• Title/Summary/Keyword: 중금속

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Heavy Metals and Cosmetics (화장품과 중금속)

  • 김영소;정혜진;장이섭
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.15-30
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    • 2002
  • 최근 화장품 사용인구의 증가와 안전성에 대한 관심 증대에 따라 화장품 중 유해성분 함유에 대한 논란이 종종 있어왔다. 화장품에 대한 전문적 지식이 없는 사람들에 의하여 진행된 잘못된 정보로 인하여 화장품 중에 포함된 모든 중금속이 인체에 심각한 영향을 초래한다는 등의 오해를 불러와 관련 업계에 적지 않은 피해를 주기도 하였다. 이에 본 자료에서는 구체적 근거자료와 연구 논문들을 기반으로 유해한 중금속, 안전하여 사용이 공인된 중금속 등을 조사하여 화장품에서의 중금속의 개념을 정립하고자 하였다. 국내에서는 식품의약품안전청 고시 제2000-27호에 화장품에 포함되었을 때 유해한 중금속으로 납, 비소 및 수은을 명시하고 그 규제농도를 규정하고 있다. 규제 중금속은 아니지만 피부에 알러지를 일으키는 중금속으로는 니켈이 있는데 화장품 중 몇몇 제품군에서 소량(수∼수십ppm) 이 검출되기도 한다. 그러나 이는 일상으로 사용하는 각종 귀금속, 시계, 안경테, 클립, 지퍼 등의 금속 용품에 포함된 니켈의 양(수∼수십%)에 비하여 매우 적은 양이며 정상적인 사람에게는 무해하다. 실제 대다수의 니켈 알러지는 화장품이 아닌 귀금속이나 시계 등의 금속류 제품 등에 의하여 유발된다. 또한 많은 종류의 중금속 화합물이 화장품 원료로 사용되고 있다. 전세계적으로 널리 사용되는 것으로 크롬, 망간, 비스머스, 구리, 철, 코발트, 티타늄, 아연 등의 화합물이 있으며 이들은 각종 화장품 공정서 및 원료집 등에 수재되어 사용되고 있다. 이들 중 코발트와 크롬이 피부에 유해하다는 몇몇 보고가 있지만, 이는 이들 원소의 수용성염형태의 특정 화합물인 cobalt chloride와 chromate 및 dichromate의 염에 관한 것으로 화장품에서 사용되는 불용성 산화물인 cobalt aluminum oxide, cobalt titanium oxide, cobalt blue, chromium oxde greens 및 chromium hydroide green 등, 국제적으로 널리 사용되는 안전한 중금속 화합물과는 그 특성 및 독성이 판이하게 다르다. 따라서 화장품에서는 매우 안전한 중금속 화합물만이 사용된다. 업계는 유해 중금속에 관해서는 규제에 입각한 엄격한 품질관리에 힘쓰고 중금속의 화학적 분자구조(수용성염 vs 불용성산화물)를 구별할 수 있는 분석방법 개발에 주력하여야 한다. 그리고 안전한 화장품을 사용하고자 하는 소비자의 욕구를 충족시키고 잘못된 인식과 보도로 인하여 안전한 화장품이 유해한 것으로 오도되는 것을 막아야 할 것이다.

A Study on the Removal of Heavy Metals by Microorganism in the Biological Wastewater Treatment (생물학적 폐수처리 공정에서의 미생물에 의한 중금속 제거에 관한 연구)

  • Choung, Youn Kyoo;Min, Byeong Heon;Park, Joon Hwon
    • KSCE Journal of Civil and Environmental Engineering Research
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.137-145
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    • 1990
  • In this research, biological uptake of heavy metals(Cd(II), Cu(II), Zn(II)) was measured under various conditions ; pH, initial heavy metal concentration, temperature, contact time and the amount of biomass through batch test. From this research, it was found that heavy metals might be removed through adsorption and accumulation in activated sludge process. Heavy metals were highly concentrated by microbial floc in activated sludge. Also, the removal efficiency was reached up to 80~90% within and after 1 hour the increase of removal efficiency was minimal. The order of accumulation efficiency was Cu(II)>Zn(II)>Cd(II), and the bonding strength between heavy metals and microbial floc may be expressed in order of Cu(II)>Zn(II)>Cd(II).

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광주지역 일부 주유소 분진중의 중금속 원소함량과 지구화학적 연구

  • 이한별;윤정한;이종운
    • Proceedings of the KSEEG Conference
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    • pp.226-229
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    • 2003
  • 산업이 발달하고 도시화가 진행됨에 따라 다양한 형태의 중금속들이 인위적으로 생성, 배출되며 이들은 대기, 물 등의 이동 매체를 통하여 대기권, 수권, 토양권을 포함하는 지구화학적 환경으로 광범위하게 분산된다 이러한 중금속은 토양 오염 및 수질오염을 유발시키며 특히 토양과 분진 중의 중금속오염은 심각한 환경 오염현상 중의 하나이다. 도시에서의 분진 및 토양에 산재된 중금속류의 성질은 산업활동량, 인구밀집도, 자동차, 폐기물 등에 따라 그 원인이 다양하다. (중략)

