• Title/Summary/Keyword: 중금속

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Variation of Cadmium and Zinc Content in Rice and Soil of the Mangyeong River Area (만경강 유역의 토양과 수도체중 Cd 및 Zn 함량의 변화)

  • Kim, Seong-Jo;Baek, Seung-Hwa;Kim, Un-Sung;Yoon, Ki-Woun;Moon, Kwang-Hyun;Kang, Gyeong-Won
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.142-150
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    • 1994
  • To investigate differences in Cd and Zn contents of paddy soils and rice plants polluted by the municipal and industrial waste water in the Mangyeong River Area, soil and plant samples were collected at several distances from the main inlet and at different depths of the soil. Soil samples were extracted with $4M-HNO_3$ and plant samples were digested with a mixture of $HNO_3$and $HClO_4$for analyzing heavy metals by atomic absorption spectrophotometry. The contents of Cd and Zn in soils ranged from 0.38 to 1.17 and from 33.8 to 464.6mg kg^{-1}, respectively. The average Cd level in 1990 was less than that in 1982, but the Zn level in 1990 was higher than that in 1982 in general. No variation in Cd contents was observed in soils at the different distances from the source of waste water, but Zn contents in soils were lower with the increasing distances from the source of waste water. A significant correlation was observed among Cd content, OM, available silicate, CEC and $Ca^{++}$. Similar results existed among Zn content of 1982, OM and $Ca^{++}$. The Cd content in subsurface soils of 1992 was significantly correlated with Zn, Cu, and Pb in soils, and the Zn content in soils was significantly correlated with the Cu and Pb in soils, regardless of years. The Cd content in leaf blades of rice was more than seven times higher than that in brown rice. The Zn content in rice was higher than that in leaf blades and in panicle axis. The Cd content in panicle axis and the Zn content in all parts of rice were correlated with Zn, Cu and Pb contents in soils. The Cd and Zn contents in brown rice ranged from 0.10 to 0.90mg $kg^{-1}$ and from 4.2 to 95.9mg $kg^{-1}$ in the Mangyeong River Area, respectively.

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Effects of Municipal Sewage Sludge on Contents of Lead and Copper in Crop Plants. (경작지내(耕作地內) 도시하수(都市下水) Sludge 의 처리(處理)가 작물(作物)중 Cu 및 Pb 함량(含量)에 미치는 영향(影響))

  • Kim, Seong-Jo;Baek, Seung-Hwa;Chung, Dong-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.9-19
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    • 1992
  • To ditermine the accumulation of Cu and Pb in crops grown on Sludge-treated Soils, four crop plants, green onion(A Ilium ascalonicum L.), radish(Raphanus sativus L.), potato(Solanum tuberosum L.) and Chinese cabbage(Brassica pekinensis Rupr), were grown in greenhouses on soils treated with municipal sewage sludge at different levels of 0, 22.5, 45, and 90ton/ha as soil dry weight. The contant of heavy metals were analyzed in plant parts of the crop species and the statistical characteristics were investigated. The results were as follows: 1. Cu and Pb contents in experimental plants were increased in accordance with quanti of sludge applied. 2. Accumulation of Cu and Pb in leaves of plants was increased in order of radish

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The Effect of Bottom ash in Reducing Cadmium Phytoavailability in Cadmium-contaminated Soil (중금속 오염 농경지 토양에서 바닥재 시용에 의한 카드뮴 식물이용성 저감효과)

  • Kim, Sung Un;Kim, Yong Gyun;Lee, Sang Mong;Park, Hyean Cheal;Kim, Keun Ki;Son, Hong Joo;Yun, Sung Wook;Kim, Sang Yoon;Hong, Chang Oh
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.152-157
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    • 2016
  • BACKGROUND: Since bottom ash (BA) contains considerable amounts of CaO and MgO, it could be a useful amendment to increase soil pH and to immobilize cadmium (Cd). This study was conducted to evaluate effect of BA application in reducing Cd phytoavailability.METHODS AND RESULTS: Bottom ash was applied at the rate of 0, 20, 40, and 80 Mg/ha to Cd contaminated soil, and then lettuce was cultivated under field condition. soil pH and net negative charge increased slightly with increasing BA application; however, there was no statistical difference among the rates. Water soluble, exchangeable+acidic, reducible, and oxidizable fraction of Cd decreased with increasing bottom ash application rate, whereas residual fraction of Cd increased with increasing bottom ash application rate. Lettuce yield increased with rate of bottom ash up to 40 kg/ha. Visual evidences of cadmium toxicity and growth inhibition were not found during lettuce cultivation.CONCLUSION: Bottom ash was effective to reduce phytoextractability of Cd and to increase lettuce yield. Conclusively, BA could be a good soil amendment to reduce Cd phytoavailability in contaminated arable soil.

