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Cyclic Loading Test for TSC Beam - PSRC Column Connections (TSC 합성보 - PSRC 합성기둥 접합부에 대한 주기하중 실험)

  • Hwang, Hyeon Jong;Eom, Tae Sung;Park, Hong Gun;Lee, Chang Nam;Kim, Hyoung Seop
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.25 no.6
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    • pp.601-612
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    • 2013
  • In the present study, details of the TSC beam-to-PSRC column connection for low and middle seismic zones were developed. For ease construction, the top and bottom flanges of the steel section of the TSC beam were discontinuous at the joint face on purpose, while the web passes through the joint. Thus, tensile resistance of the top and bottom flanges is not considered in the calculation of nominal strength of the connection. Cyclic loading tests on two interior connections and an exterior connection were performed to verify the seismic performance. The test parameter for two interior connections was the depth of the TSC beams: 600 and 700 mm including the slab depth. The test results showed that the nominal strength of the connections predicted by KBC 2009 correlated well with the test results. The connection specimens exhibited relatively good deformation and energy dissipation capacities, greater than the requirements for the ordinary and intermediate moment frames. Ultimately, the connection specimens were failed at the story drift ratios of 3.0 to 4.0 % due to local buckling and tensile fracture of the web of the TSC beam passing through the joint. By modifying the existing provisions of ASCE, the joint shear strength of the TSC beam-PSRC column connection was evaluated.

Experimental Study on Flexural Structural Performance of Sinusoidal Corrugated Girder (파형 웨브주름 보의 휨성능에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Kim, Jong Sung;Chae, Il Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.503-511
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    • 2015
  • In long span steel structure, the plate girder reinforced with stiffeners are commonly used. When choosing the cross section with deep depth of girder as well as narrow width, however, out of plane buckling can be a problem due to web slenderness. In an effort to solve this issue, current study determined the applicability of using corrugated web girder with deep depth as bending member, which is generally being utilized in both factory and warehouse nationwide. To accomplish this, we performed the loading test of H-shaped beam with sinusoidal corrugated web. Corrugated web CP-2.3 specimen exhibited 12% less maximal bending strength but CP-3.2 specimen exerted 24% increase in strength compared to plate web P-4.5. this result indicates that corrugated web provides enough strength even with unfavorable width-thickness ratio of plate. And bending as well as shear strength estimated by the Eurocode (EN 1993-1-5) were compared with both bending strength by loading test and shear strength estimated by KBC2009. In case of eurocode, increase in plate thickness did not help in bending performance improvement. moreover, shear performance was sensitive to the thickness of the web folds and the shape of the web plate.

Analysis Study on Fire Performance with Internal Anchored Concrete Filled Steel Tube Columns According to Percent of Steel-Fibers (강섬유 콘크리트 혼입율에 따른 내부앵커형 콘크리트 충전기둥 내화성능에 관한 해석적 연구)

  • Kim, Sun Hee;Yom, Kong Soo;Kim, Yong Hwan;Choi, Sung Mo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.23-34
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    • 2016
  • Concrete filled steel tube system has two major advantages. First, the confinement effect of steel tube improves the compressive strength of concrete. Second, the load capacity and deformation capacity of members are improved because concrete restrains local buckling of steel tube. It does, however, involve workability problem of using stud bolts or anchor bolts to provide composite effect for larger cross-sections. While the ribs inside the columns are desirable in terms of compressive behavior, they cause the deterioration in load capacity upon in-plane deformation resulting from thermal deformation. Since the ribs are directly connected with the concrete, the deformation of the ribs accelerates concrete cracking. Thus, it is required to improve the toughness of the concrete to resist the deformation of the ribs. Welding built-up tubular square columns can secure safety in terms of fire resistance if the problem are solved. This study focuses on mixing steel fiber in the concrete to improve the ductility and toughness of the columns. In order to evaluate fire resistance performance, loaded heating test was conducted with 8 specimens. The behavior and thermal deformation capacity of the specimens were analyzed for major variables including load ratio. The reliability of heat transfer and thermal stress analysis model was verified through the comparison of the results between the test and previous study.

Seismic Performance of Circular RC Columns Retrofitted Using Ductile PET Fibers (고연성 PET 섬유로 보강된 철근콘크리트 원형 기둥의 내진성능)

  • Vachirapanyakun, Sorrasak;Lim, Myung-Kwan;Choi, Dong-Uk
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.289-298
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    • 2016
  • An experimental research was performed using fibers for the purpose of retrofitting existing reinforced concrete circular columns. Glass fiber (GF) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) were used as well as combined GF+PET (HF). PET has high tensile strength (over 600 MPa) and high ductility (about 15%), but has very low elastic modulus (about 1/6 of GF). A total of four columns was tested against laterally applied reverse cyclic load: control column, GF-, PET-, and HF-strengthened columns. All columns retrofitted using fibers demonstrated improved moment capacity and ductility. Moment capacity of GF-, PET-, and HF-strengthened columns was 120%, 107%, and 120% of the control column, respectively. Drift ratio of all retrofitted columns also increased by 63 ~ 83% over the control column. The final failure mode of the control column was main bar buckling. The final failure mode of the GF- and HF-strengthened columns was GF rupture while that of the PET-strengthened column was main bar rupture in tension. No damage was observed for PET at the ultimate stage due to excellent strain capacity intrinsic to PET. Current test results indicate that PET can be effectively used for seismic retrofit of RC columns. It is noted that the durability characteristics of PET needs to be investigated in the future.

