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Two-Dimensional Interpretation of Ear-Remote Reference Magnetotelluric Data for Geothermal Application (심부 지열자원 개발을 위한 원거리 기준점 MT 탐사자료의 2차원 역산 해석)

  • Lee, Tae-Jong;Song, Yoon-Ho;Uchida, Toshihiro
    • Geophysics and Geophysical Exploration
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.145-155
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    • 2005
  • A two-dimensional (2-D) interpretation of MT data has been performed for the purpose of fracture detection for geothermal development. Remote stations have been operated in Kyushu, Japan (480 km apart) as well as in Korea (60 km and 165 km apart in 2002 and 2003 data set, respectively). Apparent resistivity and phase curves calculated by remote processing with the Japan remote data showed enough quality for 2-D inversion for the whole frequency range. Remote reference processing with Korea remote reference data also showed quite good continuity in apparent resistivity and phase curves except some noisy frequency bands; around the power frequency, 60 Hz, and around the dead band $10^{-1}Hz\;Hz\;\~1\;Hz$, where the natural EM signal is known to be very weak. Even though the subsurface showed severe three-dimensional (3-D) characteristics in the survey area so that 2-D inversion by itself could not give enough information for deep geological structures, the 2-D inversion for the 5 survey lines showed several common features. The conductive semi-consolidate mudstone layer is dipping from north to south (about 500 m depth on the south and 200 m on the north most part of the survey area). The boundary between the low (L-2) and high (H-2) resistivity anomalies can be thought as a major fault with strike $N15^{\circ}E$, passing through the sites 206, 112 and 414. The shallow (< 1 km) conductive anomalies (L-4) seem to be fracture zones having strike E-W (at site 105) and $N60^{\circ}W$ (at site 434). And there exists a conductive layer in the western and west-southern part of the survey area in the depth below $2\~3\;km$, for which further investigation is to be needed.

Scheduling Algorithms and Queueing Response Time Analysis of the UNIX Operating System (UNIX 운영체제에서의 스케줄링 법칙과 큐잉응답 시간 분석)

  • Im, Jong-Seol
    • The Transactions of the Korea Information Processing Society
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    • v.1 no.3
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    • pp.367-379
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    • 1994
  • This paper describes scheduling algorithms of the UNIX operating system and shows an analytical approach to approximate the average conditional response time for a process in the UNIX operating system. The average conditional response time is the average time between the submittal of a process requiring a certain amount of the CPU time and the completion of the process. The process scheduling algorithms in thr UNIX system are based on the priority service disciplines. That is, the behavior of a process is governed by the UNIX process schuduling algorithms that (ⅰ) the time-shared computer usage is obtained by allotting each request a quantum until it completes its required CPU time, (ⅱ) the nonpreemptive switching in system mode and the preemptive switching in user mode are applied to determine the quantum, (ⅲ) the first-come-first-serve discipline is applied within the same priority level, and (ⅳ) after completing an allotted quantum the process is placed at the end of either the runnable queue corresponding to its priority or the disk queue where it sleeps. These process scheduling algorithms create the round-robin effect in user mode. Using the round-robin effect and the preemptive switching, we approximate a process delay in user mode. Using the nonpreemptive switching, we approximate a process delay in system mode. We also consider a process delay due to the disk input and output operations. The average conditional response time is then obtained by approximating the total process delay. The results show an excellent response time for the processes requiring system time at the expense of the processes requiring user time.

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The Case Study of the Entrepreneurship Intensive Programs and the Successful Diffusing Strategies of the Entrepreneurship Education. (벤처창업전문과정(EIP) 사업추진 성공사례와 확산전략)