A Study on Heavy Metals and Selenium Contents of Seafoods Commonly Consumed in Gyeonggi-Do (경기도내 유통 다소비 생선류의 중금속 및 셀레늄 함량)

  • Cho, Yun-Sik;Kim, Ki-Cheol;Kim, Kyung-A;Kang, Suk-Ho;Jung, You-Jung;Kwak, Shin-Hye;Lee, Pil-Suk;Lee, Woon-Hyung;Moh, Ara;Yong, Kum-Chan;Yoon, Mi-Hye
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.32 no.3
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    • pp.211-216
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    • 2017
  • A total of 100 seafoods commonly consumed in Gyeonggi-do were investigated to determine the concentration of lead (Pb), total mercury (Hg), methyl mercury (MeHg), cadmium (Cd) and selenium (Se). Concentration of heavy metals and selenium was measured by using mercury analyzer, ICP-MS and GC-ECD. The average content (mg/kg) of heavy metals in the seafood samples was as follows; Pb 0.0915 (0.0021-0.4490), Cd 0.0084 (ND-0.1773), and Hg 0.0412 (0.0013-0.3032). All the levels were below the recommended standards of the MFDS in Pb (0.5 mg/kg), Cd (0.2 mg/kg), Hg (0.5 mg/kg). The methylmercury was detected in the hairtail (0.0677 mg/kg) and cod (0.2941 mg/kg). After the average content of heavy metals in seafood was determined, the exposure assessment for heavy metals was conducted. Relative hazardous levels compared to PTWI were lower than the official standards of the JECFA for Pb (0.97%), Hg (3.42%) Cd (0.45%). In conclusion, the levels presented in this study are presumed to be safe for consumption.

Comparative Evaluation for Environmental Impact of Rapeseed and Barley Cultivation in Paddy Field for Winter using Life Cycle Assessment (겨울논 유채와 보리 재배시 전과정평가 방법을 이용한 환경영향 비교 평가)

  • Hong, Seung-Gil;Shin, JoungDu;Park, Kwang-Lai;Ahn, Min-Sil;Ok, Yong-Sik;Kim, Jeong-Gyu;Kim, Seok-Cheol
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.59-68
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    • 2016
  • The application of the Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) methodology to assess the environmental impact of rapeseed cultivation in winter fallow after harvesting rice was investigated and compared with barley cultivation in crop rotation system. Data for input materials were collected and analyzed by 1 ton rapeseed and barley as functional unit. For the Life Cycle Impact Assessment (LCIA) the Eco-indicator 95 method has been chosen because this is well documented and regularly applied impact method. From the comparison of impact categories such as greenhouse effect, ozone depletion, acidification, heavy metals, carcinogens, summer smog, and energy resources for 1 ton of final product, emission potential from rapeseed was higher than that from barley. The range from 65 to 96% of these potential came from chemical fertilizer. On the other hand, eutrophication potential from barley was higher than that from rapeseed, mainly came from utilizing the chemical fertilizer. During the cultivation of barley and rape, environmental burden by heavy metals was evaluated by 0.5 Pt, larger than points from other impact categories. The sum of points from all impact categories in barley and rapeseed was calculated to be 0.78 Pt and 0.82 Pt, respectively. From the sensitivity analysis for barley and rapeseed, scenario 1 (crop responses to fertilization level) showed the environmental burden was continuously increased with the amount of fertilization in barley cultivation, while it was not increased only at the optimum crop responses to fertilization in rapeseed (R3). With these results, rapeseed cultivation in winter fallow paddy contributed to the amounts of environmental burden much more than barley cultivation. It is, however, highly determined that environmental weighted point resulted from evaluating both cultivation was not significantly different.

