• Title/Summary/Keyword: 주사전자현미경

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THE INFLUENCE OF pH AND LACTIC ACID CONCENTRATION ON THE FORMATION OF ARTIFICIAL ROOT CARIES IN ACID BUFFER SOLUTION (산 완충용액의 pH 및 유산의 농도가 인공치근우식의 형성에 미치는 영향)

  • Oh, Hyun-Suk;Roh, Byoung-Duck;Lee, Chan-Young
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.47-60
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this study is to compare and to evaluate the effect of pH and lactic acid concentration on the progression of artificial root caries lesion using polarizing microscope, and to evaluate the morphological changes of hydroxyapatite crystals of the demineralized area and to investigate the process of demineralization using scanning electron microscope. Artificial root caries lesion was created by dividing specimens into 3 pH groups (pH 4.3, 5.0, 5.5), and each pH group was divided into 3 lactic acid concentration groups (25 mM, 50 mM, 100 mM). Each group was immersed in acid buffer solution for 5 days and examined. The results were as follows : 1. Under polarized microscope, the depth of lesion was more effected by the lactic acid concentration rather than the pH. 2. Under scanning electron microscope, dissolution of hydroxyapatite crystals were increased as the lactic acid concentration increased and the pH decreased. 3. Demineralized hydroxyapatite crystals showed peripheral dissolution and decreased size and number within cluster of hydroxyapatite crystals and widening of intercluster and intercrystal spaces as the pH decreased and the lactic acid concentration increased. 4. Under scanning electron microscope evaluation of the surface zone, clusters of hydroxyapatite crystals were dissolved, and dissolution and reattachment of crystals on the surface of collagen fibrils were observed as the lactic acid concentration increased. 5. Under scanning electron microscope, demineralizatlon of dentin occurred not only independently but also with remineralization simultaneously. In conclusion, the study showed that pH and lactic acid concentration influenced the rate of progression of the lesion in artificial root caries. Demineralization process was progressed from the surface of the cluster of hydroxyapatite crystals and the morphology of hydroxyapatite crystals changed from round or elliptical shape into irregular shape as time elapsed.

The Electron Detector in Scanning Electron Microscope (주사전자현미경용 전자검출기)

  • 이상욱;전종업;한상훈
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Machine Tool Engineers Conference
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    • pp.513-517
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    • 2004
  • The nature of the signals collected by an SEM(Scanning Electron Microscope) in order to form images are all dependent on the detector used to collect them, and the quality of an acquired image is strongly influenced by detector performance. Therefore, the development of detector with high performance is very important in pulling up the resolution of SEM. In this article, electron beam-specimen interactions, the detection principle of secondary electrons and backscattered electrons, and the structure of a conventional detector are described. The structure of an experimental apparatus for the future study on our hopeful novel electron detector is presented as well.

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Finite Element Analysis for Electron Optical System of a Field Emission SEM (전계방출 주사전자 현미경의 전자광학계 유한요소해석)

  • Park, Keun;Park, Man-Jin;Kim, Dong-Hwan;Jang, Dong-Young
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1557-1563
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    • 2006
  • A scanning electron microscope (SEM) is well known as a measurement and analysis equipment in nano technology, being widely used as a crucial one in measuring objects or analyzing chemical components. It is equipped with an electron optical system that consists of an electron beam source, electromagnetic lenses, and a detector. The present work concerns numerical analysis for the electron optical system so as to facilitate design of each component. Through the numerical analysis, we investigate trajectories of electron beams emitted from a nano-scale field emission tip, and compare the result with that of experimental observations. Effects of various components such as electromagnetic lenses and an aperture are also discussed.