  • Ha, Kyu-Soo;Rhee, Taik-Ho;Lee, Seung-Weon;Kim, Ki-Hak
    • Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.127-156
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    • 2006
  • This paper introduced successful case studies of the EIP (Entrepreneurship Intensive Programs) programs that are planed by 5MBA (Small and Medium Business Administration) and executed by Hoseo University and Jinju National University in 2004. Therefore, the illustrations and examples used in this paper are based on the EIP programs of those schools. Currently there are five graduate schools for Entrepreneurship educations that are originated from the EIP program models and those graduateschools are actively and successfully working. The purpose of this paper is to find out the diffusing strategies of the Entrepreneurship spirits and Entrepreneurship Education programs after careful analysis and review of the EIP programs. The main factors of the Success of the EIP are as follows. First, there were excellent modules of the education process. Second, there were firm and clear goals of the education. Three, there were differentiated contents of the entrepreneurship education programs. Four. each and every education performance was monitored. Five, during the programs, real start-up cases were actually handled and students had many opportunities to present their cases. However, there were some shortcomings to improve and change of the entrepreneurship education. First of all, it was very difficult to make proper education formation that is fit in the purpose of the program. Second, motivating students to find out their own business opportunities so as to turn them into real business was not satisfactory or easy. Third, there were some limitations in distributing and executing the EIP budgets. Therefore, to improve the efficiency of the Entrepreneurship education, following expanding strategies should be complemented. First, continuous redesigning of the entrepreneurship education programs is very important. Second, the specialization of the contents of the entrepreneurship education programs is essential. Third, there should be some discretionary room for the management of the entrepreneurship programs. Fourth, it is also important activating the entrepreneurship networks among schools of the entrepreneurship education. Finally, it is necessary to give some incentives and motivations based on the proper performance evaluation system.

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Vietnam in 2016: The Situations and Prospects of Politics, Economy, and International Relations (베트남 2016: 정치, 경제, 대외관계의 현황과 전망)

  • LEE, Han Woo;CHAE, Su Hong
    • The Southeast Asian review
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    • v.27 no.1
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    • pp.163-191
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    • 2017
  • This article aims to review the recent, especially focusing on the year of 2016, situations and prospects of the Vietnamese politics, economy, and international relations. Politically, Vietnam completed the election of members for the National Assembly and organized new leadership at the 12th National Congress of the Vietnamese Communist Party in 2016. One characteristic of the new leadership is that the politicians, especially the members of politburo, from the North continue to occupy the position of majority. The other one is that the new leadership promised to carry out the restructuring of economy toward industries producing higher value-added commodities even though Vietnam industries admittedly need to accelerate present industrialization and modernization as a developing country under the seemingly contradictory slogan of "the development of market economy for socialism." The declared goals of the new leadership in Vietnam are inevitable in a sense since the development of Vietnamese economy has been heavily dependent upon Foreign Direct Investment(FDI) taking advantage of Vietnamese cheap labor and simultaneously it is evident that its future is unsecure if it maintains status quo. In fact, the Vietnamese economy has impressively showed high growth rate by the help of foreign capitals since 1990s despite the repetitive recessions of global economy but its growth is not likely to be sustainable anymore if it will not reduce foreign dependency and social economic inequality in a long term. In a short run, global economic recession, the financial and monetary policies of global powers, and recent protectionism and uncertainty of trade agreements will be three crucial variables to affect Vietnamese economy. In terms of international relations, Vietnam is continuously expected to practise the policy of checks and balances among the powerful countries. Vietnam has seriously disputed with China on islands sovereignty in the South China Sea and attempted to maintain close relationship with other powerful countries including especially America. However, mainly due to the new protectionism by the regime of American president Donald Trump, the Vietnamese government also need to keep close relationship with China increasingly for both economic and diplomatic security. Under the circumstances, Vietnam is expected to maintain more practical and balanced international relations.

Development of a Finger Tactile Stimulator Based on E-Prime Software (E-Prime에 기반한 손가락 촉각 자극기의 개발)