Evaluation of Grade-Classification of Wood Waste in Korea by Characteristic Analysis (국내 폐목재 특성분석을 통한 등급화 평가)

  • Kim, Joung-Dae;Park, Joon-Seok;Do, In-Hwan;Hong, Soo-Youl;Oh, Gil-Jong;Chung, David;Yoon, Jung-In;Phae, Chae-Gun
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.30 no.11
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    • pp.1102-1110
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    • 2008
  • This research was performed to analyze the characteristics of wood wastes from origin and to suggest grade-classification for them. Korean proximate analysis was conducted, and heating value, heavy metals and Cl concentrations were analyzed for gradeclassification. Wood wastes were sampled from forest, living, construction and demolition, and industrial areas with origin. Moisture content of most wood wastes was ranged in 5$\sim$10%. VS (volatile solids) and ash contents of them showed > 95% and < 5%, respectively. Most wood wastes except wood for growing mushroom permitted the standard (low heating value $\geq$ 3,500 kcal/kg) for refusederived fuel. CCA (Cr, Cu, As) concentration of wood wastes used in bench, wasted fishing boat, and railroad crosstie was higher than that of the other ones. Cl content showed approximately 1.3% in wood box for fish and $\leq$ 0.2% in the other wood wastes. Cl content of all wood wasted used in this research permitted the standard (Cl $\leq$ 0.2%, dry weight basis) for refuse-derived fuel. If the wood wastes were classified in 3-grade, plywoods would be in 2nd grade, and MDF (medium density fiber), wooden bench, painted electric wire drum, wasted fishing boat, and railroad crosstie be in 3rd grade.

Metal Speciation in the Lagoon Sediment Interstitial Water from the Northeast Coast, Korea (동해안 석호 퇴적물의 간극수에 함유된 금속류의 화학종 분포)

  • Kim, Dong-Jin;Kim, Min-Chul;Yoo, Jin-Yull;Kwon, Sang-Yong;Seo, Yong-Chan;Yang, Jae-E.;Oh, Seung-Yoon;Ok, Yong-Sik
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.30 no.7
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    • pp.712-720
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    • 2008
  • Sediment and interstitial water samples from ten lagoons in the Northeastern coastal part of South Korea were analyzed to obtain the concentrations of metals and inorganic ligand. These data, coupled with pH and ionic strength, were used to compute the aqueous speciation of the metals in the interstitial water using the MINTEQA2 equilibrium program. The K and Na were almost entirely present as the free aqua ions, but Co, Cd, Ni, Pb and Zn were existed as various metal-ligand complexes. Metals such as Al, As, and Cr formed 3$\sim$4 metal-ligand complexes. In the interstitial water with high chloride concentrations, almost all of the metals were dominated by free aqua ions. Metals of Cd, Co, Ni, Pb and Zn were bound as chloride-metal complexes of the type M$^{x+}$ + xCl$^-$, and Fe, Mn and Mg were dominated by sulfate equilibria(M$^{2+}$ + SO$_4{^{2-}}$). Hg(II) was speciated as HgCl$_2$(aq), HgCl$_3{^-}$ and HgCl$_4{^-}$. However, in the interstitial water with low chloride concentrations, Hg(II) and Cd(II) were existed as chloride-metal complexes, metals of Cu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Pb and Zn were dominated by sulfate equilibria, and the speciation of Fe(II) was bound as Fe(OH)$_2{^+}$, Fe(OH)$_3$(aq). However, Al, As and Cr were dominated by hydroxy-metal and oxide-metal species in nearly all of the lagoons.

A Study on the Characteristics of Combustion and Manufacturing Process on Refuse-derived Fuel by Mixing Different Ratios with Organic and Combustible Wastes (유기성폐기물 고체연료화를 위한 연소 및 제조과정의 특성연구)