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새만금 갯벌의 중금속 분포 특성

  • 김종구;유선재;조은일;안욱성
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Fisheries Technology Conference
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    • pp.146-148
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    • 2002
  • 국내에서는 많은 간척사업이 이루어졌으며 이로 인한 환경에 미치는 영향을 아주크게 작용하고 있다. 연안 매립 및 간척사업으로 인한 환경오염 중에서도 부영양화나 중금속오염 문제가 중요한 요인으로 제기되었고, 대부분의 중금속은 환경중에서 지속성을 가지며 수계로 유입된 중금속은 퇴적물에 축적되거나 여러 과정을 거쳐 수중에 재용해 되기도 한다. 또한 먹이사슬을 거쳐 사람에게 다량 축적될 경우 독성을 일으키는 물질로써 세계 각국에서 일부 중금속에 대해서는 유해물질로 규정하여 규제하고 있으며, 우리나라에서도 일부 중금속 항목은 환경기준에 지정되어 있다. (중략)

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Effect of the Removal Efficiency of Heavy Metals by the EPS Production of Bacillus Microorganisms (환경변화에 따른 바실러스 미생물의 EPS 생성이 중금속 제거 효율에 미치는 영향)

  • Son, Han-Hyung;Kim, Pan-Soo;Lee, Sang-Ho
    • Proceedings of the KAIS Fall Conference
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    • pp.309-312
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    • 2006
  • 최근에는 산업의 발전에 따라 다종 다양한 형태의 중금속이 이용되고 있지만 처리공정의 효율상의 한계성 때문에 미량의 중금속이 배출되어 생태계의 치명적인 위협요소로 부각되고 있다. 중금속이 포함된 폐수는 일반적으로 여러 가지 방법이 있지만 생체물질을 이용한 생체흡착에 대한 연구 및 공정 개발이 활발히 이루어지고 있다. 생체흡착은 중금속이 생물체 표면이나 내부로 물리 화학 및 생물학적 상호작용에 의한 이온교환, 흡착등 다양한 기작에 의해 수용액으로부터 중금속이 제거되는 것이다. 본 연구에서 바실러스에 의한 EPS 물질을 추출하였으며 포자화 전과 후의 EPS를 이용하여 중금속제거 실험을 하였다. EPS 물질은 Protein이 Carbohydrate보다 많은 함량을 보였으며 중금속 제거는 포자화 전보다 포자화 후의 EPS가 더 많이 제거되는 것으로 나타났다.

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Growth and Heavy Metal Absorption Capacity of Aster koraiensis Nakai According to Types of Land Use (토지이용 형태별 벌개미취의 생육 및 중금속 흡수능)

  • Ju, Young-Kyu;Kwon, Hyuk-Jun;Cho, Ju-Sung;Shin, So-Lim;Kim, Tae-Sung;Choi, Su-Bin;Lee, Cheol-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.48-54
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    • 2011
  • This study was performed to analyze the possibility of using Korean native Aster koraiensis Nakai for phytoremediation at various fields. A. koraiensis was cultivated at paddy, upland and forest soils contaminated with heavy metals. After 8 weeks of cultivation, and growth and its absorbing capacity of heavy metals were analyzed. The results showed that A. koraiensis was grown well even at the soil highly contaminated with heavy metals, which means it has a tolerance to heavy metals. As analysis results of arsenic, cadmium, copper, lead and zinc contents absorbed from various soils contaminated with heavy metals, heavy metal absorbing capacity of A. koraiensis was depending on the heavy metal contents in the soils and soil property. In case of arsenic, cadmium and copper, heavy metal accumulation capacities of Aster koraiensis were much influenced by contents of heavy metals in the soils. Absorbing capacity of plants was increased when heavy metal contents in the soils were high. Lead absorbing capacity was depending more on soil property than lead contents in the soil, and was great at sandy soil of forest. Zinc absorbing capacity was influenced by both soil properties and Zn contents in the soil, was increased at paddy soil contaminated with high concentrations of heavy metals and upland soils. In general, A. koraiensis had a tolerance to heavy metals and showed great absorbing capability of heavy metals. So A. koraiensis can be used as a good landscape material for phytoremediation at various soils contaminated with heavy metals.

Effect of Water-Thoroughly-Rinsing in the Artificially Metal-Contaminated Soil Preparation on Final Soil Metal Concentrations (인위적 중금속 오염 토양 제조과정에서 최종 세척과정이 중금속 토양 농도에 미치는 영향 연구)

