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A Study on the Divinity Construction of Temples in Sapa Region, Vietnam : Case of Den Hang Pho (베트남 사파(Sapa)지역 신전(神殿)의 신격(神格) 구성 고찰 - 덴항포(Den Hang Pho, SAPA)를 소재삼아 -)

  • Lee, Yoon Sun;LE, THI NGOC CAM
    • Journal of Korean Historical Folklife
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    • no.34
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    • pp.253-281
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    • 2010
  • This study has its purpose on figuring it out to the religious notion in Vietnam with the material of the divinity construction of Den Hang Pho in Sapa where is the northern region of Vietnam. To make this, the study divides the type of Vietnamese temples into four parts; Chua, Den, Dinh, and Mieu. Among them, the study pays attention to 'Den' because Vietnamese historical heroes are seated as divinity. This reason makes a reasonable case to this study to figure out a typically and generally religious faith. First of all, the study analyzes immaculate divinity, which generally consists of three and four layered system. The study confirms that the immaculate divinity started from the goddess and then extended to the concept to dominate the sky, the ground, the sea(river), and the mountain(forest). General Tran Hung Dao is the best historical hero in Vietnam and has been placed in temples called Den. The study exams the context that the divinity extended to the religious beliefs, for examples, the belief related in a childbirth by lots of narrations and ceremonies and the belief to treat a sickness, and also exams the context that the divinity placed in a divinity to make a symmetrical relation with immaculate faith. The study exams the divinity construction of Den Hang Pho as its authentic case. In this case, the study could verify a case emphasized by mountain Holy Mother among immaculate faiths. Especially, the study can confirm that General Tran Hung Dao was apotheosized as a concept to be symmetrized with immaculate divinity, and futhermore, a couple of snakes was emphasized by their positioning to every room. Tri-system lays stress on the aboriginality(locality) centered on minority races in the northern Vietnam, the national identity of Vietnam, and the ecological condition of rivers flowing the valley of high and steep peak. The confirmed facts could be said to a construction what the religious notion of tri-system makes. The study makes a conclusion that this kind of conversion-oriented religious notion naturally corresponded with region, nation, and ecologically environmental condition, and extended to the Vietnamese faith with polytheistic divinity.

Incidence of Hypertension in a Cohort of an Adult Population (성인코호트에서 고혈압 발생률)

  • Kam, Sin;Oh, Hee-Sook;Lee, Sang-Won;Woo, Kook-Hyeun;Ahn, Moon-Young;Chun, Byung-Yeol
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.141-146
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    • 2002
  • Objectives : This study was peformed in order to assess the incidence of hypertension based on two-years follow-up of a rural hypertension-free cohort in Korea. Methods : The study cohen comprised 2,580 subjects aged above 20 (1,107 men and 1,473 women) of Chung-Song County in Kyungpook Province judged to be hypertensive-free at the baseline examination in 1996. For each of two examinations in the two-year follow-up, those subjects free of hypertension were followed for the development of hypertension to the next examination one year (1997) and two years later (1998). The drop-out rate was 24.7% in men and 19.6% in women. Hypertension was defined as follows 1) above mild hypertension as a SBP above 140 mmHg or a DBP above 90 mmMg,2) above moderate hypertension as a SBP above 160 mmHg or a DBP above 100 mmHg or when the participant reported having used antihypertensive medication after beginning this survey. Results : The age-standardized incidence of above mild hypertension was 6 per 100 person years (PYS) in men and that of above moderate hypertension was 1.2. In women, the age-standardized rate for above mild hypertension was 5.7 and 1.5 for above mild and moderate hypertension, respectively. However, the rates of incidence as calculated by the risk method were 4.8% and 1.0% in men and 4.6%, 1.2% in women, respectively. In both genders, incidence was significantly associated with advancing age(p<0.01), In men, the incidences of above moderate hypertension by age group were 0.5 per 100 PYS aged 20-39, 0.7 aged 40-49, 1.7 aged 50-59, 3.6 aged 60-69, and 5.8 aged above 70(p<0.01). In women, those the incidence measured 0.6 per 100 PYS aged 20-39, 1.8 aged 40-49, 1.3 aged 50-59, 3.3 aged 60-69, and 5.6 aged above 70(p<0.01). After age 60, the incidence of hypertension increased rapidly. Conclusions : The incidence data of hypertension reported in this study may serve as a reference data for evaluating the impact of future public efforts in the primary prevention of hypertension in Korea.