Evaluation on the Effectiveness of Supplementary V-ties on Flexural Ductility of Reinforced Concrete Columns (철근콘크리트 기둥의 휨 연성에 대한 V-타이 보조띠철근의 효율성 평가)

  • Lee, Hye-Jin;Yang, Keun-Hyeok;Kwak, Min-Kyoung
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.29 no.4
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    • pp.345-351
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    • 2017
  • This study evaluated the effectiveness of V-shaped ties as an alternative to the supplementary crossties specified in ACI 318-14 on the flexural ductility of reinforced concrete columns. From column specimens tested under constant axial loads and reversed cyclic lateral loads, the mode of failure and lateral load-lateral displacement relationship were measured according to the variation of the applied axial load levels. After the columns reached the peak lateral load capacity, the $90^{\circ}$ hooks of the crossties gradually opened, which eventually caused premature buckling of the longitudinal reinforcement and severe crushing of the core concrete, whereas no V-ties were extracted from the core concrete until the column failure. As a result, the cumulative work damage indicators up to 80% of the peak lateral load for V-tie columns under the axial load level of 0.2, 0.4, and 0.55 was as much as 2.4, 2.3, and 5.2 times higher, respectively, than those of the companion crosstie columns. The superiority of the V-ties to the conventional crossties in enhancing the flexural ductility of columns became more prominent as the axial load level increases.

Seismic Characteristic Evaluation on Strip-type Damping Devices with Optimized Shape (최적 형상 스트립형 감쇠장치의 내진 특성 평가)

  • Hwang, Jung-Hyun;Ock, Jong-Ho
    • Journal of the Korea institute for structural maintenance and inspection
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    • v.23 no.6
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    • pp.26-37
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    • 2019
  • This paper aims to investigate the seismic characteristics of strip-type damping devices possessing optimized shapes for the moment-resisting mechanism throughout analytical and experimental studies. Predicting equations for initial stiffness and yielding strength were introduced and compared with analytical results obtained from finite element analyses (FEAs) using commercial FEA program ABAQUS. In order for establishing predicting equations, two idealized processes were considered and both predicting equations showed that they could provide enough approximations for seismic applications in building structures. Throughout experimental studies, it was noted that structural uncertainties on mild steels, connection details and structural types linking damping devices with building structures could interrupt predicting structural behavior of the devices. Also, it was observed that shear stress concentrations should be considered if shear yielding type devices are applied into building structures. Nevertheless, it was shown that structural conservatism can be established using the predicting equations and seismic applications of the damping devices can enhance the seismic performance of building structures efficiently in the viewpoint that they have high resistance to low-cycle fatigue failures.

Optimization of the Truss Structures Using Member Stress Approximate method (응력근사해법(應力近似解法)을 이용한 평면(平面)트러스구조물(構造物)의 형상최적화(形狀最適化)에 관한 연구(研究))

  • Lee, Gyu Won;You, Hee Jung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.73-84
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    • 1993
  • In this research, configuration design optimization of plane truss structure has been tested by using decomposition technique. In the first level, the problem of transferring the nonlinear programming problem to linear programming problem has been effectively solved and the number of the structural analysis necessary for doing the sensitivity analysis can be decreased by developing stress constraint into member stress approximation according to the design space approach which has been proved to be efficient to the sensitivity analysis. And the weight function has been adopted as cost function in order to minimize structures. For the design constraint, allowable stress, buckling stress, displacement constraint under multi-condition and upper and lower constraints of the design variable are considered. In the second level, the nodal point coordinates of the truss structure are used as coordinating variable and the objective function has been taken as the weight function. By treating the nodal point coordinates as design variable, unconstrained optimal design problems are easy to solve. The decomposition method which optimize the section areas in the first level and optimize configuration variables in the second level was applied to the plane truss structures. The numerical comparisons with results which are obtained from numerical test for several truss structures with various shapes and any design criteria show that convergence rate is very fast regardless of constraint types and configuration of truss structures. And the optimal configuration of the truss structures obtained in this study is almost the identical one from other results. The total weight couldbe decreased by 5.4% - 15.4% when optimal configuration was accomplished, though there is some difference.

