• Title/Summary/Keyword: 중금속

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Characteristics of micronized blue ceramic pigments using electric arc furnace dust (제강분진을 활용한 청색 세라믹 안료의 미립화 거동에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Hye-Jin;Han, Kyu-Sung;Hwang, Kwang-Taek;Nahm, Sahn;Kim, Jin-Ho
    • Journal of the Korean Crystal Growth and Crystal Technology
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.115-122
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    • 2019
  • Electric arc furnace dust (EAFD), which is a dust waste generated in the steel manufacturing process, contains heavy metals. Recently, researches of recycling a large amount of valuable metals such as zinc and iron in EAFD are being actively carried out. In this study, EAFD is used as a substitute for cobalt in blue ceramic pigments without any pretreatment. Then, the synthesized blue ceramic pigment using EAFD was micronized and formulated as a ceramic ink for inkjet printer. The particle size distribution, crystal structure and color characteristics during the micronization process were investigated for the development of ceramic ink. $Co_{0.75}Zn(EAFD)_{0.25}Al_2O_4$ ceramic pigments showed excellent blue coloric properties and monomodal distribution through micronization process. The average particle size of $Co_{0.75}Zn(EAFD)_{0.25}Al_2O_4$ ceramic pigments after 3 hours of milling was $0.271{\mu}m$, which is smaller than $0.303{\mu}m$, which is the average particle size of $CoAl_2O_4$ ceramic pigments without EAFD after 5 hours of milling. Especially, it was confirmed that $Co_{0.75}Zn(EAFD)_{0.25}Al_2O_4$ ceramic pigments showed a color difference (${\Delta}E{^*}_{ab}$) value of 5.67, which smaller than ${\Delta}E{^*}_{ab}$ value of $CoAl_2O_4$ during micronization. These results show that EAFD can be used as a raw material for a blue ceramic pigment by replacing expensive cobalt without any pretreatment.

Spatial and Temporal Changes in Sediments of Major Tidal Flats in the Western and Southern Korean Coasts: Grain Size, Organic Matter, Trace Metals (한반도 서·남해 주요 갯벌 퇴적물의 시·공간적 변화: 입도, 유기물, 중금속)

  • KIM, EUNYOUNG;RYU, SANG-OK;CHOI, DAE-UP;LEE, JAE-HWAN;OH, HA-NEUL;OH, SUN-KWAN;KHO, BYUNG-SEOL;KIM, YOUNG NAM;YEO, JEONG WON
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.24 no.1
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    • pp.54-63
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    • 2019
  • As a part of the national marine ecosystem monitoring program, the temporal and spatial variation of sedimentary environment and pollution of organic matters and trace metals from four major tidal flats, i.e., Ganghwa Is., Garolim bay, Jeung Is., Suncheon bay, was investigated for 3 yerars from 2015 to 2017. The mean grain size of the sediment was $5.0-5.3{\varnothing}$ at Ganghwa Is, $4.5-4.8{\varnothing}$ at Garolim bay, $6.1-6.5{\varnothing}$ at Jeung Is, and $8.6-8.7{\varnothing}$ at Suncheon bay. The mean grain size (Mz) tended to decrease from the north (Ganghwa Is.) to the south (Suncheon bay). The ignition loss (IL) was 15.5% in Suncheon bay in 2015, which was relatively high compared to other sites, but gradually decreased over time from 8.3% in 2016 to 7.0% in 2017. In Jeung Is. and Suncheon bay, the concentration of Zn and As exceeded the threshold effect level (TEL) at some stations, but the range of trace metals in the other sites was below the level. In Jeung Is., the Mz and concentration of trace metals except Hg was positively correlated (r= 0.40-0.88, P<0.05). On the other hand, Mz was negatively correlated with trace metals (P<0.05) in Suncheon bay. The geoaccumulation index ($I_{geo}$) to evaluate contamination status of sediments for trace metal was less than 1(not contaminated) for Cu, Zn, Pb, Cd and Hg, and 2-3 (moderately to strongly polluted) for As at several stations in Suncheon bay and Jeung Is.