  • Ha, Sang-An
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.27-38
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    • 2009
  • To investigate the feasibility of refuse derived fuels (RDFs) combined of sewage sludge and combustible wastes such as substitutive fuels instead of a stone coal, several different RDFs made with different mixtures of sewage sludge and combustible wastes were analyzed by various experiments. The combustion characteristics for the RDFs were investigated by analyzing fuel gases, and heating values were also measured by a bomb calorimeter. The fundamental properties such as moisture contents, ratios of combustible materials, amounts of ashes, heavy metals, ratios of each chemical elements and heating values were analyzed in accordance with mixing ratios of wt(%) for researching the characteristics of the RDFs. $RDF_{k-1}$ was made of mixing materials which were dried sewage sludge, food wastes and combustible wastes. $RDF_{k-2}$ was made of mixing materials which were peat-moss, tar and sewage sludge. Combustion experiments were carried out at the optimal conditions which were m=2 under air-fuel condition and $850^{\circ}C$. The retention times in the combustor were set at 5, 10 and 15minutes. 50 g of RDFs was put in the combustor for each experiments. The ranges for heating values of $RDF_{k-1}$ with different mixing ratios were from 6,900 kcal/kg to 8120 kcal/kg. The ranges for heating values of $RDF_{k-2}$ with different mixing ratios were from 4,014 kcal/kg to 8,050 kcal/kg. As a result of this study, the heating values, moisture contents, components of chemical elements and mixing ratios of the materials in RDFs had big effects on the efficiency of the combustion. In $RDF_{k-1}$, the higher amounts of combustible wastes in the mixtures, the higher heating values, concentrations of $C_xH_y$ and amounts of ashes were produced. In $RDF_{k-2}$, the higher tar amounts in the mixtures caused the higher heating values, amounts of ashes, concentrations of CO gas and CxHy.

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Some Factors Affecting Growth of Mycogone perniciosa Magn. Causing Wet Bubble in Cultivated Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Lange) Sing (양송이 마이코곤 병균(病菌)(Mycogone perniciosa Magn.)의 생장(生長)에 영향(影響)을 미치는 요인(要因))

  • Han, Young-Sik;Kim, Dong-Soo;Jun, Byung-Sung;Shin, Kwan-Chul
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 1974
  • 1. The mycelial growth and sporulation of Mycogone perniciosa was compared on modified Czapek's media deficient in carbon source, nitrogen source, K,Mg, P or the heavy metal elements. The mycelial growth was significantly reduced in solution cultures lacking Mg, K or P and only a trace of growth occurred in solutions lacking carbon source or nitrogen source. Most sparse sporulation and smaller chlamydospores than on any of deficient agar media occurred on agar media dificient in carbon source or nitrogen source. 2. In both potato dextrose agar and malt extract solution, growth of the fungus was optimum at $25^{\circ}C$, and undetectable at $10^{\circ}C$ and $35^{\circ}C$. 3. Optimum pH for growth of this fungus was 7.0. 4. This fungus was killed in soil when exposed to $50^{\circ}C$ or higher for 20 minutes or more.

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Characteristics in Chemical Properties of Agricultural Groundwater in Gyeongnam Province (경남지역 농업용 지하수의 수질특성)

  • Lee, Seong-Tae;Kim, Eun-Seok;Song, Won-Doo;Kim, Jin-Ho;Kim, Min-Kyeong;Lee, Young-Han
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.5
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    • pp.698-703
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    • 2012
  • This survey was conducted to obtain basic data of the quality of groundwater for agriculture in Gyeongnam province. Groundwater samples from paddy 15, upland 15, and plastic film house 30 sites were collected on April, July, and October in every two years from 2002 to 2008. According to the result of water quality analysis, groundwater quality was suitable for irrigation purpose averagely. The $NO_3$-N contents by land use were in the order of plastic film house > upland > paddy field and its contents were 6.53, 4.80, and $3.68mg\;L^{-1}$, respectively. In annual changes of water quality, pH was no significant change in paddy, upland, and plastic film house by 6.6~6.9. EC was increased in upland and plastic film house in 2008 and majors factors were $NO_3$-N and $Cl^-$. In upland and plastic film house, $NO_3$-N contents were 4.72 and $6.52mg\;L^{-1}$ in 2002, respectively, whereas they were 5.63 and $8.70mg\;L^{-1}$ in 2008, respectively. Of the investigated sites, $NO_3$-N was exceeded water quality standards for agriculture by 3.3~15.0% in plastic film house and $Cl^-$ was exceeded water quality standards for agriculture by 2.2% in upland of 2004. The $NO_3$-N contents were decreased with well depth and their contents were $5.38mg\;L^{-1}$ from 3~10 m, $4.87mg\;L^{-1}$ from 10~20 m, and $2.58mg\;L^{-1}$ from above 30 m. The $NO_3$-N contents by soil texture were highest in sandy loam by $5.73mg\;L^{-1}$ and lowest in clay loam by $4.13mg\;L^{-1}$. The $NO_3$-N contents by crops category were in order of fruit vegetables > leaf vegetables > rice > fruits > beans, contents of fruit vegetables and leaf vegetables were 5.81 and $5.30mg\;L^{-1}$, respectively.