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Deflection Evaluation of the Constructing-load Carrying Capacity for Deep Decking Floor System Reinforced with Both Ends Cap Plates (캡 플레이트로 단부 보강한 춤이 깊은 데크의 시공중 처짐성능평가)

  • Jeon, Sang Hyun;Kyung, Jae Hwan;Kim, Young Ho;Choi, Sung Mo;Yang, Il Seung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.155-167
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    • 2015
  • If of application of the deep deckting floor in long span more than 6m, the deflection caused by the construction load occurred high. Because the constructing-works and safety by this deflection, take actually supports to laborers working on the deck. However, installed supports are having difficultly such as the restricted passage, deficiency of working space, and lowering of efficiency. And toward-opening deck is seen as local buckling of web plate, flexural-torsional buckling, and gradually opening of corrugated decking. In this study, we will suggest a deep decking floor system that reinforced with both ends cap plates for toward-opneing decking change from opening to closing. The constructing deflection of a deep decking more than 6m must be satified 30mm and L/180 as proposed. Full-scale field tests loading by sand conducted a deep decking reinforced with and without cap plate. In conclusion, the specimen reinforced with cap plates have shown that to ensure the negative moment $wl^2/18$. And constructing-deflection of deep decking shown that to satisfy the evaluation value (L/180 or 30mm).

Analysis Study on Fire Performance with Internal Anchored Concrete Filled Steel Tube Columns According to Percent of Steel-Fibers (강섬유 콘크리트 혼입율에 따른 내부앵커형 콘크리트 충전기둥 내화성능에 관한 해석적 연구)

  • Kim, Sun Hee;Yom, Kong Soo;Kim, Yong Hwan;Choi, Sung Mo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.23-34
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    • 2016
  • Concrete filled steel tube system has two major advantages. First, the confinement effect of steel tube improves the compressive strength of concrete. Second, the load capacity and deformation capacity of members are improved because concrete restrains local buckling of steel tube. It does, however, involve workability problem of using stud bolts or anchor bolts to provide composite effect for larger cross-sections. While the ribs inside the columns are desirable in terms of compressive behavior, they cause the deterioration in load capacity upon in-plane deformation resulting from thermal deformation. Since the ribs are directly connected with the concrete, the deformation of the ribs accelerates concrete cracking. Thus, it is required to improve the toughness of the concrete to resist the deformation of the ribs. Welding built-up tubular square columns can secure safety in terms of fire resistance if the problem are solved. This study focuses on mixing steel fiber in the concrete to improve the ductility and toughness of the columns. In order to evaluate fire resistance performance, loaded heating test was conducted with 8 specimens. The behavior and thermal deformation capacity of the specimens were analyzed for major variables including load ratio. The reliability of heat transfer and thermal stress analysis model was verified through the comparison of the results between the test and previous study.

Structural Capacity of High Strength Steel Pipe Pile After Pile Driving (고강도 강관말뚝의 항타후 구조성능 분석)

  • La, SeungMin;Yoo, Hankyu
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.31 no.6C
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    • pp.251-258
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    • 2011
  • Steel pipe piles have been used as various deep foundation materials for a long time. Recent increase in steel material cost has made engineers reluctant in using it even with its good quality and ease of construction. Therefore when constructing with steel pipe pile, the decision to reuse the excessive pile length that is cut off from the designed pile head elevation after pile driving can be cost saving. This has caused many constructors to reuse the pile leftovers with new piles, but the absence of quantitative structural capacity behaviors of steel pipe pile after pile driving or appropriate countermeasures and standards in reusing steel pipe pile has resulted in wrong applications, pile structural integrity problems, inappropriate limitation of reusable pile length, etc. The structural performance analysis between a new pile and a pile that has undergone working state and ultimate state stress level during pile driving was performed in this research by means of comparing the results between the dynamic pile load test, tensile load test, charpy energy test and fatigue test for high strength steel of $440N/mm^2$ yield strength. Test results show that under working load conditions the yield strength variation is less than 2% and for ultimate load conditions the variation is less than 5% for maximum total blow count of 3000. The results have been statistically analyzed to check the sensitivity of each factors involved. From the test results, reusability of steel pipe pile lies not in the main pipe yield strength deviation but in the reduction of absorb energy, strength changes and quality control at the welded section, shape deformation and local buckling during pile driving.

Development and Field Application of Portable Tensioning System Using Segmental CFT Member (분절형 CFT부재를 이용한 이동식 프리텐션 제작대의 개발 및 활용)

  • Lee, Doo Sung;Kim, Tae Kyun;Lee, Sung Chul
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.34 no.3
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    • pp.965-975
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    • 2014
  • Pretension PSC (Prestressed Concrete) members are subjected to a certain limit of size as they are generally produced in the off-site plant and transferred to the site due to the large scale of the product on system. In this study, a portable pretensioning production system has been developed, which allow us to apply the pretension method on site. Considering that a 50m span PSC girder using the pretension method requires a pressing device to endure a large jacking force, the portable pretension production system has to ensure safety against such a large pretension jacking force. In this study, the portable pretensioning system to produce a 50m span pretension girder was manufactured by using CFT (Concrete Filled steel Tube) members. In order to understand the stability of the system and the behavior of the elements, a static loading test was conducted and the stability of the proposed portable pretensioning production system was confirmed. The developed portable pretension system was applied to several construction sites and was investigated the problems on site. During the pretension girder and slab members that was producted by this pretension system in construction site, it has be found the several advantages such as simple fabrication processes, reduction of prestress-loss, and a decrease of 15% compared with the fabrcation cost of post-tension girder. After due consideration of the problems, this portable pretension system will be improved.