A Development of Electron Optics System of Mini-Sized SEM (소형주사전자현미경용 전자공학계의 개발)

  • Park, Man-Jin;Kim, Il-Hae;Kim, Dong-Hwan;Jang, Dong-Young;Han, Dong-Chul
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Machine Tool Engineers
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    • v.16 no.5
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    • pp.140-144
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    • 2007
  • As an electron scanning microscopes has traditionally required a considerably large room equipped with several service and pipe lines due to its inherent size. As an alternative, a small sized SEM, simply called a mini-SEM, is introduced even if the performance in terms of magnification and resolution is a little inferior to a classical thermal SEM. However, the size and fabrication cost is dramatically reduced, dedicating to opening a new market. The optical system in the mini-SEM is redesigned and specimen stage is quitely reduced and vertical axis is excluded. The design tools and calibration techniques to develope the mini-SEM are introduced and its performance is verified through numerical analysis experiments.

Variation of ordinary chondrite textures by thermal/shock metamorphisms and weathering ; a study using scanning electron microscopy (주사전자 현미경으로 관찰한 열변성, 충격변성 및 풍화작용에 따른 오디너리 콘드라이트 조직의 변화)

  • Park Gwon-Tae;Choe Byeon-Gak
    • 한국지구과학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.230-234
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    • 2006
  • 본 연구에서는 미분화 운석 중 오디너리 콘드라이트를 주사전자 현미경으로 관찰하여 열변성, 충격 변성 정도, 지구상에서의 풍화 정도에 따라서 그 구성 성분과 조직이 어떤 변화를 보이는지 알아보았다. 이를 위해 15개의 오디너리 콘드라이트에 대해 각각 연마편 및 연마박편을 준비하였으며, 주사전자 현미경 사진을 이용하여 열변성 단계별로 콘드률과 기질의 경계를 비교하였다. 열변성이 증가할수록 콘드률과 기질의 경계는 점차 모호해 진다. 충격변성을 받았는지의 유무는 감람석을 관찰하여 비교적 쉽게 인지할 수 있다. 충격변성을 받지 않은 콘드률 내의 감람석은 완전 소광과 불규칙적인 깨짐을 보이지만 충격변성을 받은 경우 파동소광과 규칙적인 깨짐을 보인다. 지구상에서 풍화를 받은 경우 철-니켈 금속의 산화가 가장 먼저 진행된다. 풍화에 의한 철산화물은 맥상으로 나타나거나 기존의 철-니켈 금속을 치환하여 나타난다. 철산화물에 의해 풍화를 받은 콘드라이트는 전체적으로 갈색을 띄게 된다.

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Design and Manufacture of an Electron Detector for Scanning Electron Microscope (주사전자현미경용 전자검출기의 설계 및 제작)

  • Jeon, Jong-Up;Kim, Ji-Won
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Precision Engineering
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    • v.25 no.4
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    • pp.53-60
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    • 2008
  • Electron detectors used in scanning electron microscope accept electrons emitted from the specimen and convert them to an electrical signal that, after amplification, is used to modulate the gray-level intensities on a cathode ray tube, producing an image of the specimen. Electron detector is one of the key components dominating the performance of scanning electron microscope so that the development of electron detectors having high performance is indispensable to acquire high quality images using scanning electron microscope. In this paper, we designed and manufactured an electron detector and conducted a couple of image capture experiments using it. In particular, scintillator which generates light photons when it is struck by high-energy electrons was manufactured and experimental studies on the optimization of manufacturing condition was carried out. From experiments to evaluate the performance of our detector, it was verified that the performance of our detector is equivalent to or better than that of the conventional one.

Characterization Method for Testing Circuit Patterns on MCM/PCB Modules with Electron Beams of a Scanning Electron Microscope (MCM/PCB 회로패턴 검사에서 SEM의 전자빔을 이용한 측정방법)