A Study Meaning Analysis and Interpretation of Body Sign, Kiki Smith - On Pee Body - (키키 스미스 작품에서 신체기호의 의미 분석과 해석 - 를 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Sung-Hee
    • Journal of Science of Art and Design
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    • v.10
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    • pp.5-50
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    • 2006
  • The terminology "human body" simply means a physical body but also more often, as an object in art works, carries symbolic concepts incorporating the whole history of human lives. Human body has been employed as an artistic object capturing physical body, delivering artist's idea expressing life indicators from different standpoints of times and places. This point of view about human body in art works has in fact rather short history since 1960's when modern thinking paradigm focusing upon rationality and reasoning has begun declining and on the contrary when the body used to be the servant of the mind and soul for a long time has begun attracting artist's attention as a real entity from the viewpoint of dichotomy. During the 1960's, frequent performances in Pop art and of Fluxus showed that the human body has been an important media for artistic communication after importance of body performances had been raised in Action painting in 1940's. The human body became a more determined media in body art works that had got into stride after Yves Kline's conceptual works applying body and its traces. These kinds of art works have continued and consolidated into the Feminism came into blossom in 1980's and into fragmentated and disembodied body art trend in 1990's. Through development of trends in body works, human body now might well be regarded as a clue provide from individual identity with implication over the world. This thesis is to analyse in semiotic way main works of Kiki Smith who is a representative artist devoting to Feminism and proposing extended significance of human body. In the analysis process of works done by two great artists with histrorical background of art trend in order to find and open an significance horizon of human body, semiotics and bodism are therefore perceived as pertinent and applied as basic tools. The first stage of analysis is to get the significances emerged in between expression part and contextual parts, which are separated structually from the most basic level. The study deals with body works furthermore in the way of structual cohesion of the expression and the context from the view of A J. Greimas' Structural Semantics and tried to build up a basic frame for the extended significances of human body. This thesis is, on the other hand, to attempt to contribute for extension of disembodied and fragmentated body discussed in the structural semantic frame earlier by Julia Kriesteva who delivers abjection concepts and phenomenology of Maurice Merleau-Ponty who enables to overview relationship between the body and the world from the viewpoint of Bodism, further into interpretation level. The other works are Kiki smith's that showed epics about death in mid-1980's, detailed humbleness of vulnerable human body exposed to dichotomy and fragmentation in 1990's and religion and mythology incorporating wouln healing in 2000's and henceforth. Through the analysis of Kiki Smith's representative work 'Pee body', it is verified and confirmed that fragmentated body showed beyond boundary gap of the human body and ultimately tends to imply human healing owing to divine maternity. Bodily symbols in Kiki Smith's are extended to the universal world to imply human life and death on the one hand and religion and mythology of human wound and divine healing one the other hand. This thesis through these process and results of analysis is in a broad context, to emphasize that human body as objectified text has a key indicator role to understand world as well as semiotic extension in art works in late 20th century so that we might confirm bodily symbol as a cultural context constitutes a section of contemporary visual arts.