Application Effects of Organic Fertilizer Utilizing Livestock Horn Meal as Domestic Organic Resource on the Growth and Crop Yields (국내산 유기자원 우각을 활용한 유기질비료의 작물 생육 및 수량에 미치는 영향)

  • Jang, Jae-Eun;Lim, Gab-June;Lee, Jin-Gu;Yoon, Seuong-Hwan;Hong, Sang Eun;Shin, Ki Hae;Kang, Chang-Sung;Hong, Sun-Seong
    • Journal of the Korea Organic Resources Recycling Association
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    • v.27 no.2
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    • pp.19-30
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    • 2019
  • Objective of this study was to develop an organic fertilizer utilizing domestic livestock horn meal and to investigate the application effect of rice and eggplant. The possibility of utilization of livestock horn meal as an organic resource to replace imported expeller cake fertilizer was examined. In order to select domestic organic resources with high nitrogen content, 8 kinds of organic matter such as chicken manure, fish meal, soybean meal, sesame meal, perilla meal, blood meal, livestock horn meal, and beer sludge were analyzed and organic resources with high nitrogen content were selected. In addition, the conditions for the production of organic fertilizers that can be used in organic agriculture were established by mixing of the rice husk biochar and the rice bran as the supplements with the raw materials for mixing ratios. The content of total nitrogen (T-N) in the livestock horn meal was 12.0 %, which was the next low in 13.5 % blood meal. The content of total nitrogen was 5.9 ~ 7.9 % in fish meal and oil cakes. Total nitrogen content of non-antibiotic chicken manure for organic farming was 3 % and nitrogen content in beer sludge was 3.5 %. Organic fertilizer was produced by using biochar, rice bran as a main ingredient of non-antibiotic chicken manure, livestock horn meal and beer sludge. Compared to nitrogen content (4.0 to 4.2 %) of imported expeller cake fertilizer (ECF), the nitrogen content of organic fertilizer utilizing domestic livestock horn meal is as high as 7.5 %. The developed organic fertilizer is met as Zn 400 mg/kg, Cu 120 mg/kg the quality of organic agricultural materials such as or less. To investigate the effect of fertilizer application on the crops, prototypes of developed organic fertilizer were used for the experiment under selected conditions. As a result of application the developed organic livestock horn meal fertilizer (LHMF) for cultivation of the rice and eggplant, the application quantity of the developed organic LHMF 100 % was decreased by 40 % compared to that of the mixed expeller cake fertilizer (MECF). The application of LHMF, which refers to the application rate corresponding to the nitrogen fertilization recommended by the soil test, was reduced by 40% compared to the application rate of MECF, but the same results were obtained in crop growth and yield. The selection of a new high concentration nitrogen source utilizing domestic organic resources and the development of organic fertilizer is the starting point of the research for substitution of imported ECF using domestic local resources at the present time that the spread of eco-friendly agriculture is becoming increasingly important. If it is expanded in the future, it is expected to contribute to the stable production of eco-friendly agricultural products.

Safety Evaluation of Hazardous Metals Migrated in Tumbler Samples (유통 텀블러 제품에서 용출되는 유해금속 안전성평가)

  • Jang, Mi-Kyung;Son, Mi-Hui;Park, Sung-Hee;Cho, Yun-Sik;Ku, Eun-Jung;Chae, Sun-Young;Jeon, Jong-Sup;Lee, Myung-Jin
    • Journal of Food Hygiene and Safety
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    • v.37 no.3
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    • pp.166-172
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    • 2022
  • This study evaluated the migrant and residue tests of lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni), arsenic (As), and antimony (Sb) in 70 tumbler samples. The migration levels of hazardous metals in all the samples were within the migration limits outlined in the Korean standards and specifications for utensils, containers, and packages. Moreover, in all the tumbler samples, only Ni was detected in 0.5% citric acid solution of a food stimulant. The maximum level of Ni 0.0144 mg/L was 14.4% of the migrant specification (not more than 0.1 mg/L), which was relatively safe. The 0.5% citric acid solution was eluted at 4℃, 70℃, and 100℃ for 30 min, and only Ni was detected while testing for migration levels according to the temperature variations; all temperature conditions conformed to the standards. The level of Ni migration increased significantly with increasing migration temperature. Regarding the residue level outside the paint-coated tumbler samples, the Pb level was found to range from N.D. to 20638.1323 mg/kg. The risk of Ni was further estimated to be at a safe level of 0.00 to 0.01% compared to the %TDI as a result.

