• Title/Summary/Keyword: 중금속

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Relationship between Extraction Methods of Copper in Soil and the Bioaccumulated Copper in Earthworm (Microcosm soil test를 이용한 지렁이 체내 축적 구리 농도와 구리 침출법 간의 상관관계 비교)

  • Choi, Youn-Seok;Kim, Kye-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.40 no.4
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    • pp.298-310
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    • 2007
  • This study compared the correlation between the accumulated copper content in earthworms and the copper concentration rate of soil measured using several methods to extract heavy metals from soil. For the experiment, a microcosm soil test was carried out using copper contaminated soil from the vicinity of copper-roofed buildings and earthworms (Eisenia fetida). Soils from the study area were used to produce 6 treatments; control, 1C (contamination level with the lowest treated copper concentration rate), 2C, 4C, 8C, and 16C (contamination level with the highest treated copper concentration rate). Microcosm soil test using the 6 treatments proved that as the copper content in soil and the experiment time increased, the growth rate of and the accumulated copper concentration rate in earthworms increased as well. The degree of the increase corresponded to the order of the treated copper concentration levels in microcosm soils. Standard method of the ministry of environment and EPA method 3051 were used to obtain the copper concentration in soil and the total copper content in soil, respectively. The correlation coefficient (r) of 0.9875~0.9993 between the copper content extracted by the standard method and the total copper content shows high positive correlation. The correlation coefficient of the copper content in soil extracted by the standard method and the accumulated copper content in earthworms, and the correlation coefficient of the total copper content in soil and the accumulated copper content in earthworms were ranged from 0.9193 to 0.9728 and from 0.9282 to 0.9844, respectively, showing highly significant positive correlation. Due to the high correlation between the copper concentration in soil and the accumulated copper content in earthworms, it is concluded that earthworms are suitable to be used as biological indicator species or for bio-monitoring against copper contamination of soil.

The Study of Solid Waste Compost Development for Reclaiming Damage Soil in Forest (산림훼손토양 복원을 위한 부숙토 개발 연구)

  • Na, Seung-Ju;Chang, Ki-Woon;Yang, Hui-Young;Jeon, Han-Ki;Lee, Jong-Jin
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.107-120
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    • 2005
  • To study the development of solid waste compost to use sewage sludge and paper mill sludge for reclaiming damage soil in forest, the changes of temperature, moisture, chemical properties, heavy metals and harmful compound during the aerobic decomposition were investigated, and the compost decomposition of final products investigated the round paper chromatography method and G.I(Germination index) value. The results were summarized as follows. Temperature was changed a little during early 5days because of air temperature too low. That was rapidly increased to over $50^{\circ}C$ at 4days after first turning and then decreased gradually fallen to $40{\sim}50^{\circ}C$ at 15days after aerobic decomposition in A and C treatments. The second turning was conducted at 18 days after aerobic decomposition, and then the temperature was little changed. At the compare first with terminal product, The moisture content was decreased all treatments but the change was little in A and B treatments. pH was decreased to below 1 in all treatments. EC was increased to below 5dS/m. The content of total carbon, C/N ratio, $NH_4{^+}-N$ were decreased with 4~7%, below 8 and below 500mg/kg in all treatments, respectively. The content of total nitrogen, $NO_3{^-}-N$, CEC were increased with below 0.5%, below 173mg/kg and over $30cmol^+/kg$ in all treatments, respectively. The content of heavy metals and harmful compound were similar during aerobic decomposition and suited to standard of 가 grade in all treatments. The result of round paper chromatography method and G.I. value, The C treatment concluded well aerobic decomposition. Especially, the G.I. value in C treatment was 64.1 and 66.2 at cabbage and grass, respectively.

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Study on the Waste Treatment Status and Characteristics in the Small Villages (농촌마을의 생활폐기물 처리실태 및 발생특성 연구)

  • Lee, Hyeong-Jin;Choi, Hun-Geun;Kim, Sung-Bum;Cho, Mun-Sik;Kim, Seong-Mi;Park, Soo-Jeong;Chung, Il-Rok;Oh, Gil-Jong
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.112-130
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    • 2006
  • In order to improve the waste management system for the unit of small villages, we visited 14 counties nationwide and investigated the present conditions of the farming and fishing villages on waste management. First, we selected one concentrated residential type village and one separated residential type village. Then we investigated the quantities and the characteristics of the domestic wastes generated from the 2 sample villages that we chose early on. The concentration of 7 heavy metals in open burned residuals was analyzed. The results are as follows: (1) We distributed the 799 questionnaires to public servants (83 Gun, 716 Myon) and 337 questionnaires to residents. In accordance with a result of questionnaire on the Volume-Based Waste Fee System, the rate of participated questionnaire was 70.3% from public servants and 31.8% from residents. (2) From the survey on two chosen villages, the generation of municipal waste was 48.6g/person/day in A Village, 54.3g/person/day in B Village. This amount was smaller than that of national average of 1.05kg because of excluding recyclable wastes and some of incinerated combustible waste. (3) The 14 counties entered the aged society. There were 2 aging societies, 8 aged societies and 4 super-aged societies. And the average ratios of Public financial independence and waste budget of financial independence were 16.1% and 17.9% respectively. These are lower than that of national average of 57.2% and 31.4%. This indicates that these factors seemed to be operated with the hindrance insettling Volume-Based Waste Fee System in the small villages.