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Dietary Habits, Body Weight Satisfaction and Eating Disorders according to the Body Mass Index of Female University Students in Kyungnam Province (경남 지역 일부 여대생의 비만도에 따른 식습관, 체중 만족도 및 섭식 장애에 관한 연구)

  • Park, Kyung-Ae
    • Journal of the East Asian Society of Dietary Life
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.891-908
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    • 2009
  • This study was performed to investigate the dietary habits, body weight satisfaction and eating disorder tendencies of female university students in Kyungnam province. Anthropometric measurements, dietary habits, body weight satisfaction, food preferences, disordered eating, and nutrient intakes were assessed in 132 female students at Kaya University. The results were analyzed with $x^2$- and ANOVA tests using the SPSS package program. The average age of the subjects was 20.1 years and average body mass index (BMI) were $21.1\;kg/m^2$. According to BMI, the percentages of students who were underweight, normal weight and overweight by BMI were 21.2, 55.3, and 23.5, respectively. Duration of exercise was significantly different by BMI. Index scores for a mini dietary assessment were significantly higher in the normal and overweight groups than in the underweight group. Scores for sweet, salty, and meat preferences were highest and scores for bean and vegetable preferences were lowest, in the underweight group. Satisfaction for present body weight was lowest, and self-perception of body image and weight control experiences were highest in the overweight group. All subjects in the overweight group wanted to be slim, and those in the normal and underweight groups, preferred to be more slim despite their current body weight being in the normal or below normal range. The percentage of the subjects who were at risk for eating disorders (based on scores from the Eating Attitude Test-26, EAT-$26{\geqq}20$) was 11.3%. Scores for EAT-26 were higher in the overweight group than in the underweight and normal weight groups. Nutrient intakes were not different among the groups. Therefore, dietary habits, taste and food preferences, satisfaction for present body weight, and disordered eating were significantly different according to BMI. These results suggest that overweight female university students need help correcting disordered eating, and nutrition counseling should be established to aid desirable weight control methods. Those who are underweight and normal weight need help establishing proper perceptions of their normal body weight and body image as well as nutrition counseling for health.

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A Study of the Relationship between Realistic Expression of Objects and Graphic Novel in Korean Comics - Focused on the work by Kwon, Ga-Ya - (한국만화에 있어 대상의 사실적 표현과 그래픽 노블의 연관관계에 대한 연구 - 권가야의 <남한산성>작품을 중심으로 -)

  • Park, Hee-Bok;Kim, Kwang-Su
    • Cartoon and Animation Studies
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    • pp.361-392
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    • 2014
  • Regarding works that express objects realistically in painting, Gustave Courbet advocated realism in the mid-19th century, France, resisting the then academist style of painting, and works in realist style were produced in earnest by painters such as H. Daumier or Jean F. Millet, who went along with him. Later, realism has expanded into the realm of general literature, including fine art, which has had profound impacts on works of art and literary works. In comics, too, in the same historical context as a form of painting, realistic comics began to be produced by painters or cartoonists at the time. These realism comics are those dealing with stories based on facts, and in terms of contents, objective description and representation of the social realities of the times is one of the most important objectives, but it could not be concluded that in their visual aspect, that is, that of expressing the objects, they were realistic. In the meantime, a graphic novel was born, which was the intermediate form between comics and novels around the United States and Europe since the 1980s. Graphic novels appeared in forms and styles with strong literary and artistic values in the comics market in the U.S. which was full of the superhero genre (comics around heroes), and their major characteristics are very realistic expressions in terms of contents and visual aspect. They are complex and delicate and even have artistic, literary values as if readers read a fiction or literary work of which its narrative structures or pictures are produced with graphics. The characteristics of realistic expressions shown in graphic novels are very different from the previous works of comics. It is noteworthy that they began to be acknowledged as works of art like painting or illustration, thanks to their features of strongly individual auteurist painting style, a fairly high degree of completion of the works, and creative and experimental expression techniques or methods, instead of following the fashion of the times. In recent years, in South Korea, Hollywood blockbuster films have been released one after another and become box office hits, there are increasing interest and demand for the original graphic novels. Accordingly, many original graphic novels have been translated and started to be sold, and keeping pace with this global flow of fashion, some writers in Korea began to produce works of graphic novels. However, to look into the domestic works produced claiming to be graphic novels, there are various opinions on their format and authenticity. In this sense, this study focused on Ga-ya Kwon's Namhansanseong, one the representative works of Korean style graphic novels, and in particular, it attempted to analyze their characteristics and commonalities focusing on the visual aspect of realistic expressions of objects. It is expected that there would be an opportunity to seek for ways so that Korean style graphic novel can be further developed as a genre of comics, with competitiveness by looking back on the identity and present state of domestic graphic novels and developing and applying Korea's original subject matters differentiated from those of graphic novels in the U.S., Europe or Japan through this study. In addition, it is desired that they will be a new energizer for the stagnant domestic comics market.