Exposure Assessments of Environmental Contaminants in Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex, Daegu(II) - Concentration distribution and exposure characteristics of TSP, PM10, PM2.5, and heavy metals - (대구 안심연료단지 환경오염물질 노출 평가(II) - TSP, PM10, PM2.5 및 중금속 농도분포 및 노출특성 -)

  • Jung, Jong-Hyeon;Phee, Young-Gyu;Lee, Jun-Jung;Oh, In-Bo;Shon, Byung-Hyun;Lee, Hyung-Don;Yoon, Mi-Ra;Kim, Geun-Bae;Yu, Seung-do;Min, Young-Sun;Lee, Kwan;Lim, Hyun-Sul
    • Journal of Korean Society of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
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    • v.25 no.3
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    • pp.380-391
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    • 2015
  • Objectives: The objective of this study is to assess airborne particulate matter pollution and its effect on health of residents living near Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex and its vicinities. Also, this study measured and analyzed the concentration of TSP, $PM_{10}$, $PM_{2.5}$, and heavy metals which influences on the environmental and respiratory disease in Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex, Daegu, Korea. Methods: In this study, we analyzed various environmental pollutants such as particulate matter and heavy metals from Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex that adversely affected local residents's health. In particular, we verified the concentration distribution and characteristics of exposure for TSP, $PM_{10}$, and $PM_{2.5}$ among particulate matters, and heavy metals(Cd, Cr, Cu, Mn, Ni, Pb, Fe, Zn, and Mg). In that regard, the official test method on air pollution in Korea for analysis of particulate matter and heavy metal in atmosphere were conducted. The large capacity air sampling method by the official test method on air pollution in Korea were applied for sampling of heavy metals in atmosphere. In addition, we evaluated the concentration of seasonal environmental pollutants for each point of residence in Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex and surrounding area. The sampling measured periods for air pollutants were from August 11, 2013 to February 21, 2014. Furthermore, we measured and analyzed the seasonal concentrations(summer, autumn and winter). Results: The average concentration for TSP, $PM_{10}$, and $PM_{2.5}$ by direct influence area at Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex were 1.7, 1.4 and 1.9 times higher than reference region. In analysis results of seasonal concentrations for particulate matter in four direct influence and reference area, concentration levels for winter were generally somewhat higher than concentrations for summer and autumn. The average concentrations for Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Fe, and Zn in direct influence area at Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex were $0.0008{\pm}0.0004{\mu}g/Sm^3$, $0.0141{\pm}0.0163{\mu}g/Sm^3$, $0.0248{\pm}0.0059{\mu}g/Sm^3$, $0.0026{\pm}0.0011{\mu}g/Sm^3$, $0.0272{\pm}0.0084{\mu}g/Sm^3$, $0.4855{\pm}0.1862{\mu}g/Sm^3$, and $0.3068{\pm}0.0631{\mu}g/Sm^3$, respectively. In particularly, the average concentrations for Cd, Cr, Mn, Ni, Pb, Fe, and Zn in direct influence area at Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex were 1.9, 3.6, 2.1, 1.9, 1.4, 2.6, and 1.2 times higher than reference area, respectively. The continuous monitoring and management were required for some heavy metals such as Cr and Ni. Moreover, the average concentration in winter for particulate matter in direct influence area at Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex were generally higher than concentrations in summer and autumn. Also, average concentrations for TSP, $PM_{10}$, and $PM_{2.5}$ were from 1.5 to 2.0 times, 1.2 to 1.8 times, and 1.1 to 2.3 times higher than reference area, respectively. In results for seasonal atmospheric environment, TSP, $PM_{10}$, $PM_{2.5}$, and heavy metal concentrations in direct influence area were higher than reference area. Especially, the concentrations in C station were a high level in comparison with other area. Conclusions: In the results, some particulate matters and heavy metals were relatively high concentration, in order to understand the environmental pollution level and health effect in surrounding area at Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex. The concentration of some heavy metals emitted from direct influence area at Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex were relatively higher than reference area. In particular, average concentration for heavy metals in this study were higher than average concentrations in air quality monitoring station for heavy metal for 7 years in Deagu metropolitan region. Especially, the residents near Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex may be exposed to the pollutants(TSP, $PM_{10}$, $PM_{2.5}$, and heavy metals, etc) emitted from the factories in Ansim Briquette Fuel Complex.