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Soil Environmental Characteristics Assessment of the Namsan Park in Seoul (서울남산의 토양환경특성 평가)

  • Kim, Ik-Soo;Lee, Jai-Young;Kim, Gyeo-Bung;Eom, Seok-Won
    • Journal of Soil and Groundwater Environment
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    • v.13 no.4
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    • pp.22-29
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    • 2008
  • To understand environmental characteristics and contamination assessment of the Namsan Park soil in Seoul, we divided the Namsan map into 33 sectors and sampled mixed soil in depth 0${\sim}$15 cm, in 5${\sim}$10 points at the sites. We analyzed soil samples collected at 21 sectors twice on May and September. The results were as follows. The hue color ranges of the Namsan soil were 2.5YR${\sim}$10YR, the value ranges were 1${\sim}$4, the water rates were 3.1${\sim}$22.3 and the Ignition losses were 3.4${\sim}$10.4%. The average concentration of Cu and Pb were determined 3.374 and 15.000 mg/kg, Cd and As showed very low level. The mean concentrations of Zn and Ni were showed 103.290 and 11.649 mg/kg and this amount is not different from the nationalwide mean in 2005. The mean pH showed 5.41. The Zn, Ni and Cd in the soil of the circular road of Namsan showed 1.33, 1.48, 1.46 times higher than the other sector of the Namsan soil. The corelation coefficient between water rate and ignition loss were 0.720 and the correlation coefficient between Cu and Pb, Cu and Zn showed 0.827, 0.694 respectively. There was weak corelationship between pH and Zn. The Uniformity coefficient (Uc) of all the survey sites was determined below 5 in the range of 1.5${\sim}$4.4.

Evaluation of Spent Mushroom Substrates as Food for White-spotted Flower Chafer, Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis (Coleoptera: Cetoniidae) (버섯 수확 후 배지의 흰점박이꽃무지 사료화 연구)

  • Lee, Seul Bi;Kim, Jong Won;Bae, Sung Mun;Hwang, Yeon Hyeon;Lee, Heung-Su;Lee, Byeong Jeong;Hong, Kwang Pyo;Park, Chung Gyoo
    • Korean journal of applied entomology
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    • v.57 no.2
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 2018
  • The larva of the white-spotted flower chafer, Protaetia brevitarsis seulensis (Coleoptera: Cetoniidae), is known to have important medicinal properties, such as anti-cancer activity. However, the consumer market for the larvae is depressed because of its high production cost which needs to be reduced. This study was carried out to evaluate two spent mushroom substrates as food source for chafer larvae to improve the productivity and reduce production cost. The larvae were fed with spent substrates of king oyster mushroom (Pleurotus eryngii) (P-SMS) and shiitake mushroom (Lentinula edodes) (L-SMS), with a control of fermented oak sawdust. Effects of the diets on the development of P. brevitarsis seulensis and contents of minor nutrient components in the larvae produced were examined. In the P-SMS diet, the larval rearing period was shorter at 16.2 days, while the rate of larval weight gain and the cocoon weight were higher at 156.3% and 4.1 g, respectively, than that in the L-SMS diet. The pupation rate was 100% and the adult emergence was higher at 93.3% in the P-SMS diet than in the L-SMS diet with no difference to the control diet. In the P-SMS diet, the total nitrogen content during rearing was higher at 10.28% and the minor nutrient component, particularly Fe (145.8 mg/kg), was higher than that in other diets. The oviposition preference of adults showed no significant difference among the diets. Economic analysis showed that P-SMS costs approximately 667,960 Won less per 100 kg of larvae produced, compared to that of the control diet.