Historical Studies on the Characteristics of Buyongjeong in the Rear Garden of Changdeok Palace (창덕궁 후원 부용정(芙蓉亭)의 조영사적 특성)

  • Song, Suk-ho;Sim, Woo-kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.40-52
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    • 2016
  • Buyongjeong, a pavilion in the Rear Garden of Changdeok Palace, was appointed as Treasure No. 1763 on March 2, 2012, by the South Korea government since it shows significant symmetry and proportion on its unique planar shape, spatial configuration, building decoration, and so forth. However, the designation of Treasure selection was mainly evaluated by concrete science, in that the selection has not clearly articulated how and why Buoungjeong was constructed as a present unique form. Therefore, this study aims to clarify the identity of Buyongjeong at the time of construction by considering its historical, ideological, philosophical background and building intention. Summary are as follows: First, Construction backgrounds and characters of Buyongjeong: Right after the enthronement, King Jeongjo had founded Kyujanggak(奎章閣), and sponsored civil ministers who were elected by the national examination, as a part of political reform. In addition, he established his own political system by respecting "Kaksin(閣臣)", Kyujanggak's officials as much as "Kain(家人)", internal family members. King Jeongjo's aggressive political reform finally enabled King's lieges to visit King's Rear Garden. In the reign of King Jeongjo's 16th year(1792), Naekaksangjohoe(內閣賞釣會) based on "Kaksin" was officially launched and the Rear Garden visitation became a regular meeting. The Rear Garden visitation consisted of "Sanghwajoeoyeon(賞花釣魚宴)" - enjoying flowers and fishing, and activities of "Nanjeongsugye". Afterward, it eventually became a huge national event since high rank government officials participated the event. King Jeongjo shared the cultural activities with government officials together to Buyongjeong as a place to fulfill his royal politics. Second, The geographical location and spatial characteristics of Buyongjeong: On the enthronement of King Jeongjo(1776), he renovated Taeksujae. Above all, aligning and linking Gaeyuwa - Taeksujae - a cicular island - Eosumun - Kyujangkak along with the construction axis is an evidence for King Jeongjo to determine how the current Kyujangkak zone was prepared and designed to fulfill King Jeonjo's political ideals. In 17th year(1793) of the reign of King Jeongjo, Taeksujae, originally a square shaped pavilion, was modified and expanded with ranks to provide a place to get along with the King and officials. The northern part of Buyongjeong, placed on pond, was designed for the King's place and constructed one rank higher than others. Discernment on windows and doors were made with "Ajasal" - a special pattern for the King. The western and eastern parts were for government officials. The center part was prepared for a place where government officials were granted an audience with the King, who was located in the nortern part of Buyongjeong. Government officials from the western and eastern parts of Buyongjeong, could enter the central part of the Buyongjeong from the southern part by detouring the corner of Buyongjeong. After all, Buyongjeong is a specially designed garden building, which was constructed to be a royal palace utilizing its minimal space. Third, Cultural Values of Buyongjeong: The Buyongjeong area exhibits a trait that it had been continuously developed and it had reflected complex King's private garden cultures from King Sejo, Injo, Hyunjong, Sukjong, Jeongjo and so forth. In particular, King Jeongjo had succeded physical, social and imaginary environments established by former kings and invited their government officials for his royal politics. As a central place for his royal politics, King Jeongjo completed Buyongjeong. Therefore, the value of Buyongjeong, as a garden building reflecting permanency of the Joseon Dynasty, can be highly evaluated. In addition, as it reflects Confucianism in the pavilion - represented by distinguishing hierarchical ranks, it is a unique example to exhibit its distinctiveness in a royal garden.