Characteristics of Sand-Rubber Mixtures under Different Strain Levels: Experimental Observation (변형률에 따른 모래-고무 혼합재의 거동 특성: 실험적 관찰)

  • Lee, Chang-Ho;Byun, Yong-Hoon;Lee, Jong-Sub
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.27 no.3
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    • pp.85-94
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    • 2011
  • Mixtures of sand and rubber particles ($D_{sand}/D_{rubber}=1$) are investigated to explore their characteristics under different stain level. Mixtures are prepared with different volumetric sand fractions ($sf=V_{sand}/V_{total}$). Experimental data are gathered from a resonant column, an instrumented oedometer, and a direct shear tests. Results show that sand and rubber differently control the behavior of the whole mixture with strain level. Non-linear degradation of small strain stiffness is observed for the mixtures with $sf{\geq}0.4$, while the mixtures with low sand fraction ($sf{\leq}0.2$) show significantly high elastic threshold strain. Vertical stress-deformation increases dramatically when the rubber particle works as a member of force chain. The strength of the mixtures increases as the content of rubber particle decreases, and contractive behavior is observed in the mixtures with $sf{\leq}0.8$. Rubber particle plays different roles with strain level in the mixture: it increases a coordination number and controls a plasticity of the mixture in small strain; it prevents a buckling of force chain in intermediate strain; it leads a contractive behavior in large strain.

Static Load Test for Verification of Structural Robustness of Composite Oxidant Tank for Space Launch Vehicle (우주발사체용 복합재 산화제탱크 구조 강건성 검증을 위한 정하중 시험)

  • Kim, Hyun-gi;Kim, Sungchan
    • Journal of Aerospace System Engineering
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    • v.15 no.5
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    • pp.98-105
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    • 2021
  • This study presented the results of the static load tests conducted to verify the structural robustness of the composite oxidant tank for a space launch vehicle. First, we introduced the test equipment used in the static load test of the composite oxidant tank, and then described the test requirements that the composite oxidant tank must satisfy. In addition, we presented a test set-up diagram consisting of the static load test fixture, hydraulic pressure, control equipment, and data acquisition equipment, and the load profile of the static load test of the composite oxidant tank consisting of shear, equivalent compression, bending, and combination tests. As a result of load control, we verified the reliability of this test by showing the errors between the input load and the feedback load in each channel according to the increase of the test load, and the feedback error between the channel A and channel B of load cell in each load actuator. As a result of the static load test, the load of the actuator was properly controlled within the allowable error range in each test, and we found that the test specimen did not cause damage or buckling that causes significant structural defects in the required load.

Cyclic Seismic Performance of RBS Weak-Axis Welded Moment Connections (RBS 약축 용접모멘트접합부의 내진성능 평가)

  • Lee, Cheol Ho;Jung, Jong Hyun;Kim, Sung Yong
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.27 no.6
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    • pp.513-523
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    • 2015
  • In steel moment frames constructed of H-shapes, strong-axis moment connections should be used for maximum structural efficiency if possible. And most of cyclic seismic testing, domestic and international, has been conducted for strong-axis moment connections and cyclic test data for weak-axis connections is quite limited. However, when perpendicular moment frames meet, weak-axis moment connections are also needed at the intersecting locations. Especially, both strong- and weak-axis moment connections have been frequently used in domestic practice. In this study, cyclic seismic performance of RBS (reduced beam section) weak-axis welded moment connections was experimentally investigated. Test specimens, designed according to the procedure proposed by Gilton and Uang (2002), performed well and developed an excellent plastic rotation capacity of 0.03 rad or higher, although a simplified sizing procedure for attaching the beam web to the shear plate in the form of C-shaped fillet weld was used. The test results of this study showed that the sharp corner of C-shaped fillet weld tends to be the origin of crack propagation due to stress concentration there and needs to be trimmed for the better weld shape. Different from strong-axis moment connections, due to the presence of weld access hole, a kind of CJP butt joint is formed between the beam flange and the horizontal continuity plate in weak-axis moment connections. When weld access hole is large, this butt joint can experience cyclic local buckling and subsequent low cycle fatigue fracture as observed in this testing program. Thus the size of web access hole at the butt joint should be minimized if possible. The recommended seismic detailing such as stickout, trimming, and thicker continuity plate for construction tolerance should be followed for design and fabrication of weak-axis welded moment connections.