  • Hur, Jeong-Hyun;Jeong, Seung-Woo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.33 no.9
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    • pp.670-676
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    • 2011
  • Artificially metal-contaminated soils have been widely used for lab-scale soil washing and soil toxicity experiments. The artificial soil contamination methods consist of 1) first equilibrating soils with heavy metal solution, 2) filtrating or centrifuging soils from the mixture and 3) finally drying the soils. However, some of those artificially contaminated soil experiments have not clearly shown that the soils were thoroughly rinsed with water prior to conducting experiments. This study investigated the amount of heavy metal release from the artificially metal-contaminated soil by pre-water-rinsing. Three different artificially metal-contaminated soil preparation methods were first evaluated with Cd and Pb concentrations of soil. Then, this study investigated the effect of pre-water-rinsing on the Cd and Pb concentration of the artificially contaminated soil. Heavy metal concentrations of the soil produced by equilibrating and drying the metal solution-soil were significantly reduced by pre-water-rinsing. The results of the study implied that experimental results would be significantly distorted when the artificially heavy metal-contaminated soils were not thoroughly water-rinsed prior to conducting experiments. Therefore, the initial heavy metal concentration of the artificially contaminated soil should be determined after thoroughly rinsing the soil that was previously obtained through the adsorption and dry stages.

Heavy Metal Accumulation in Cell of Heavy Metal-Tolerant Bacteria by Some Physical and Chemical Treatments (물리화학적 전처리에 의한 중금속 내성세균의 균체내 중금속 축적 변화)

  • Cho, Ju-Sik;Lee, Hong-Jae;Heo, Jong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.16 no.4
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    • pp.311-319
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    • 1997
  • Heavy metal-tolerant microorganisms, such as Pseudomonas putida, P. aeruginosa, P. chlororaphis and P. stutzeri which possessed the ability to accumulate cadmium, lead, zinc and copper, respectively, were isolated from industrial wastewaters and mine wasewaters polluted with various heavy metals. Metal binding sites in the cells were investigated by extracting the components of the cells through pretreatments with hot water, acid, alkli, chloroform-methanol or chloroform-methanol/concentrated alkali. The heavy metal accumulation was drastically decreased by pretreatment with alkali or chloroform-methanol/concentrated alkali, but the heavy metal accumulation was not changed by pretreatment with chloroform-methanol. The amount of heavy metal accumulation was remarkably decreased by decreasing crude protein remaining in the cell. These results suggested that proteins of cell components played an important role on the heavy metal accumulation.

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Effects of free metal ions and organo-metal complexes on the absorption of lead and cadmium by plants (식물에 의한 납, 카드뮴 흡수 기작에 미치는 자유이온 및 유기산-중금속 복합체의 영향)

  • Lee, Mina;Seo, Byounghwan;Kim, Kwon-Rae
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.64 no.2
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    • pp.159-164
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    • 2021
  • Heavy metals exist in soils in various chemical forms including free metal ions and organo-metal complexes. The ratio of free metal ions has been known to be highly associated with the plant absorption of heavy metals. This study aims to understand the effect of free ions and organo-metal complexes on the absorption of lead (Pb) and cadmium (Cd) by plants. For this, lettuce grown in a hydroponic system for 28 days was consequently grown another 48 hours using Pb and Cd solutions. The ratios of free ion to organo-metal complexes in the solutions were adjusted at 100:0, 90:10, 70:30, 60:40 by four different organic acids (citric, oxalic, acetic, and humic acid). After that, the concentration of Pb and Cd in lettuce were analyzed. The Pb and Cd absorption by lettuce was more relied on the types of organic acids treated and the type of metals rather than the ratio of free metal ions. For example, citric acid increased the Pb absorption while it decreased the Cd absorption by lettuce. There was no significant relationship between free metal ion ratios and both Pb and Cd uptake by lettuce. It could be explained that citric acid, a relatively higher molecular weight organic acid, has higher ion binding capacity, so it forms organo-Pb complex easily due to the higher affinity of Pb on the binding site in comparison with Cd. Consequently, this complexation would assist Pb uptake by lettuce.

Biosorption and Desorption of Heavy Metals using Undaria sp. (미역 폐기물의 중금속 흡탈착 특성)

  • Cho, Ju-Sik;Park, Il-Nam;Heo, Jong-Soo;Lee, Young-Seak
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.92-98
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    • 2004
  • The adsorption and desorption of Pb, Cd, Co, Zn, Cr, Co, Ni, and Mo on the waste Undaria sp. were studied. Except for Pb. the mono adsorption rate for all heavy metals were lower than that of the heavy metals mixed. However, the adsorption capacity of the heavy metals by 1g of biosorption, in mixed heavy metals increased According to FT-IR analysis of the biosorbent after heavy metal biosorption, the replacement of the functional group by the heavy metals ions could be confirmed and the inverted peaks became larger after heavy metals adsorption. The adsorption equilibrium of heavy metals was reached in about 1 hour. The equilibrium parameters were determined based on Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The affinity of metals on the biosorbent decreased in the following order: Pb>Cu>Cr>Cd>Co. The desorption rate decreased in the following sequence: NTA>$H_2SO_4$>HCl>EDTA. The desorption rate of heavy metals by NTA increased with increase in the concentration from 0.1 to 0.3% but the desorption rate became constant beyond 0.3%. Therefore, it represented that desorption rate of heavy metals was suitable under optimized condition ($30^{\circ}C$, pH 2 and 0.3% NTA solution) and was fast with 80% or more the uptake occurring within 10 min of contact time.