Studies on the Directivity of Gokjungkyeong(Kyung Overlapped with Gok) which was specified in Byeokgye-ri, Yangpyeong-gun and the Hwaseo Lee, Hang-ro's Management in Byeokwon Garden (양평 벽계리에 설정된 곡중경(曲中景)의 지향성과 화서(華西) 이항로(李恒老)의 벽원(蘗園) 경영)

  • Jung, Woo-Jin;Rho, Jae-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.78-97
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    • 2016
  • The objectives of this study are to examine the context of the establishment of Suhoe Gugok, Byeokgye Gugok Vally, and Nosan Palkyung, which have been established in Seojong-myeon of Yangpyeong-gun, by literature review and site investigations, and to determine the sceneries of Byeokgye scenic site as enjoyed and managed during the period of Hwaseo Lee, Hang-ro(華西 李恒老). The results of the study are as follows. First, Byeokgye Gugok Vally(黃蘗九曲) and Nosan Palkyung(蘆山八景), which have been established after the period of Hwaseo and theorized to have been established around key scenic areas associated with Hwaseo's activities, the analysis results showed that they were collecting sceneries of modern times. The extensive overlap between Byeokgye Gugok Vally and concentrated scenic elements of Suhoe Gugok(水回九曲), and the artificial configuration from the end point of Suhoe Gugok to the beginning point of Nosan Palkyung, reveal the pattern of space conflict and hegemony between Byeokgyes of Suip-ri and Nomun-ri. This is likely to be caused by the conflict between the historicity of the group that enjoyed Byeokgye prior to Hwaso's period and the strong territoriality of the space filled with the image of Hwaseo. Second, Byeokgye Gugok Vally was the secondary spatial system created by selecting the most scenic sites in Suip-ri while expanding the area of Nosan Palkyung. After establishment of Byeokgye Gugok Vally, the spatial identity of the entire Byeokgyecheon area was effectively established. This was a "Hwaseo-oriented" move, including the complete exclusion of the scenic sites from the pre-Hwaseo period such as Cheongseo Gujang and Suhoe Gugok's Letters Carved on the Rock. Consequently, the entire Byeokgyecheon area was reorganized into a cultural scenic site with Heoseo's influence. Third, Fifth, creations of Gugok(九曲) to determine the lineage of the Hwaseo School from Juja(朱子) to Yulgok(栗谷) to Uam(尤庵) to Hwaseo is likely to be an opportunity of birth and external motivation of the establishment of new Gugok Palkyung. In other words, Nosan Palkyung and Byeokgye Gugok Vally are likely to have been created as a reaction to the change of the center of the Hwaseo School to Okgyedong, and with strategic orientation based on the motivation and needs such as creation of the connecting space between Mui Gugok, Gosan Gugok, and Okgye Gugok, and the elevation of Hwaseo's status. Fourth, from the Hwaseo's Li-centric point of view, all revered sites in Beokwon(蘗園) that he managed existed as the spatial creative work to experience the existence of "li" through the objects in the landscape and the boundary of the spirit of emptiness of the aesthetic self. This clearly shows how Byeokgye Gugok Vally or Nosan Palkyung must be defined, and furthermore, appreciated and approached, prior to discussing it as the space associated with Hwaseo. Fifth, Nosan Palkyung was composed of cultural scenic landscapes of Gokjungkyung(曲中景) with eight scenic sites where Hwaseo gave his teachings and spend time around, in the Byeokgye of Nomun-ri area of Byeokgye Gugok Vally. The sceneries is, however, collected by depending on Hwaseo's Letters Carved on the Rock and poetry. Consequently, an inner exuberance of Nosan Palkyung is satisfied beside Byeokgye Gugok Vally, but its conceptual adequacy leaves room for questions.