  • Kim, Joon-Il;Shin, Joon-Kyun;Jee, Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Telematics and Electronics D
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    • v.35D no.9
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    • pp.26-34
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    • 1998
  • This paper presents a characterization method for faults of circuit patterns on MCM(Multichip Module) or PCB(Printed Circuit Board) substrates with electron beams of a SEM(Scanning Electron Microscope) by inducing voltage contrast on the signal line. The experimentation employes dual potential electron beams for the fault characterization of circuit patterns with a commercial SEM without modifying its structure. The testing procedure utilizes only one electron gun for the generation of dual potential electron beams by two different accelerating voltages, one for charging electron beam which introduces the yield of secondary electron $\delta$ < 1 and the other for reading beam which introduces $\delta$ > 1. Reading beam can read open's/short's of a specific net among many test nets, simultaneously discharging during the reading process for the next step, by removing its voltage contrast. The experimental results of testing the copper signal lines on glass-epoxy substrates showed that the state of open's/short's had generated the brightness contrast due to the voltage contrast on the surface of copper conductor line, when the net had charged with charging electron beams of 7KV accelerating voltages and then read with scanning reading electron beams of 2KV accelerating voltages in 10 seconds. The experimental results with Au pads of a IC die and Au plated Cu pads of BGA substrates provided the simple test method of circuit lines with 7KV charging electron beam and 2KV reading beam. Thus the characterization method showed that we can test open and short circuits of the net nondestructively by using dual potential electron beams with one SEM gun.

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Assessment of decontamination of gutta-percha cone and the change of surface texture after rapid chemical disinfection (화학소독제 처리 후 가타파차 콘의 멸균 효과 및 표면 성상의 변화 평가)

  • Pang, Nan-Sim;Jung, Il-Young;Yu, Yoon-Jung;Kum, Kee-Yeon
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.133-139
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    • 2006
  • The purposes of this study were firstly to identify the microbial species on gutta-percha (GP) cones exposed at outpatient clinics using polymerase chain reaction, and secondly to evaluate the rapid sterilization effect of two chemical disinfectants at chair side. It also evaluated the alteration of surface texture of GP cones after 5-min soaking into two chemical disinfectants. A total of 100 GP cones from two endodontic departments were randomly selected for microbial detection using PCR assay with universal primer. After inoculation on the sterilized GP cones with the same microorganism identified by PCR assay, they were soaked in two chemical disinfectants: 5% NaOCl and 2% chlorhexidine for 1, 3, 5, and 10 minutes. The sterilization effect was evaluated by turbidity and subculture. The change of surface textures using a scanning electron microscope was also examined after 5 min-soaking in two chemical disinfectants. Results showed that four bacterial species were detected in 17 GP cones, and all the species belonged to the genus Staphylococcus. Two chemical disinfectants were effective in sterilization with just 1 minute soaking. On the SEM picture of NaOCl-soaked GP cone, a cluster of cuboidal crystals was seen on the cone surface. Present data demonstrate that two chemical disinfectants are useful for rapid sterilization of GP cone just before obturation at chair side, while CHX-soaked GP cone has cleaner surface without crystal precipitation than that of NaOCl-treated cone.

SEM Study on the Anaerobic Bacterial Adhesion to the Dentin of Root Canal (혐기성 미생물의 근관내 상아질 부착에 대한 주사전자현미경적 연구)

