy(p <.05) as well as Korea dementia rating scale-2 test score(management part). This indicates that the music therapy using Korean traditional rhythmic modes could improve function of the upper extremity with dementia as well as activities of daily living and management of dementia care. In conclusion, music therapy would be helpful to the improvement of not only the physical but also the cognitive function of elderly people with dementia, and it could be effectively employed in clinical settings.

Basic Characteristics and Application of Modern Dancheong Pigment Jangdanyuksaek (Incarnadine) (현대 단청용 장단육색의 기본 특성 및 사용 기준 연구)

  • Kim, Eun Ji;Chung, Kwang Yong
    • Journal of Conservation Science
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.457-476
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    • 2015
  • This study is expected to present instructions and analysis of Modern Dancheong pigments by its physical characteristics. Search pigments currently used and experiments proper mixing ratio of Jangdanyuksaek(Incarnadine). Samples are made by based on presented a mixture ratio which is less exfoliation, cracks and color change. And put into accelerated weathering test and ultraviolet ray degradation test. As a result in case of Jidang($TiO_2$) Rutile type is superior in discoloration and durability. Rutile type makes color difference remarkably because of oil absorption difference while mixing with Jangdan. Water paints which are used as a alternative present yellowness which means water paints lack in durability. whiting should be taken carefully as it has high brightness after degradation.

Abusive Detection Using Bidirectional Long Short-Term Memory Networks (양방향 장단기 메모리 신경망을 이용한 욕설 검출)

  • Na, In-Seop;Lee, Sin-Woo;Lee, Jae-Hak;Koh, Jin-Gwang
    • The Journal of Bigdata
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.35-45
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    • 2019
  • Recently, the damage with social cost of malicious comments is increasing. In addition to the news of talent committing suicide through the effects of malicious comments. The damage to malicious comments including abusive language and slang is increasing and spreading in various type and forms throughout society. In this paper, we propose a technique for detecting abusive language using a bi-directional long short-term memory neural network model. We collected comments on the web through the web crawler and processed the stopwords on unused words such as English Alphabet or special characters. For the stopwords processed comments, the bidirectional long short-term memory neural network model considering the front word and back word of sentences was used to determine and detect abusive language. In order to use the bi-directional long short-term memory neural network, the detected comments were subjected to morphological analysis and vectorization, and each word was labeled with abusive language. Experimental results showed a performance of 88.79% for a total of 9,288 comments screened and collected.

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