  • Kim, Hyung-Sik;Min, Yoon-Ki;Kim, Bo-Seong;Min, Byung-Chan;Yang, Jae-Woong;Lee, Su-Jeong;Choi, Mi-Hyun;Yi, Jeong-Han;Tack, Gye-Rae;Lee, Bong-Soo;Jun, Jae-Hoon;Chung, Soon-Cheol
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.703-710
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    • 2010
  • In this study, a tactile stimulator was developed to resolve some problems from the previous version of the system such as system configuration, inappropriate stimulation control and additional problems. The developed tactile stimulator consists of control unit, drive unit and vibrator unit. The control unit was controlled by E-Prime software to generate appropriate vibration pulses. The drive unit supplies enough energy to the vibrator to generate effective stimulation pulses. The vibrator unit consists of small coin type vibrator and velcro, and was made to be attached at the hand easily. The developed tactile stimulator was designed by small-size, light-weight, low-power, simple-fabrication, max 35 channels and little delay time from instruction signal of E-Prime software to vibrator. The duration and magnitude of stimulation was controlled by 10 grades and the problems concerning stimulation control were compensated by wideband frequency ranges. Additionally, the electrical safety was ensured by low voltage operation. Vibrator was made to be attached on finger as well as on any part of the subject. Since this tactile stimulator is developed based on E-Prime software which is widely used in cognitive science, it is believed that this stimulator be suitable for the wide application of cognitive science study.

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Determination of Optimized Operational Parameters for Photocatalytic Oxidation Reactors Using Factorial Design (요인분석법을 이용한 광촉매 산화반응조의 최적 운영인자 도출)

  • Hur, Joon-Moo;Cheon, Seung-Yul;Rhee, In-Hyoung;Kim, Jong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.85-91
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    • 2004
  • The objective of this study is to determine the optimum conditions of operational parameters using factorial design for phenol degradation in photocatalytic oxidation reactors. Factorial design is widely used to select the dominant factors and their ranges in experiments involving several factors where it is necessary to study the effect of factors on a response. The effects of initial concentration of phenol, intensity of UV light and surface area of catalyst on phenol degradation were investigated. Two levels were considered in this study so that the experiment was a $2^3$ factorial design with three replicates. The experimental results show that an increase in initial concentration of phenol from 5 to 50 mg/L intensity of UV light from 5,000 to $20,000\;{\mu}W/cm^2$, and surface area of catalyst from 740 to $2,105\;cm^2$ enhanced the phenol degradation rate by an average of 1.86, 1.79, and 2.10 mg/L hr, respectively. Interaction effects do not appear to be as large on the phenol degradation rate as the main effects of single factors. The optimum working condition for photocatalytic oxidation reactors, despite the higher three factors the better removal rate, is the highest surface area or catalyst.

Dispersion Effect Based on Irradiation Dose and Position of QRD Microwave in Sealed Chamber (밀폐된 챔버의 QRD 마이크로파 조사용량과 위치에 따른 분산효과)

  • Kim, Jin Hyun;Han, Chung Su;Lee, Keun Woo;Lim, Kyoung Ho;Lee, Jae Hyun;Kim, Kyung Min;Ha, Yu Shin
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2014
  • This study analyzed the efficiency and uniformity by measuring the temperature change depending on the position in the chamber with the use of QRD (quadratic residue diffusor) microwave capable of inducing even sterilization by changing wavelength phase difference and enhancing the effect on low power. The results are summarized as follows: When irradiating 7 kW of QRD microwave, the highest efficiency was obtained at 35 cm height and in the center of the chamber. When irradiating 5 kW of QRD microwave, high efficiency was obtained on the sides of the chamber. When irradiating 3 kW of QRD microwave to Magnetrons 1, 2 and 3, the temperature uniformity according to the position of the bars was similar in the position of Bar 1 and 2. When irradiating 3 kW of QRD microwave to Magnetrons 3, 4 and 5, the temperature increased by approximately 10 to 20% in Bar 3. When irradiating 5, 7 and 9 kW of magnetron, the average temperature during the irradiation time increased in a similar form independently of the position of the bars. On the other hand, the efficiency of the chamber's proper internal volume was not necessarily proportional to the irradiation dose. When irradiating 3 kW of magnetron for 60 120 and 180 seconds, the temperature increased by approximately 5 to 10 at the edge of the chamber according to the irradiation position of magnetron. The temperature distribution for each position in the horizontal plane was relatively uniform, and the temperature had a tendency to slightly increase at the edge. When irradiating 5, 7 and 9 kW of magnetron, the temperature relatively evenly increased independently of the position of the bars. It was thought necessary to increase the irradiation dose by approximately 10 to 20% by considering the difference in temperature rise according to the position of magnetron.