Environmental Changes after Timber Harvesting in (Mt.) Paekunsan (백운산(白雲山) 성숙활엽수림(成熟闊葉樹林) 개벌수확지(皆伐收穫地)에서 벌출직후(伐出直後)의 환경변화(環境變化))

  • Park, Jae-Hyeon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.84 no.4
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    • pp.465-478
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    • 1995
  • The objective of this study was to investigate the impacts of large-scale timber harvesting on the environment of a mature hardwood forest. To achieve the objective, the effects of harvesting on forest environmental factors were analyzed quantitatively using the field data measured in the study sites of Seoul National University Research Forests [(Mt.) Paekunsan] for two years(1993-1994) following timber harvesting. The field data include information on vegetation, soil mesofauna, physicochemical characteristics of soil, surface water runoff, water quality in the stream, and hillslope erosion. For comparison, field data for each environmental factor were collected in forest areas disturbed by logging and undisturbed, separately. The results of this study were as follows : The diversity of vegetational species increased in the harvested sites. However, the similarity index value of species between harvested and non-harvested sites was close to each other. Soil bulk density and soil hardness were increased after timber harvesting, respectively. The level of organic matter, total-N, avail $P_2O_5$, CEC($K^+$, $Na^+$, $Ca^{{+}{+}}$, $Mg^{{+}{+}}$) in the harvested area were found decreased. While the population of Colembola spp., and Acari spp. among soil mesofauna in harvested sites increased by two to seven times compared to those of non-harvested sites during the first year, the rates of increment decreased in the second year. However, those members of soil mesofauna in harvested sites were still higher than those of non-harvested sites in the second year. The results of statistical analysis using the stepwise regression method indicated that the diversity of soil mesofauna were significantly affected by soil moisture, soil bulk density, $Mg^{{+}{+}}$, CEC, and soil temperature at soil depth of 5(0~10)cm in the order of importance. The amount of surface water runoff on harvested sites was larger than that of non-harvested sites by 28% in the first year and 24.5% in the second year after timber harvesting. The level of BOD, COD, and pH in the stream water on the harvested sites reached at the level of the domestic use for drinking in the first and second year after timber harvesting. Such heavy metals as Cd, Pb, Cu, and organic P were not found. Moreover, the level of eight factors of domestic use for drinking water designated by the Ministry of Health and Welfare of Korea were within the level of the first class in the quality of drinking water standard. The study also showed that the amount of hillslope erosion in harvested sites was 4.77 ton/ha/yr in the first year after timber harvesting. In the second year, the amount decreased rapidly to 1.0 ton/ha/yr. The impact of logging on hillslope erosion in the harvested sites was larger than that in non-harvested sites by seven times in the first year and two times in the second year. The above results indicate that the large-scale timber harvesting cause significant changes in the environmental factors. However, the results are based on only two-year field observation. We should take more field observation and analyses to increase understandings on the impacts of timber harvesting on environmental changes. With the understandings, we might be able to improve the technology of timber harvesting operations to reduce the environmental impacts of large-scale timber harvesting.

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Status of Water Quality in Nakdong River Districts (낙동강 수계의 수질 현황)