The Study of Korean-style Leadership (The Great Cause?Oriented and Confidence-Oriented Leadership) (대의와 신뢰 중시의 한국형 리더십 연구)

  • Park, sang ree
    • The Journal of Korean Philosophical History
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    • no.23
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    • pp.99-128
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    • 2008
  • This research analyzes some Korean historical figures and presents the core values of their leaderships so that we can bring up the theory of leadership which would be compatible with the current circumstances around Korea. Through this work, we expected that we would not only find out typical examples among historical leaders but also reaffirm our identities in our history. As a result of the research, it was possible to classify some figures in history into several patterns and discover their archetypal qualities. Those qualities were 'transform(實事)', 'challenge(決死)', 'energize(風流)', 'create(創案)', and 'envision(開新)' respectively. Among the qualities, this research concentrated on the quality of 'challenge', exclusively 'death-defying spirit'. This spirit is the one with which historical leaders could sacrifice their lives for their great causes. This research selected twelve figures as incarnations of death-defying spirit, who are Gyebaek(階伯), Ganggamchan(姜邯贊), Euljimundeok(乙支文德), Choeyoung(崔瑩),ChungMongju(鄭夢周), Seongsammun (成三問), Yisunsin(李舜臣), Gwakjaewoo(郭再祐), Choeikhyeon(崔益鉉), Anjunggeun(安重根), Yunbonggil(尹奉吉), Yijun(李儁). Through analyzing their core values and abilities and categorizing some historical cases into four spheres such as a private sphere, relations sphere, a community sphere, and a society sphere, we came to find a certain element in common among those figures. It was that they eventually took the lead by showing the goal and the ideal to their people at all times. Moreover, their goals were always not only obvious but also unwavering. In the second chapter, I described the core value in a private sphere, so called '志靑靑'. It implies that a leader should set his ultimate goal and then try to attain it with an unyielding will. Obvious self-confidence and unfailing self-creed are core values in a private sphere. In the third chapter, I described the core value in a relative sphere, the relationship between one and others. It is '守信結義'. It indicates that a leader should win confidence from others by discharging his duties in the relation with others. Confidence is the highest leveled affection to others. Thus, mutual reliance should be based on truthful sincerity and affection toward others. Stubbornness and strictness are needed not to be prompted by pity simultaneously. In the fourth chapter, I described the core value in a community sphere. It is '丹心合力'. For this value, what are required to a leader are both his community spirit and his loyalty to one's community. Moreover, the strong sense of responsibility and the attitude of taking an initiative among others are also required. Thus, it can be said that the great power to conduct the community is so called fine teamwork. What's more, the attitude of the leader can exert a great influence on his community. In the fifth chapter, I described the core value of death defying spirit in the society sphere. This value might be more definite and explicit than other ones described above. A leader should prepare willingly for one's death to fulfill his great duties. 'What to do' is more important for a leader than 'how to do'. That is to say, a leader should always do righteous things. Efficiency is nothing but one of his interests. A leader must be the one who behaves himself always according to righteousness. Unless a leader's behaviors are based on righteousness, it is absolutely impossible that a leader exerts his leadership toward people very efficiently. Thus, it can be said that a true leader is the one not only who is of morality and but also who tries to fulfill his duties.

Les problèmes et les solutions de thèâtre musical corèen (한국 라이선스 뮤지컬의 현실과 개선에 대한 연구)

