• Title, Summary, Keyword: 종자활성검정

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The Search for Naturally Occurring Herbicidal Compounds - I. Screening Search for Herbicidal Substances in Higher Plants (천연에서부터 제초활성물질의 탐색 - 제1보 식물체에 함유된 제초활성물질의 검색)

  • Ahn, J.W.;Kim, J.S.;Cho, K.Y.
    • Korean Journal of Weed Science
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.69-75
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    • 1989
  • To search germination inhibitors in higher plants, first of all, some experiments containing selection of test weed seeds and effects of solvents and surfactants for bioassay establishment were conducted. Then MeOH-extracts of 45 plants were assayed for germination inhibition activities against Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Beauv, Digitaria sanguinalis (L.) Scop., Cyperus iria L., Portulaca oleracea L. and Oenothera lamarckiana Ser. seeds. Among them extracts from Rhathiolepis ovata Briat and Picea abies (L.) Karst showed strong inhibitory effect (60-90% inhibition) on the germination of tested weed seeds at 5000 ppm. On the other hand, the extract from Youngia sonchifolia Max stimulated the germination and growth of tested weeds.

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Vigor Determination in Barley Seeds by the Multiple Criteria (보리 종자세 검정방법 비교)

  • Seok Hyeon, Kim;Zhin Ryong, Choe;Jin Ho, Kang
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.417-424
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    • 1987
  • The seeds of three barley varieties of which initial seed vigor were different were used to measure seed vigor of accelerated aging techniques. A vigor index derived from the product of percent germination and plumule length was used to estimate seed vigor. The index was compared with the results of other tests. The results of warm germination test well suited to the measurements of seed vigor at the advanced stages of seed deterioration. Other vigor measurements except ATP and GADA values, showed close relationships with the vigor index. The measurements of plumule length in cold test and tetrazolium test were found to be appropriate for predicting seed quality.

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Analysis of Substances Related to Germination in Aralia continentalis Kitagawa (독활종자내(獨活種子內)의 발아관여물질(發芽關與物質) 분석(分析))

  • Kim, Kwan-Su;Chae, Young-Am
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.49-57
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    • 1993
  • Seedling of Aralia continentalis is more effective method rather than use of vegetative organ for mass propagation. However, lower germination rate is the main problem for seeding. In this study, we analyzed substances in aim to relate to germination process. The results indicated that longer period of stratification brought lower amount of phenolic compounds in the seeds and both promoting and inhibiting substances were at very low level or gradually disappeared.

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Screening of Medicinal Plants with Antifungal Activity on Major Seedborne Disease (주요종자전염병 억제를 위한 항균성 약용식물탐색)

  • Paik, Su-Bong;Chung, Il-Min;Doh, Eun-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science
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    • v.6 no.4
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    • pp.277-285
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    • 1998
  • Antifungal activity on major seedborne diasease of crops was screened by the treatment of the extracts from 50 medicinal plants in vitro and in vivo. The extracts of garlic and taxus, Rheum undulatum, Achiranthes japonica, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Oenothera lamar kiana treated with the blotting filter paper and water agar methods inhibited the growth of Pyricularia oryzae, Alternaria sesamicola, Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, and Alternaria brassicicola among the tested plants. Antifungal activities on infected seeds by soaking methods were shown even at the dilution of the extracts by 10 times. The activity was the highest in soaking seeds at $25^{\circ}C$ for 24 hours. The effect of plant extract on seed germination was not significant as compared with untreated seed. However, early growth of seedling was increased by the treatment of extracts. The extract of taxus slightly inhibited the seed germination of radish and chinese cabbage but those of Achirunthes japonica, Glycyrrhiza uralensis and Oenthfera lamarkiana showed severe damage on the seed germination and early growth of seedling.