  • Lim, Young-Sung;Cho, Ju-Sik;Lee, Hong-Jae;Lee, Young-Han;Sohn, Bo-Kyoon;Heo, Jong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.126-134
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    • 1999
  • To provide the basic information for the water improvement and control of water resource in Nakdong river districts, the physico-chemical characteristics of water in four main streams and three branch streams of the river were investigated through 36 times totally, one time per each month from January in 1995 to November in 1997. The pH values of each sites in main or branch stream of Nakdong river was pH $6.3{\sim}9.3$ range, pH range of Jukpo and Namji area at spring and fall was almost over pH 8.5, which was exceeded the water quality standard for agriculture. DO values of Nakdong river was almost $8.0{\sim}13mg/l$, except for Kangchang area in downstream of Kumho river. BOD values in Dasa area where was prior to mixing of Kumho river was $1.5{\sim}4.8mg/l$, which was under the water quality standard for agriculture(8mg/l), but BOD values followed mixing of Kumho river was over the permit standard of agricultural water as $3.8{\sim}8.9mg/l$ in Koryung, $3.4{\sim}8.4mg/l$ in Jukpo and $3.3{\sim}7.8mg/l$ in Namji according to time or season. Especially, BOD values at Gangchang area in Kumho river were $7.6{\sim}18.5mg/l$, which was over the water quality standard for agriculture and so Kumho river was a main pollutant: source of Nakdong river. COD values of main stream of Nakdong river was over the permit standard of agriculture(8mg/l) as $5.2{\sim}13.5mg/l$ in Koryvng, $5.0{\sim}12.7mg/l$ in Jukpo and $5.0{\sim}12.2mg/l$ in Namji according to time or season. And COD values was much high rather than BOD values and its gap of concentration was increased along with downstream. $NH_4-N$ of main stream of Nakdong river followed mixing of Kumho river($0.5{\sim}13.1mg/l$) was the highest affected in Koryung($0.18{\sim}5.0mg/l$) and detected much more in winter than in summer. T-N in Koryung($4.96{\sim}12.06mg/l$) followed mixing of Kumho river was significantly high rather than $2.86{\sim}4.86mg/l$ in Dasa, $4.20{\sim}8.20mg/l$ in Jukpo and $3.18{\sim}8.64mg/l$ in Namji, which was almost over the permit standard of agricultural water(1.0mg/l). T-P in Koryung($0.10{\sim}0.58mg/l$) also was significantly high rather than those $0.07{\sim}0.36mg/l$ in Jukpo and $0.08{\sim}0.4mg/l$ in Namji as over the standard of agricultural water(0.1mg/l). The concentration of T-N or T-P in Nakdong districts was trended of increasing in every year.

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Decentralized Composting of Garbage in a Small Composter for Dwelling House I. Laboratory Composting of the Household Garbage in a Small Bin (가정용 소형 퇴비화용기에 의한 부엌쓰레기의 분산식 퇴비화 I. 실험실 조건에서 퇴비화 연구)

  • Seo, Jeoung-Yoon;Joo, Woo-Hong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.321-337
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    • 1994
  • The garbage from the dwelling houses was composted in two kinds of small composter in laboratory to investigate the possibility of garbage composting. They were general small composters. One (type 1) was insullated but the other (type 2) was not. Because it was found that type 2 was not available for composting under our meteorological conditions through winter experiment, only type 1 was tested in spring and summer. The experiment was performed for 8 weeks in each season. The seasonal variation of several compounds in compost was evaluated and discussed. The result summarized belows are those taken at the end of the experiment, if the time was not specified. 1) The maximum temperature was $58^{\circ}C$ in spring, $57^{\circ}C$ in summer and $41^{\circ}C$ in winter. This temperature was enough to destroy the pathogen except for winter. 2) The mass was reduced to average 62.5% and the volume reduction was avergae 74%. 3) The density was estimated as 0.7kg/l in spring, 0.8kg/l in summer and 1.1kg/l in winter. 4) The water content was not much changed for composting periods. It had 75.6% in spring and 76.6% in summer and winter. 5) There was a great seasonal difference in pH value. It was reached to pH 6.13 in spring, pH 8.62 in summer and pH 4.75 in winter. 6) The faster organic matter was decomposed, the greater ash content was increased. Cellulose and lignin content were increased, but hemicellulose content was reduced during composting period. 7) Nitrogen contents were in the range of 3.1-5.6% and especially high in summer. After ammonium nitrogen contents were increased at the early stage of composting period, they were decreased. The maximum ammonium nitrogen content was 3,243mg/kg after 2 weeks in winter, 6,053mg/kg after 3 weeks in spring and 30,828mg/kg after 6 weeks in summer. C/N-ratios were not much changed. Nitrification occurred actively in spring and summer. 8) The contents of volatile and higher fatty acids were increased in early stage of composting and reduced after that. The maximum content of total fatty acid was 10.1% after 2 weeks in winter, 5.8% after 2 weeks in spring and 15.7% after 4 weeks in summer. 9) The contents of inorganic compounds were not accumulated as composting was proceeded. They were in the range of 0.9-4.4% $P_2O_5$, 1.6-2.9% $K_2O$, 2.4-4.6% CaO and 0.30-0.80% MgO. 10) CN and heavy metal contents did not show any tendency. They were in the range of 0.11-28.99mg/kg CN, 24-166mg/kg Zn, 5-129mg/kg Cu, 0.8-14.3mg/kg Cd, 7-42mg/kg Pb, ND-30mg/kg Cr and $ND-132.16\;{\mu}g/kg$ Hg.