Evaluation of Field Applicability with Coal Mine Drainage Sludge as a Liner: Part II: Effect of Freezing/Thawing in CMDS Mixed Liner (차수재로의 광산슬러지 재활용 적용성 평가: Part II: 동결/융해에 의한 광산슬러지 혼합 차수재의 거동)

  • Lee, Jai-Young;Bae, Sun-Young;Park, Kyoung-Joo
    • Journal of the Korean Geosynthetics Society
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.73-79
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    • 2011
  • Based on the results of Part 1 of our two-parts paper, the possibility on field applicability of CMDS(Coal Mine Drainage Sludge) mixed with bentonite and cement as a liner in landfill sites was investigated. The optimum moisture content that met the landfill liner condition was obtained when the ratio of CMDS: bentonite: cement was 1: 0.5: 0.3 in a lab-scale. The relative compaction was measured in 90.1%, which results for construction field have been generally acceptable. In this study, a large-scale Lysimeter($1.0m{\times}1.5m{\times}2.0m$) was used to simulate the effects of the layer on the freeze/thaw by -20 average temperature. The mixture after freezing/thawing showed compressive strength more than $5kg/cm^2$, which was satisfied with EPA standards. Initial permeability of CMDS was $7.10{\times}10^{-7}cm/s$ and permeability its mixture after freezing/thawing was increased to $9.80{\times}10^{-7}cm/s$. The change of temperature in the layers rises and falls with linear and temperature gradient keep maintain the present state. Moisture contents in the layers have not been radically changed. Through the leaching test determined by KSLT method, it was found that heavy metals excluding Zn and Ni were not leached out or leached out less than the standards during 7 cycles of freezing/thawing process. Since it shows the increased permeability about 1.5 times and slight change in moisture content, but it was satisfied with EPA standar through 7 cycles of freezing/thawing process, this mixture can be applied as a liner in landfill final cover system.

Physicochemical Properties and Microbial Analysis of Korean Solar Salt and Flower of Salt (한국산 꽃소금과 천일염의 이화학적 특성 및 미생물 분석)

  • Lee, Hye Mi;Lee, Woo Kyoung;Jin, Jung Hyun;Kim, In Cheol
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.42 no.7
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    • pp.1115-1124
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    • 2013
  • The present study was conducted to ensure the diversity of domestic solar salt by analyzing the composition and microbiological characteristics of solar salt (from Docho island: DS) and the flower of salt produced in different Korean salt flats (Sinui island: SF, Bigum island: BF, and Docho island: DF). The analyses showed that the moisture content of the three types of flower of salt and solar salt ranged from 10.54~13.82% and NaCl content ranged from 78.81~84.61%. The mineral content of those salts ranged from 3.57~5.51%. The content of insoluble matter in these salts was $0.01{\pm}0.00{\sim}0.05{\pm}0.00%$. The sand content of these salts was $0.01{\pm}0.01{\sim}0.03{\pm}0.01%$. By Hunter's color value analysis, the color of the flower of salt was brighter and whiter than solar salt. The salinity of the flower of salt was a little higher than solar salt as well. The magnesium and potassium ion content of DF was $9,886.72{\pm}104.78mg/kg$ and $2,975.23{\pm}79.73mg/kg$, respectively, which was lower than the content in SF, BF, and DS. The heavy metal content of all salts was acceptable under the Korean Food Sanitation Law. The flower of salt was confirmed to be sweeter and preferable to solar salt. More than 80% of the solar salt crystals were 2~3 mm in size, whereas crystals from the flower of salt were 0.5~2 mm in size. The bacterial diversity of DF and DS were investigated by culture and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) methods. The number of cultured bacteria in flower of salt was approximately three times more than solar salt. By DGGE analysis, major microbes of DF were Maritimibacter sp., Cupriavidus sp., and unculturable bacteria, and those of DS were Cupriavidus sp., Dunalidella salina and unculturable bacteria. The results of DGGE analysis showed that major microorganisms in solar salts were composed of unidentified and unculturable bacteria and only a few microorganisms were culturable.

Isolation of Wild Yeasts and Characterization of Physiological Functionalities of Unrecorded Wild Yeasts Obtained from Flowers and Soils of the Wolpyung Park, Daejeon City and Gykpo Beach, Buan, Jeollabuk-do in Korea (대전광역시 월평공원과 전북 격포해수욕장 주변 야생화와 토양들로부터 야생효모의 분리 및 국내 미기록 효모들의 특성과 생리 활성)

  • Jang, Ji-Eun;Park, Seon-Jeong;Lee, Jong-Soo
    • The Korean Journal of Mycology
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    • v.49 no.1
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    • pp.87-100
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    • 2021
  • This study aimed to isolate wild yeasts obtained from flowers and soil of the Wolpyung park, Daejeon city and Gykpo beach, Buan, Jeollabuk-do in Korea, and to further characterize previously unrecorded wild yeast strains. In total, 88 strains of 62 different species of wild yeasts were isolated from 75 samples obtained from the Wolpyung park. Among these, six strains of Trichosporon moniliiforme and four strains each of Papiliotrema flavescens and Candida melibiosica were isolated. Additionally, 39 strains of 30 different species of wild yeasts were isolated from 35 samples collected from the Gykpo beach. Among the 127 isolated wild yeast strains, 10 strains, including Apiotrichum porosum ASCM32-1, were previously unrecorded. All the 10 previously unrecorded yeasts were oval or global in shape, and three strains, including Candida athensensis WP4-90-3, formed spores. Three strains, including Vishniacozyma taibaiensis WP13-2, were halophilic yeasts which grew in 15% NaCl-containing YPD(yeast extract-peptone-dextrose) medium. Five strains, including C. athensensis WP4-90-3, showed 15% ethanol resistance. Cell-free extracts from Candida oleophila WP5-19-1 and Wickerhamomyces anomalus HO9-2 showed the highest β-glucuronidase inhibitory activity (49.0%) and neutrophil elastase inhibitory activity (38.4%), respectively.