Effect of the Nematode Sterilization of Nursery Medium using QRD Microwave in the Plant Factory (QRD 마이크로파를 이용한 식물공장용 배지의 멸균 효과)

  • Kim, Jin Hyun;Kim, Tae Wook;Lee, Keun Woo;Ha, Yu Shin;Lee, Jae Hyun;Kim, Kyung Min
    • Protected Horticulture and Plant Factory
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.100-107
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    • 2013
  • Unlike general microwave, QRD (Quadratic Residue Diffusor) Microwave used in this study is known as a new technology that enhances the sterilization effect with low power because it is possible to induce the average sterilization by changing wavelength phase difference. Therefore, basic research was conducted on the function that could sterilize culture media for plant factory by using environmentally friendly and low energy consuming QRD Microwave. The results are as follows: It was confirmed that there was no external deformation in the polyurethane foam and rock wool medium when changing the microwave level between 2 and 8 kW in different water content of culture media. However, PDA solid media at 2 kW were not dissolved in 60 and 180 seconds. All of the media were dissolved in other processing. There was little difference in the microwave irradiation level and surface temperature of the strain according to the processing time between Bacillus sp. and Burkholderia sp. In the sterility test according to the microwave irradiation level and processing time, it was confirmed that both Bacillus sp. and Burkholderia sp. grew in the microwave level 2 kW regardless of time. In the microwave level 6 kW, all experimental groups except the processing of Burkholderia sp. for 60 seconds were sterilized, and all of Bacillus sp. was killed in the all experimental groups. In the microwave level 8 kW, it was confirmed that both Bacillus sp. and Burkholderia sp. were sterilized regardless of time. The temperature in microwave-processed media after contaminating strains to each medium was maintained at more than 100 in polyurethane foam and rock wool medium after 60 seconds. In general, it was shown that it was possible to sterilize after 60 seconds. Therefore, it is considered that Bacillus sp. and Burkholderia sp. which are the biggest problems in the plant factory can be adequately sterilized by QRD Microwave used in this study.

Power Generation Performance Evaluation according to the Vehicle Running on the Hybrid Energy Harvesting Block (하이브리드 에너지하베스팅 블록의 차량주행 발전성능 평가)

  • Kim, Hyo-Jin;Park, Ji-Young;Jin, Kyu-Nam;Noh, Myung-Hyun
    • LHI Journal of Land, Housing, and Urban Affairs
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    • v.7 no.4
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    • pp.307-314
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    • 2016
  • Energy harvesting technique is to utilize energy that is always present but wasted. In this study, we have developed the energy harvester of the hybrid method utilizing both vibration and pressure of the vehicle traveling a road or parking lot. In the previous study, we have developed a prototype energy harvester, improved hybrid energy harvester, and developed a final product that offers improved performance in the hybrid module. The results were published in the previous paper. In this study, we installed the finally developed hybrid module in the actual parking lot. And we measured the power generation performance due to pressure and vibration, and the running speed of the vehicle when the vehicle is traveling. And we compared the results with those obtained in laboratory conditions. In a previous study performed in laboratory conditions the maximum power of the energy block was 1.066W when one single time of vibration, and 1.830W when succession with 5 times. On the other hand, in this study, we obtained the average power output of 0.310W when the vehicle is running at an average 5 km/h, 0.670W when at an average 10 km/h, and 1.250W when at an average 20 km/h, and 2.160W when at an average 5 km/h. That is, the higher the running speed of the vehicle has increased power generation performance. However, when compared to laboratory conditions, the power generation performance of the energy block in driving speed by 20km/h was lower than those in laboratory conditions. In addition, when compared to one time of vibration of laboratory conditions, power generation performance was higher when the running speed 20km/h or more and when five consecutive times in laboratory conditions, it was higher when the running speed 30km/h or more. It could be caused by a difference of load conditions between the laboratory and the actual vehicle. Thus, applying the energy block on the road would be more effective than that on the parking lot.