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Optimal Configuration of the Truss Structures by Using Decomposition Method of Three-Phases (3단계(段階) 분할기법(分割技法)에 의한 평면(平面)트러스 구조물(構造物)의 형상(形狀) 최적화(最適化)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Gyu Won;Song, Gi Beom
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.39-55
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    • 1992
  • In this research, a Three Level Decomposition technique has been developed for configuration design optimization of truss structures. In the first level, as design variables, behavior variables are used and the strain energy has been treated as the cost function to be maximized so that the truss structure can absorb maximum energy. For design constraint of the optimal design problem, allowable stress, buckling stress, and displacement under multi-loading conditions are considered. In the second level, design problem is formulated using the cross-sectional area as the design variable and the weight of the truss structure as the cost function. As for the design constraint, the equilibrium equation with the optimal displacement obtained in the first level is used. In the third level, the nodal point coordinates of the truss structure are used as coordinating variable and the weight has been taken as the cost function. An advantage of the Three Level Decomposition technique is that the first and second level design problems are simple because they are linear programming problems. Moreover, the method is efficient because it is not necessary to carry out time consuming structural analysis and techniques for sensitivity analysis during the design optimization process. By treating the nodal point coordinates as design variables, the third level becomes unconstrained optimal design problems which is easier to solve. Moreover, by using different convergence criteria at each level of design problem, improved convergence can be obtained. The proposed technique has been tested using four different truss structures to yield almost identical optimum designs in the literature with efficient convergence rate regardless of constraint types and configuration of truss structures.

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Evaluation of Local Damages and Residual Performance of Blast Damaged RC Beams Strengthened with Steel Fiber and FRP Sheet (폭발 손상을 입은 강섬유 및 FRP 시트 보강 철근콘크리트 보의 국부손상 및 잔류성능 평가)

  • Lee, Jin-Young;Jang, Dae-Sung;Kwon, Ki-Yeon;Yoon, Young-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.627-634
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    • 2014
  • In this study, standoff detonation tests and static beam tests on $160{\times}290{\times}2200mm$ RC beams were conducted to investigate the effect of local damage on the flexural strength and ductility index. And also, blast resistance of RC beams strengthened with steel fiber and FRP sheet were evaluated by these tests. The standoff detonation tests were performed with charge weight of 1kg and standoff distance of 0.1m. After the tests, crater diameters and loss weights of specimens were measured to evaluate the local damage of specimens. Flexural strength and ductility index were measured by conducting the static beam tests on the damaged and undamaged specimens. As a test results, normal concrete specimen(NC) showed relatively large crater and spall diameters that caused weight loss of 23.5kg as a local damage. Whereas, steel fiber reinforced concrete specimen(SFRC) and FRP sheet retrofitted specimens(NC-F, NC-FS) showed higher blast resistance than NC by reducing crater size and weight loss. Flexural strength and ductility index were decreased in case of local damaged specimens by detonation. Especially, large decrease of flexural strength was shown in NC as compared with intact specimen and brittle failure was occurred due to buckling of compressive reinforcement. In case of specimens strengthened with steel fiber and FRP sheet, residual flexural strength and ductility index were increased as compared with NC. In these results, it is concluded that critical local damage can be occurred unless enough standoff distance can be assured even if the charge weight is small. and it is verified that strengthening method using steel fiber and FRP sheet can increase blast resistance.

Cyclic Behavior of Wall-Slab Joints with Lap Splices of Coldly Straightened Re-bars and with Mechanical Splices (굽힌 후 편 철근의 겹침 이음 및 기계적 이음을 갖는 벽-슬래브 접합부의 반복하중에 대한 거동)

  • Chun, Sung-Chul;Lee, Jin-Gon;Ha, Tae-Hun
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.275-283
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    • 2012
  • Steel Plate for Rebar Connection was recently developed to splice rebars in delayed slab-wall joints in high-rise building, slurry wall-slab joints, temporary openings, etc. It consists of several couplers and a thin steel plate with shear key. Cyclic loading tests on slab-wall joints were conducted to verify structural behavior of the joints having Steel Plate for Rebar Connection. For comparison, joints with Rebend Connection and without splices were also tested. The joints with Steel Plate for Rebar Connection showed typical flexural behavior in the sequence of tension re-bar yielding, sufficient flexural deformation, crushing of compression concrete, and compression rebar buckling. However, the joints with Rebend Connection had more bond cracks in slabs faces and spalling in side cover-concrete, even though elastic behavior of the joints was similar to that of the joints with Steel Plate for Re-bar Connection. Consequently, the joints with Rebend Connection had less strengths and deformation capacities than the joints with Steel Plate for Re-bar Connection. In addition, stiffness of the joints with Rebend Connection degraded more rapidly than the other joints as cyclic loads were applied. This may be caused by low elastic modulus of re-straightened rebars and restraightening of kinked bar. For two types of diameters (13mm and 16mm) and two types of grades (SD300 and SD400) of rebars, the joints with Steel Plate for Rebar Connection had higher strength than nominal strength calculated from actual material properties. On the contrary, strengths of the joints with Rebend Connection decreased as bar diameter increased and as grade becames higher. Therefore, Rebend Connection should be used with caution in design and construction.