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Comparison of Growth and Physiological Responses in Radish for Assay of Nickel Toxicity -II. Effect of Ni on Physiological Responses in Radish- (무에서 니켈 독성검정을 위한 생육 및 생리반응 비교 -II. 니켈에 의한 무의 생리반응-)

  • Han, Kang-Wan;Cho, Jae-Young
    • Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.293-296
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    • 1996
  • The present study was carried out to investigate the effect of Ni on germination, cell elongation, ${\alpha}-amylase$ activity, contents of chlorophyll and protein in radish were determined in the water culture. As the concentration of Ni was increased in the water culture, germination of radish was 55% by Ni 10 mg/kg and 30% by Ni 20 mg/kg. The ratio of cell elongation injury was 50%, by two days after Ni 20 mg/kg treatment. The injury ratio of ${\alpha}-amylase$ activity was 45% in the same condition and as the time goes on, inhibition of ${\alpha}-amylase$ activity were slightly decreased. Contents of chlorophyll a and b were decreased two days after treatment and chlorophyll a was more inhibited than chlorophyll b. Also changes of the protein contents was slightly decreased. Activity of ${\alpha}-amylase$ was decreased at germination stage, contents of chlorophyll a and b were decreased at growing stage.

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Herbicidal Activity of Korean Native Plants (III) (살초활성물질 함유 국내 자생식물의 탐색 (III))

  • Kim, Song-Mun;Kim, Mi-Sung;Lee, Yu-Sun;Kim, Hee-Yeon;Choi, Hae-Jin;Heo, Su-Jeong;Kwon, Soon-Bae;Kim, Kyung-Hee;Han, Sang-Sub;Lim, Sang-Hyun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.173-180
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    • 2005
  • This study was conducted of Korean native plants to screen herbicidal activity which could be used for the development of new natural herbicides. Eighty-one plants were collected from Wan and Juju islands in Korea and their methanol extracts were obtained. Heibicidal activities of the methanol extracts were determined by seed bioassay using rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) seedlings. Among eighty-one species, eleven plants were highly herbicidal ($GR_{50}$ < 1,000 ${\mu}g\;g^{-1}$): Abies koreana WILS., Anthemis nobilis L., Callicarpa mollis SIEB. et ZUCC., Cirsium setidens, Euonymus maackii RUPR., Euphorbia jolkini BOISS., Kadsura japonica DUNAL, Paeonia aliflora Pall var. tricocarpa BUNGE, Philadelphus tenuifolius RUPR. et MAXIM., Sapium sebiferum, Vicia angustifolia var. segetilis K. KOCH. Fifty plants were shown moderate herbicidal activity (1,000 ${\mu}g\;g^{-1}$ < $GR_{50}$ < 2,000 ${\mu}g\;g^{-1}$), however, twenty plants were not shown any herbicidal activity.

Herbicidal Activity of Korean Native Plants (IV) (살초활성물질 함유 국내 자생식물의 탐색 (IV))

  • Kim, Song-Mun
    • The Korean Journal of Pesticide Science
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    • v.10 no.3
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    • pp.225-229
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    • 2006
  • This study was conducted to screen herbicidal activity of Korean native plants which could be used for the development of new natural herbicides. Fifty-five plants were collected from Wan and Jeju islands in Korea and their methanol extracts were obtained. Herbicidal activity of methanol extracts were determined by seed bioassay using rape (Brassica napus L.) seedlings. Among fifty-five species, five plants were highly herbicidal ($GR_{50}$ < 1,000 ${\mu}g\;g^{-1}$): Clematis apiifolia A. P. DC.; (811 ${\mu}g\;g^{-1}$), Euscaphis japonica (THUNB.) KANITZ (867 ${\mu}g\;g^{-1}$), Hibiscus mutabilis L. (988 ${\mu}g\;g^{-1}$), Phyllostachys pubescens MAZEL (778 ${\mu}g\;g^{-1}$), Yucca recurvifolia (857 ${\mu}g\;g^{-1}$). Twenty-seven plants were shown moderately herbicidal (1,000 < $GR_{50}$ < 2,000 ${\mu}g\;g^{-1}$), however, twenty-three plants were not shown any herbicidal activity.