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A Studs on Farmers Syndrome and Its Risk Factors of Vinylhouse Workers and Evaluation of Risk Factors of Vinylhouse Works (일부 농촌지역 비닐하우스 농사자들의 작업환경 및 농부증 실태와 관련요인평가)

  • Lee, Jung-Jeung
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.101-119
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    • 2004
  • Objectives: In order to estimate risk factors affecting the health of vinylhouse workers and harmful environments in vinylhouse working. Methods: The investigator performed questionnaires and laboratory examinations on 102 vinylhouse workers and 69 farmers in 7 myoens (Korean subcounties). one eup (a Korean town), Goryeong-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do between April 8 and 18, 2004 (for 11 days), and measured the heavy metal in the air and the soil, temperature, humidity, air current, harmful gases in vinylhouses. Results: Even in cloudy days, the temperature in vinylhouses in daylight was $33.4^{\circ}$ and the temperature difference between inside and outside vinylhouses was around $16^{\circ}$. Oxygen concentration was similar inside and outside vinylhouses, while carbon dioxide concentration was lower inside than outside vinylhouses. Carbon monoxide was not detected. In the air inside vinylhouses, cadmium was not detected. Lean concentration in the soil was lower inside vinylhouses than outside vinylhouses at surface, while cadmium concentration was similar inside and outside vinylhouses in the soil except some areas. Out of male vinylhouse workers. 16.4---- were positive farmer's syndrome and 49.2---- were suspicious, while out of females, 41.5---- were positive and 46.3---- were suspicious. Out of male farmers, 30.4---- were positive farmer's syndrome, while out of female farmers, 60.0---- were positive and 28.3---- were suspicious. There was no difference between vinylhouse workers and farmers in the distribution of hypertension and abnormal liver function, while diabetes mellitus was more common in farmers than in vinylhouse workers. Vinylhouse working, sex, and hours of farming per day were selected as significant variables affecting farmer's syndrome in this study, and the rate of positive farmer's syndrome was rather lower in vinylhouse workers than in farmers. Females were higher than males in the rate, and those who farmed at least 10 hours per day were higher in the rate than those who farmed less than 10 hours per day. Out of the vinylhouse workers, no differences were found between the distribution of farmer's syndrome and farming-related variables such as the total period of farming, the size of farm land, the mean farming hours per day, the number of family members who farm together, the frequency of scattering agricultural chemicals. In addition, there were no differences between the distribution and the wearing masks and protectors and personal sanitation among those who scattered agricultural chemicals by themselves. There were no differences found in blood lean concentration, urinary cadmium concentration, serum cholinesterase, and hemoglobin according to the distribution of farmer's syndrome. In the vinylhouse workers, females were higher than males in the rate of farmer's syndrome, and those who farmed at least 10 hours per day were higher in the rate than those who farmed less than 10 hours per day. Meanwhile, the rate was lower in those who slept at least 8 hours a day than in those who slept less than 8 hours. Conclusions: In conclusion, the physical environments inside vinylhouses were harmful, but no significant difference was found in harmfulness of the chemical environments. The chronic diseases such as farmer's syndrome. hypertension, diabetes, and dyshepatia were not common in the vinylhouse workers than in the farmers. Meanwhile, farmer's syndrome was more common in the vinylhouse workers who worked longer and slept less.

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Problems of Environmental Pollution (환경오염의 세계적인 경향)