  • Sung-Eun Yang;Kwang-Shik Bae
    • Restorative Dentistry and Endodontics
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    • v.26 no.4
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    • pp.350-359
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    • 2001
  • 목적 - 근관형성시 근관내 상아질벽에는 항상 도말층(smear layer)이 형성되는데, 이는 상아질, 치수조직 잔사, 조상아세포 돌기, 때로는 미생물 등으로 구성되며, 주사전자현미경상으로는 비규칙적이며, 무정형의 구상(granular)구조물로 관찰된다. 본 연구에서는 도말층의 유무에 따른 혐기성 미생물, Prevotella nigrescens의 근관내 상아질 부착정도를 주사전자현미경으로 평가하고자 한다. 지금까지 사용되었던 실험방법에 비하여 보다 임상적 환경에 가까운 실험방법을 고안, 신빙성 있는 연구결과를 기대할 수 있도록 하였다. 방법 - 치주질환이나 외상 등의 원인으로 발거된 상, 하악 전치 18개를 사용하였다. 각 치아의 치관부를 백악법랑경계부위에서 절단하고, 1군(5개치아)은 10ml의 생리식 염수를, 2군(5개치아)과 3군(5개치아)은 10ml의 3.5% NaOCl을 근관관주용액으로 사용하여 근관형성을 하였다. 근관형성 완료후 1군과 2군은 10ml의 생리식염수로, 3군은 10ml의 0.5M EDTA용액으로 final flush를 시행하여, 3군의 도말층을 제거하였다. 치근수직절단과 ethylene oxide(EO) gas 소독후 1, 2, 3군의 시편(각군10개시편)을 Prevotella nigrescens가 부유된 Brain Heart Infusion with Yeast estract, Hemin and Menadione(BHIYHM) broth내에 37$^{\circ}C$에서 3시간 동안 incubation했다. 4, 5, 6군은 실험과정을 검증하기 위한 대조군으로써, 4군(1개치아)과 5군(1개치아)은 1군, 2군과 같이 각각 생리식염수와 NaOCl만을 이용한 근관형성으로 도말층을 잔존시키고, 6군(1개치아)은 3군과 같이 NaOCl과 EDTA를 적용하여 도말층을 제거한 후, 치근 수직절단과 EO gas 소독을 시행했다. 모든 시편(1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6군)을 통상의 방법에 따라 처리한 후 주사전자현미경을 통하여 관찰, 근관내면에 부착되어 있는 Prevotella nigrescens의 개수, 모양, 상아세관 및 도말층과의 관계 등을 관찰, 비교, 분석하였다. 결과는 t-test와 one-way ANOVA를 통하여 통계처리 하였다. 결론 - 1. 근관형성 후 근관내 상아질 표면 전체는 도말층으로 덮여 있는 양상을 보였다. 2. 3.5% NaOCl과 0.5M EDTA를 적용하여 근관내 도말층을 효과적으로 제거할 수 있었으며, 상아세관 개구부가 확연히 노출되어 있는 소견을 관찰할 수 있었다. 3. 도말층이 덮인군에서 미생물의 부착이 유의성 있게 높았다(P<0.05). 4. 근관 형성중 형성되어 근관 상아질을 덮고 있는 도말층이 미생물의 부착을 증가시켜, 근관 재감염의 기회를 증가시킴을 알 수 있었다.

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IN VITRO EVALUATION OF EXPERIMENTAL FLUORIDE TAPE IN INHIBITION OF ENAMEL DEMINERALIZATION (불소 테이프의 법랑질 탈회 억제 효과에 관한 실험적 평가)

  • Kim, Min-Jung;Lee, Sang-Ho;Lee, Nan-Young;Park, Seung-Hyo
    • JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY
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    • v.39 no.2
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    • pp.129-138
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    • 2012
  • The aim of this in vitro study was to evaluate the effectiveness of experimental 2.26% fluoride-polyvinyl alcohol (F-PVA) tape in inhibition of enamel demineralization using enamel surface microhardness (SMH) analysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination. Enamel specimens (n=60) randomly assigned to four groups: control group, F-PVA tape group, fluoride varinish (F-varnish) group, casein phosphopeptide-amorphous calcium phosphate (CPP-ACFP) group. After topical application, pH-cycling was processed. Then, SMH was measured and the percentage loss of surface microhardness (%SML) was calculated. For the SEM examination, five sample specimens in each group were treated and the morphologic character was evaluated. After pH-cycling, the SMH values of the enamel specimens of F-PVA tape and F-varnish group were significantly higher than that of CPP-ACFP group, there was no significant difference between F-PVA tape and Fvarnish group. With SEM examination, enamel surfaces in the F-PVA tape group and F-varnish group showed numerous spherical and ovoid crystals formed on the enamel surface were also observed. The density of crystals was higher than that of both control group and CPP-ACFP group. F-PVA tape is effective in inhibition of enamel demineralization. Also, F-PVA tape's inhibition of enamel demineralization is comparable to that of F-vanish and greater than that of CPP-ACFP.