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Estimation of Leg Collision Strength for Large Wind Turbine Installation Vessel (WTIV) (대형 해상풍력발전기 설치 선박(WTIV) Leg구조의 충돌 강도평가)

  • Park, Joo-Shin;Ma, Kuk-Yeol;Seo, Jung-Kwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Marine Environment & Safety
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.551-560
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    • 2020
  • Recently, the offshore wind power generator market is expected to grow significantly because of increased energy demand, reduced dependence on fossil fuel-based power generation, and environmental regulations. Consequently, wind power generation is increasing worldwide, and several attempts have been made to utilize offshore wind power. Norway's Petroleum Safety Authority (PSA) requires a leg-structure design with a collision energy of 35 MJ owing to the event of a collision under operation conditions. In this study, the results of the numerical analysis of a wind turbine installation vessel subjected to ship collision were set such that the maximum collision energy that the leg could sustain was calculated and compared with the PSA requirements. The current leg design plan does not satisfy the required value of 35 MJ, and it is necessary to increase the section modulus by more than 200 % to satisfy the regulations, which is unfeasible in realistic leg design. Therefore, a collision energy standard based on a reasonable collision scenario should be established.

Optimization of the Truss Structures Using Member Stress Approximate method (응력근사해법(應力近似解法)을 이용한 평면(平面)트러스구조물(構造物)의 형상최적화(形狀最適化)에 관한 연구(研究))

  • Lee, Gyu Won;You, Hee Jung
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.73-84
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    • 1993
  • In this research, configuration design optimization of plane truss structure has been tested by using decomposition technique. In the first level, the problem of transferring the nonlinear programming problem to linear programming problem has been effectively solved and the number of the structural analysis necessary for doing the sensitivity analysis can be decreased by developing stress constraint into member stress approximation according to the design space approach which has been proved to be efficient to the sensitivity analysis. And the weight function has been adopted as cost function in order to minimize structures. For the design constraint, allowable stress, buckling stress, displacement constraint under multi-condition and upper and lower constraints of the design variable are considered. In the second level, the nodal point coordinates of the truss structure are used as coordinating variable and the objective function has been taken as the weight function. By treating the nodal point coordinates as design variable, unconstrained optimal design problems are easy to solve. The decomposition method which optimize the section areas in the first level and optimize configuration variables in the second level was applied to the plane truss structures. The numerical comparisons with results which are obtained from numerical test for several truss structures with various shapes and any design criteria show that convergence rate is very fast regardless of constraint types and configuration of truss structures. And the optimal configuration of the truss structures obtained in this study is almost the identical one from other results. The total weight couldbe decreased by 5.4% - 15.4% when optimal configuration was accomplished, though there is some difference.

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Optimal Configuration of the Truss Structures by Using Decomposition Method of Three-Phases (3단계(段階) 분할기법(分割技法)에 의한 평면(平面)트러스 구조물(構造物)의 형상(形狀) 최적화(最適化)에 관한 연구(硏究))

  • Lee, Gyu Won;Song, Gi Beom
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Civil Engineers
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.39-55
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    • 1992
  • In this research, a Three Level Decomposition technique has been developed for configuration design optimization of truss structures. In the first level, as design variables, behavior variables are used and the strain energy has been treated as the cost function to be maximized so that the truss structure can absorb maximum energy. For design constraint of the optimal design problem, allowable stress, buckling stress, and displacement under multi-loading conditions are considered. In the second level, design problem is formulated using the cross-sectional area as the design variable and the weight of the truss structure as the cost function. As for the design constraint, the equilibrium equation with the optimal displacement obtained in the first level is used. In the third level, the nodal point coordinates of the truss structure are used as coordinating variable and the weight has been taken as the cost function. An advantage of the Three Level Decomposition technique is that the first and second level design problems are simple because they are linear programming problems. Moreover, the method is efficient because it is not necessary to carry out time consuming structural analysis and techniques for sensitivity analysis during the design optimization process. By treating the nodal point coordinates as design variables, the third level becomes unconstrained optimal design problems which is easier to solve. Moreover, by using different convergence criteria at each level of design problem, improved convergence can be obtained. The proposed technique has been tested using four different truss structures to yield almost identical optimum designs in the literature with efficient convergence rate regardless of constraint types and configuration of truss structures.