  • Kim, Gyunhyeong
    • (The) Research of the performance art and culture
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    • no.18
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    • pp.257-282
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    • 2009
  • Le $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{t}}re$ musical en $Cor{\acute{e}}e$ est devenu aujourd'hui une mode. Beaucoup parlent de musical, mais beaucoup de musicals sont $mont{\acute{e}}s$ sur la $sc{\grave{e}}ne$ sans des recherches $n{\acute{e}}cessaires$ suffisantes. C'est pour cette raison que la plupart des spectacles musicaux qui sont $cr{\acute{e}}es$ en $Cor{\acute{e}}e$ sont $destin{\acute{e}}s$ en faillite $d{\grave{e}}s$ la naissance. D'ailleurs les musicals $liscenci{\acute{e}}s$ par $l^{\prime}Am{\acute{e}}rique$, la France qui sont $mont{\acute{e}}s$ sur la $sc{\grave{e}}ne$ de $Cor{\acute{e}}e$ aujourd'hui sont assez pour nuire le $march{\acute{e}}$ $cor{\acute{e}}en$ $constitu{\acute{e}}$ autour de musical. Quels sont donc les $probl{\grave{e}}mes$ que posent les musicals $liscenci{\acute{e}}s$? $Premi{\grave{e}}rement$ ils encouragent la mime, pas la $cr{\acute{e}}ation$. En d'autre terme, les musicals $liscenci{\acute{e}}s$ que les $Cor{\acute{e}}ens$ montent sur la $sc{\grave{e}}ne$ ne sont pas les $cr{\acute{e}}ations$ propres chez les $Cor{\acute{e}}ens$, par contre, ces derniers sont $demand{\acute{e}}s$ de suivre ${\grave{a}}$ la mot les indications $dict{\acute{e}}es$ par le droit d'auteur. Les $cr{\acute{e}}ateurs$ $cor{\acute{e}}ens$ ne sont pas libres de $cr{\acute{e}}ation$. $Deuxi{\grave{e}}mement$ les musicals ${\grave{a}}$ la mode ont pouvoir de $d{\acute{e}}truire$ la $diversit{\acute{e}}$ de l'homme. L'homme se $caract{\grave{e}}rise$ par la $diversit{\acute{e}}$ et se $diff{\grave{e}}re$ l'un par rapport ${\grave{a}}$ l'autre. C'est l'essence de l'homme. Tous sont $diff{\acute{e}}rents$. Pourtant le musical qui $r{\grave{e}}gne$ sur tous genres de spectacles d'aujourd'hui de $Cor{\acute{e}}e$ ne laisse pas vivre d'autres genres de spectacles, la danse, le $th{\acute{e}}{\hat{a}}tre$, etc. Seul le musical est $compt{\acute{e}}$. $Troisi{\grave{e}}mement$ le musical ne peut pas nier $compl{\grave{e}}tement$ son origine commerciale. En fait le musical est devenu une chose important depuis des investigations immenses par le gouvernement $d^{\prime}Am{\acute{e}}rique$ pour donner des travails aux gens. Donc, $d{\grave{e}}s$ le $d{\acute{e}}but$, il n'y avait pas de $consid{\acute{e}}rations$ artistiques dans et sur le musical. Comme c'est par le commerce que le musical est $r{\acute{e}}pandu$, s'il y aura un $probl{\grave{e}}me$ quelconque, il est $tr{\grave{e}}s$ possible qu'on cherche ${\grave{a}}$ $r{\acute{e}}soudre$ le $probl{\grave{e}}me$ par la vue de commerce. En comprenant les $probl{\grave{e}}mes$ $mentionn{\acute{e}}s$ $l{\grave{a}}$-dessus, il faut $pr{\acute{e}}parer$ le changement de $march{\acute{e}}$ $cor{\acute{e}}enne$ de musical. Le moyen le plus $su{\hat{r}}$ de se $pr{\acute{e}}parer$ est de trouver la $r{\acute{e}}solution$ dans la culture. Pourtant cette $derni{\grave{e}}re$ ne signifie pas la tradition comme $c^{\prime}{\acute{e}}tait$ le cas $jusqu^{\prime}{\grave{a}}$ aujourd'hui, car les $Cor{\acute{e}}ens$ ne sont pas ${\acute{e}}duqu{\acute{e}}s$ par cette $derni{\grave{e}}re$. La $modernit{\acute{e}}$, disons occidentale, traverse la $Cor{\acute{e}}e$. Donc, la signification du mot 'culture' doit ${\hat{e}}tre$ $bas{\acute{e}}e$ sur la tradition et la $modernit{\acute{e}}$ en $m{\hat{e}}me$ temps.