Identification of Antifungal Activity Subatnces on Seedborn Disease from Garlic and Taxus Extracts (마늘, 주목의 추출물로부터 종자전염성병에 대한 항균활성물질 동정)

  • Chung, III Min;Paik, Su Bong
    • Analytical Science and Technology
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    • v.12 no.1
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    • pp.47-52
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    • 1999
  • Antifungal substances were isolated and identified from garlic and taxus extracts to develop safe and broad fungicide. The inhibitory effect of seedborn disease of sesame, pepper, radish, chinese cabbage by formulation of antifungal substances was investigated. The antifungal substance isolated through column chromatography from garlic and taxus extracts was confirmed by GC-MS as allicin($C_6H_{10}OS_2$) and taxol($C_{47}H_{51}NO_{14}$) and the quantified content from each extracts by HPLC analysis was 0.62%, 0.29%, respectively. The formulation composed of garlic and taxus extracts controlled effectively the seedborn fungi tested in this study at 10X dilution, but at 100X dilution the inhibitory effect decreased. Phytotoxicity of these formulations did not recognized.

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Germinability during Overwintering, Field Emergence, and Growth of Shattered Rice Seeds on Paddy Field (논 표면 탈립 벼 종자의 월동중 발아력변화와 월동후 포장 출현 및 생육)

  • 송영주;권영립;오남기;고복래;황창주;박건호
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.37 no.1
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    • pp.37-44
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    • 1992
  • Germinability, electrophoretic variation of protein of shattered seeds during overwintering and characteristic of main agronomic traits of off-type rice plant occurring in paddy field harvested by combine were investigated. Germinability of shattered seed decreased as time goes in paddy field in both Japonica and Tongil type varieties. Electrophoretic protein bands become more and more light as time goes. Occurrence of off-type rice plant was higher in Japonica varieties than in Tongil type varieties. Off-type rice plant was shorter in plant height, leaf length, tiller number per hill, internode length, panicle length and spike let number per panicle. Germinability of seeds of off-type rice plant as not significantly different compared to the control variety. Yield of off-type plants of Japonica varieties was on average 5.1kg / 10a and that of Tongil type varieties was on average 0.9kg /10a. Mixing ratio to the control variety was about 0.7% in Japonica varieties and that of Tongil type varieties was about 0.1%.

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Genetic Analysis of Complementary Gene Interactions of Pb and Pp Genes for the Purple Pericarp Trait in Rice (흑미의 자색종자과피(Purple pericarp) 형질을 결정하는 상보적 유전자 Pb와 Pp 유전자들의 상호관계 분석)

  • Lee, Kyung Eun;Rahman, Md Mominur;Kim, Jong Bae;Kang, Sang Gu
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.398-407
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    • 2018
  • The Purple pericarp (Prp) trait is a trait often bred for in black rice. Generally, the Prp trait is displayed in the color variations of seeds following the 9:3:4 purple, brown, and white ratio, respectively. The Prp trait is a recessive epistasis of two gene interactions; however, it is caused by the two complementation genes Pb and Pp. Here we present a study of the genetic characteristics of the Prp trait using an $F_1$ hybrid with a Pbpb Pppp genotype. This hybrid generated four seed colors with the following numbers: 3 dark purple, 6 medium purple, 3 brown, and 4 white (or 9 purple, 3 brown, and 4 white). However, further biochemical analysis of the all progenies divided them into two groups. One group had the Pb_ Pp_ allelic constitutions and contained cyanidin 3-O-glucoside (C3G) in both the dark purple or medium purple seeds. The other group, however, was absent of C3G in both the brown and white seeds, resulting in a ratio of 9:7, respectively. This segregation revealed the extended Mendelian 9:7 ratios of the complementary gene interactions with a good fitness in ${\chi}^2$ analysis. Further analysis revealed that brown seeds with the Pb_ pppp genotype corresponded with a null C3G, indicating that the Brown pericarp trait in rice is caused by a dominant allele of the Pb gene. Therefore, we conclude that the production of C3G is a main phenotype of the black and purple colored rice in the Prp trait, and it is governed by the complementary gene interactions between Pb and Pp genes.