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Evaluation of Local Damages and Residual Performance of Blast Damaged RC Beams Strengthened with Steel Fiber and FRP Sheet (폭발 손상을 입은 강섬유 및 FRP 시트 보강 철근콘크리트 보의 국부손상 및 잔류성능 평가)

  • Lee, Jin-Young;Jang, Dae-Sung;Kwon, Ki-Yeon;Yoon, Young-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.627-634
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    • 2014
  • In this study, standoff detonation tests and static beam tests on $160{\times}290{\times}2200mm$ RC beams were conducted to investigate the effect of local damage on the flexural strength and ductility index. And also, blast resistance of RC beams strengthened with steel fiber and FRP sheet were evaluated by these tests. The standoff detonation tests were performed with charge weight of 1kg and standoff distance of 0.1m. After the tests, crater diameters and loss weights of specimens were measured to evaluate the local damage of specimens. Flexural strength and ductility index were measured by conducting the static beam tests on the damaged and undamaged specimens. As a test results, normal concrete specimen(NC) showed relatively large crater and spall diameters that caused weight loss of 23.5kg as a local damage. Whereas, steel fiber reinforced concrete specimen(SFRC) and FRP sheet retrofitted specimens(NC-F, NC-FS) showed higher blast resistance than NC by reducing crater size and weight loss. Flexural strength and ductility index were decreased in case of local damaged specimens by detonation. Especially, large decrease of flexural strength was shown in NC as compared with intact specimen and brittle failure was occurred due to buckling of compressive reinforcement. In case of specimens strengthened with steel fiber and FRP sheet, residual flexural strength and ductility index were increased as compared with NC. In these results, it is concluded that critical local damage can be occurred unless enough standoff distance can be assured even if the charge weight is small. and it is verified that strengthening method using steel fiber and FRP sheet can increase blast resistance.

Cyclic Behavior of Wall-Slab Joints with Lap Splices of Coldly Straightened Re-bars and with Mechanical Splices (굽힌 후 편 철근의 겹침 이음 및 기계적 이음을 갖는 벽-슬래브 접합부의 반복하중에 대한 거동)

  • Chun, Sung-Chul;Lee, Jin-Gon;Ha, Tae-Hun
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.275-283
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    • 2012
  • Steel Plate for Rebar Connection was recently developed to splice rebars in delayed slab-wall joints in high-rise building, slurry wall-slab joints, temporary openings, etc. It consists of several couplers and a thin steel plate with shear key. Cyclic loading tests on slab-wall joints were conducted to verify structural behavior of the joints having Steel Plate for Rebar Connection. For comparison, joints with Rebend Connection and without splices were also tested. The joints with Steel Plate for Rebar Connection showed typical flexural behavior in the sequence of tension re-bar yielding, sufficient flexural deformation, crushing of compression concrete, and compression rebar buckling. However, the joints with Rebend Connection had more bond cracks in slabs faces and spalling in side cover-concrete, even though elastic behavior of the joints was similar to that of the joints with Steel Plate for Re-bar Connection. Consequently, the joints with Rebend Connection had less strengths and deformation capacities than the joints with Steel Plate for Re-bar Connection. In addition, stiffness of the joints with Rebend Connection degraded more rapidly than the other joints as cyclic loads were applied. This may be caused by low elastic modulus of re-straightened rebars and restraightening of kinked bar. For two types of diameters (13mm and 16mm) and two types of grades (SD300 and SD400) of rebars, the joints with Steel Plate for Rebar Connection had higher strength than nominal strength calculated from actual material properties. On the contrary, strengths of the joints with Rebend Connection decreased as bar diameter increased and as grade becames higher. Therefore, Rebend Connection should be used with caution in design and construction.

Cyclic Seismic Performance of RBS Weak-Axis Welded Moment Connections (RBS 약축 용접모멘트접합부의 내진성능 평가)

  • Lee, Cheol Ho;Jung, Jong Hyun;Kim, Sung Yong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.513-523
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    • 2015
  • In steel moment frames constructed of H-shapes, strong-axis moment connections should be used for maximum structural efficiency if possible. And most of cyclic seismic testing, domestic and international, has been conducted for strong-axis moment connections and cyclic test data for weak-axis connections is quite limited. However, when perpendicular moment frames meet, weak-axis moment connections are also needed at the intersecting locations. Especially, both strong- and weak-axis moment connections have been frequently used in domestic practice. In this study, cyclic seismic performance of RBS (reduced beam section) weak-axis welded moment connections was experimentally investigated. Test specimens, designed according to the procedure proposed by Gilton and Uang (2002), performed well and developed an excellent plastic rotation capacity of 0.03 rad or higher, although a simplified sizing procedure for attaching the beam web to the shear plate in the form of C-shaped fillet weld was used. The test results of this study showed that the sharp corner of C-shaped fillet weld tends to be the origin of crack propagation due to stress concentration there and needs to be trimmed for the better weld shape. Different from strong-axis moment connections, due to the presence of weld access hole, a kind of CJP butt joint is formed between the beam flange and the horizontal continuity plate in weak-axis moment connections. When weld access hole is large, this butt joint can experience cyclic local buckling and subsequent low cycle fatigue fracture as observed in this testing program. Thus the size of web access hole at the butt joint should be minimized if possible. The recommended seismic detailing such as stickout, trimming, and thicker continuity plate for construction tolerance should be followed for design and fabrication of weak-axis welded moment connections.