The Location and Landscape Composition of Yowol-pavilion Garden Interpreted from Tablet & Poetry (편액과 시문으로 본 요월정원림(邀月亭園林)의 입지 및 조영 해석)

  • Lee, Hyun-Woo;Kim, Sang-Wook;Ren, Qin-Hong
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.32-45
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    • 2014
  • The study attempts to interpret original location and landscape composition of Yowol-pavilion Garden under the premise that tablet and poetry are important criteria for inference of unique location and landscape composition of a pavilion garden. The study raises the meaning, status, and value of Yowol Pavilion Garden as a cultural asset. The results of the study are as follows. First, Yowol-pavilion Garden was a place where famous Confucius scholars in Joseon Dynasty in 16th Century, including Kim, Kyung-Woo, the owner of the garden, used to share the taste for the arts and poetries with their colleagues. Along with a main characteristic of Yowol Pavilion Garden as a hideout for the Confucius scholars who stayed away from a political turmoil, the new place characteristic of the garden, a bridgehead for the formation of regional identity, was discovered in the record of "Joseon-Hwanyeo-Seungram Honam-Eupji JangSeong-Eupji", As described in "The first creative poetry of Yowol-pavilion", the intention for the creation of Yowol-pavilion Garden and the motive for its landscape composition is interpreted as a space of rivalry where the world, reality and ideals are mixed up. Second, related to outstanding scenic factors and natural phenomena when taking a view from the pavilion, the name of the house 'Yowol', which means 'Greeting the moon rising on the Mt. Wolbong' is the provision of nature and taste for the arts, and is directly connected to the image of leaving the worldly. In other words, the name was identified to be the one that reflected the intention for landscape composition to follow the provision of nature separating from joy and sorrow of the mundane world. Third, as for the location, it was confirmed through "YeongGwang-Soksu-Yeoji-Seungram" that Yowol-pavilion Garden was a place where the person who made the pavilion prepared for relaxation after stepping down from a government post, and literature and various poetry show that it was also a place of outstanding scenic where Yellow-dragon River meandered facing Mt. Wolbong. Especially, according to an interview with a keeper, the visual perception frequency of the nightscape of Yowol-pavilion Garden is the highest when viewing by considering the east, the direction of Yellow-dragon River, as Suksigak[normal angle's view], towards Yowel-pavilion from the keeper's house. In addition, he said that the most beautiful landscape with high perception strength is when the moon came up from the left side of Yowol-pavilion, cuts across the Lagerstroemia india heal in front of Yowol-pavilion, and crosses the meridian between Mt. Wolbong peaks facing Yowol-pavilion. Currently, the exposure of Yowol-pavilion Garden is $SE\;141.2^{\circ}$, which is almost facing southeast. It is assumed that the exposure of Yowol-pavilion Garden was determined considering the optimized direction for appreciating the trace of the moon and the intention of securing the visibility as well as topographic conditions. Furthermore, it is presumed that the exposure of Yowol-pavilion Garden was determined so that the moon is reflected on the water of Yellow-dragon River and the moon and its reflection form a symmetry. Fourth, currently, Yowol-pavilion Garden is divided into 'inner garden sphere' composed of Yowol-pavilion, meeting place of the clan and administration building, and 'outer garden sphere' which is inclusive of entrance space, Crape Myrtle Community Garden and Pine Tree Forest in the back. Further, Yowol-pavilion Garden has been deteriorated as the edge was expanded to 'Small lake[Yong-so] and Gardens of aquatic plants sphere' and recently-created 'Yellow-dragon Pavilion and park sphere'. Fifth, at the time it was first made, Yowol-pavilion Garden was borderless gardens consisting of mountains and water taking a method of occupying a specific space of nearby nature centering around pavilion by embracing landscape viewed from the pavilion, but interpreted current complex landscapes are identified to be entirely different from landscapes of the original due to 'Different Changes', 'Fragmentation' and 'Apart piece' in many parts. Lastly, considering that Yowol-pavilion Garden belongs to the Cultural Properties Protection Zone, though not the restoration to the landscapes of the original described in tablet and literature record, at least taking a measure from the aspect of land use for minimizing adverse effect on landscape and visual damage is required.