Cyclic Behavior of Wall-Slab Joints with Lap Splices of Coldly Straightened Re-bars and with Mechanical Splices (굽힌 후 편 철근의 겹침 이음 및 기계적 이음을 갖는 벽-슬래브 접합부의 반복하중에 대한 거동)

  • Chun, Sung-Chul;Lee, Jin-Gon;Ha, Tae-Hun
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.24 no.3
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    • pp.275-283
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    • 2012
  • Steel Plate for Rebar Connection was recently developed to splice rebars in delayed slab-wall joints in high-rise building, slurry wall-slab joints, temporary openings, etc. It consists of several couplers and a thin steel plate with shear key. Cyclic loading tests on slab-wall joints were conducted to verify structural behavior of the joints having Steel Plate for Rebar Connection. For comparison, joints with Rebend Connection and without splices were also tested. The joints with Steel Plate for Rebar Connection showed typical flexural behavior in the sequence of tension re-bar yielding, sufficient flexural deformation, crushing of compression concrete, and compression rebar buckling. However, the joints with Rebend Connection had more bond cracks in slabs faces and spalling in side cover-concrete, even though elastic behavior of the joints was similar to that of the joints with Steel Plate for Re-bar Connection. Consequently, the joints with Rebend Connection had less strengths and deformation capacities than the joints with Steel Plate for Re-bar Connection. In addition, stiffness of the joints with Rebend Connection degraded more rapidly than the other joints as cyclic loads were applied. This may be caused by low elastic modulus of re-straightened rebars and restraightening of kinked bar. For two types of diameters (13mm and 16mm) and two types of grades (SD300 and SD400) of rebars, the joints with Steel Plate for Rebar Connection had higher strength than nominal strength calculated from actual material properties. On the contrary, strengths of the joints with Rebend Connection decreased as bar diameter increased and as grade becames higher. Therefore, Rebend Connection should be used with caution in design and construction.

Evaluation of Local Damages and Residual Performance of Blast Damaged RC Beams Strengthened with Steel Fiber and FRP Sheet (폭발 손상을 입은 강섬유 및 FRP 시트 보강 철근콘크리트 보의 국부손상 및 잔류성능 평가)

  • Lee, Jin-Young;Jang, Dae-Sung;Kwon, Ki-Yeon;Yoon, Young-Soo
    • Journal of the Korea Concrete Institute
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.627-634
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    • 2014
  • In this study, standoff detonation tests and static beam tests on $160{\times}290{\times}2200mm$ RC beams were conducted to investigate the effect of local damage on the flexural strength and ductility index. And also, blast resistance of RC beams strengthened with steel fiber and FRP sheet were evaluated by these tests. The standoff detonation tests were performed with charge weight of 1kg and standoff distance of 0.1m. After the tests, crater diameters and loss weights of specimens were measured to evaluate the local damage of specimens. Flexural strength and ductility index were measured by conducting the static beam tests on the damaged and undamaged specimens. As a test results, normal concrete specimen(NC) showed relatively large crater and spall diameters that caused weight loss of 23.5kg as a local damage. Whereas, steel fiber reinforced concrete specimen(SFRC) and FRP sheet retrofitted specimens(NC-F, NC-FS) showed higher blast resistance than NC by reducing crater size and weight loss. Flexural strength and ductility index were decreased in case of local damaged specimens by detonation. Especially, large decrease of flexural strength was shown in NC as compared with intact specimen and brittle failure was occurred due to buckling of compressive reinforcement. In case of specimens strengthened with steel fiber and FRP sheet, residual flexural strength and ductility index were increased as compared with NC. In these results, it is concluded that critical local damage can be occurred unless enough standoff distance can be assured even if the charge weight is small. and it is verified that strengthening method using steel fiber and FRP sheet can increase blast resistance.

Optimization of the Truss Structures Using Member Stress Approximate method (응력근사해법(應力近似解法)을 이용한 평면(平面)트러스구조물(構造物)의 형상최적화(形狀最適化)에 관한 연구(研究))

  • Lee, Gyu Won;You, Hee Jung
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.73-84
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    • 1993
  • In this research, configuration design optimization of plane truss structure has been tested by using decomposition technique. In the first level, the problem of transferring the nonlinear programming problem to linear programming problem has been effectively solved and the number of the structural analysis necessary for doing the sensitivity analysis can be decreased by developing stress constraint into member stress approximation according to the design space approach which has been proved to be efficient to the sensitivity analysis. And the weight function has been adopted as cost function in order to minimize structures. For the design constraint, allowable stress, buckling stress, displacement constraint under multi-condition and upper and lower constraints of the design variable are considered. In the second level, the nodal point coordinates of the truss structure are used as coordinating variable and the objective function has been taken as the weight function. By treating the nodal point coordinates as design variable, unconstrained optimal design problems are easy to solve. The decomposition method which optimize the section areas in the first level and optimize configuration variables in the second level was applied to the plane truss structures. The numerical comparisons with results which are obtained from numerical test for several truss structures with various shapes and any design criteria show that convergence rate is very fast regardless of constraint types and configuration of truss structures. And the optimal configuration of the truss structures obtained in this study is almost the identical one from other results. The total weight couldbe decreased by 5.4% - 15.4% when optimal configuration was accomplished, though there is some difference.

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