Effect of Halophilic Bacterium, Haloarcula vallismortis, Extract on UV-induced Skin Change (호염 미생물(Haloarcula vallismortis) 용해물의 자외선유발 피부변화에 대한 효과)

  • Kim, Ji Hyung;Shin, Jae Young;Hwang, Seung Jin;Kim, Yun Sun;Kim, Yoo Mi;Gil, So Yeon;Jin, Mu Hyun;Lee, Sang Hwa
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.341-350
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    • 2015
  • Skin carrys out protective role against harmful outer environment assaults including ultraviolet radiation, heavy metals and oxides. Especially, ultraviolet-B (UVB) light causes inflammatory reactions in skin such as sun burn and erythma and stimulates melanin pigmentation. Furthermore, the influx of UVB into skin cells causes DNA damage in keratinocytes and dermal fibroblasts, inhibition of extracellular matrix (ECM) synthesis which leads to a decrease in elasticity of skin and wrinkle formation. It also damages dermal connective tissue and disrupts the skin barrier function. Prolonged exposure of human skin to UVB light is well known to trigger severe skin lesions such as cell death and carcinogenesis. Haloarcula vallismortis is a halophilic microorganism isolated from the Dead Sea, Its growth characteristics have not been studied in detail yet. It generally grows at salinity more than 10%, but the actual growth salinity usually ranges between 20 to 25%. Because H. vallismortis is found mainly in saltern or salt lakes, there could exist defense mechanisms against strong sunlight. One of them is generation of additional ATP using halorhodopsin which absorbs photons and produces energy by potential difference formed by opening the chloride ion channel. It often shows a color of pink or red because of their high content of carotenoid pigments and it is considered to act as a defense mechanism against intense UV irradiation. In this study, the anti-inflammatory effect of the halophilic microorganism, H. vallismortis, extract was investigated. It was found that H. vallismortis extract had protective effect on DNA damage induced by UV irradiation. These results suggest that the extract of halophilic bacterium, H. vallismortis could be used as a bio-sunscreen or natural sunscreen which ameliorate the harmful effects of UV light with its anti-inflammatory and DNA protective properties.

Effects of Chitosan, Grain Amino Acid and Wood Vinegar Foliar Spray on the Quality and Storability of Grapes(Campbell Early) (키토산, 곡물아미노산, 목초액의 엽면살포가 포도(Campbell Early)의 품질 및 저장성에 미치는 영향)

  • Ju, In-Ok;Jung, Gi-Tai;Cheong, Seong-Soo;Moon, Young-Hun;Ryu, Jeong;Choi, Joung-Sik
    • Korean Journal of Food Preservation
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.119-123
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    • 2007
  • Sprays containing chitosan, grain amino acids, or wood vinegar, were applied to vine leaves of the Campbell Early grape variety, and effects on the quality and storability of grapes were investigated. Weights of grape clusters and individual bemies did not differ significantly from the values seen when traditional agnicultural chemical treatment was used. The percentage of clusters over 300g in weight was, however, higher after spraying with chitosan, grain amino acids, or wood vinegar, than after agricultural chemical treatment, Grape moisture contents, levels of soluble solids, and reducing sugar concentrations, did not differ when the traditional treatment and the newer sparys were compared. Among minerals, the levels of potassium, iron and zinc measured in fresh grapes were increased by the clitosan, grain amino acids, and wood vinegar spray. After 8 weeks of MA storage, reducing sugar levels decreased, and titratable acidities increased, compared to levels measured at the beginning of storage. This was true regardless of the method of vine treatment the hardness of berries decreased slightly over 4-6 weeks of storage, and increased thereafter. The weight losses of grapes were relatively low(0.28-0.35%) on storage after any vine treatment tested. Grapes from vines sprayed with chitosan or grain amino acids showed a lower decay rate than did fruit from vines that had received a traditional agricultural chemical treatment. Sensory evaluation results indicated that the marketability of grapes from vines treated with traditional agricultural chemicals was better than that of grapes from vines sprayed with chitosan, grain amino acids, or wood vinegar.