  • 송인현
    • Proceedings of the KOR-BRONCHOESO Conference
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    • 1972.03a
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    • pp.3.4-5
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    • 1972
  • 생활수준이 낮은 단계에 있어서는 우선 식량에 대한 수요가 강하다. 인간의 욕구가 만족스럽게 먹는다는 것에 대하여 제일 강하게 발동하는 것이다 그러나 점차 과학기술과 산업과 경제가 발전하여 성장과정에 오르게 되고 소득수준도 향상하게 되면 시장기구를 통해서 구입 할 수 있는 개인의 물적 소비재에 대해서는 점차 충족하게 되며 식량이외에도 의복, 전기기구 및 일용생활용품, 자동차 등에 이르기까지 더욱 고차원의 소비재가 보급하게 되는 것이다. 이렇게 되며는 사람의 욕구는 사적 재물이나 물적 수요에서 점진적으로 공공재나 또는 질적 수요(주택, 생활환경 등)의 방향으로 움직이게 되는 것으로써 여기에 환경오염 또는 공해문제에 대하여 의식하게 된다. 그러나 여기에서 더욱이 문제점이 되는 것은 소득 수준의 향상 과정이란 그 자체가 환경오염의 커다란 요인이라는 점이며 자동차의 급격한 보급과 생활의 편의성을 구하여 집중되는 도시인구의 집적, 높은 소득을 보장하기 위한 생산성 높은 중화학공업의 발전 등등은 그 자체가 환경권이란 사람이 요구하는 고차원의 권리를 침해하는 직접적인 요인이 된다는 것이다. 이와 같은 환경오염이나 공해문제에 대한 세계적인 논의는 이미 시작된 지 오래이지만 현재는 우리의 건강보호를 위해서나 생활환경의 보전을 위해서라는 점에서는 그치는 것이 아니고, 더욱 넓혀서 자연의 보호, 자원의 보호라는 견지로 확대되고 있다. 이와 같은 세계적인 확대된 이해와 이에 대한 대책강구의 제안은 1968년 국제연합의 경제사회이사회에서 스웨덴 정부대표에 의하여 제시되었으며 1969년의 우- 탄트 사무총장의 인간환경에 관한 보고서, 1970년 Nixon 미대통령의 연두일반교서 그리고 1972년 5월 6일 스웨덴의 스톡홀롬에서 개최되는 인간환경회의의 주제 등을 통해서 알 수 있고, 종래의 공해나 생활환경의 오염문제라는 좁은 개념에서가 아니고 인간환경전체의 문제로 다루고 있는 것이다. 즉 환경개발(도시, 산업, 지역개발에 수반된 문제), 환경오염(인위적 행위에 의하여 환경의 대인간조건이 악화하는 문제) 자연ㆍ자원의 보호관리(지하, 해양자원, 동식물, 풍경경치의 문제)란 3개 측면에서 다루고 있는 것이다. 환경오염이란 문제를 중 심하여 보면 환경을 구성하는 기본적인 요소로서 대기, 물, 토지 또는 지각. 그리고 공간의 사대요소로 집약하여 생각할 수 있음으로 이 4요소의 오염이 문제가 되는 것이다. 대기의 오염은 환경의 오염중 가장 널리 알려진, 또 가장 오랜 역사를 가진 오염의 문제로써 이에 속하는 오염인자는 분진, 매연, 유해가스(유황산화물, 불화수소, 염화수소, 질소산화물, 일산 화염소 등) 등 대기의 1차 오염과 1차 존재한 물질이 자외선의 작용으로 변화발생 하는 오존, PAN등 광화학물질이 형성되는 2차적인 오염을 들 수 있다. 기외 카도미움, 연등 유해중금속이나 방사선물질이 대기로부터 토지를 오염시켜서 토지에 서식하는 생물의 오염을 야기케 한다는 점등이 명백하여지고 있으며 대기의 오염은 이런 오염물질이 대기중에서 이동하여 강우에 의한 침강물질의 변화를 일으키게 되며 소위 광역오염문제를 발생케하며 동시에 토지의 토질저하등을 가져오게 한다. 물의 오염은 크게 내육수의 오염과 해양의 오염의 양면으로 나누어 볼 수 있다. 하천의 오염을 방지하고 하천을 보호하기 위한 움직임 역시 환경오염의 역사상 오래된 문제이며 시초에는 인분뇨와의 연결에서 오는 세균에 의한 오염이나 양수 기타 일반하수와의 연결에서 오는 오염에 대비하는 것부터 시작하였지만 근래에는 산업공장폐수에 의한 각종 화학적유해물질과 염료 그리고 석유화학의 발달에 의한 폐유등으로 인한 수질오탁문제가 점차 크게 대두되고 있다. 이것은 측 오염이란 시초에 우리에게 주는 불쾌감이 크므로 이것을 피하자는 것부터 시작하여 인간의 건강을 지키고 각종 사용수를 보존하자는 용수보존으로 그리고 이제는 건강과 용수보존뿐만 아니라 이것이 농림 수산물에 대한 큰 피해를 주게됨으로써 오는 자연환경의 생태계보전의 문제로 확대전환하고 있는 것이다. ?간 특히 해양오염에 대한 문제는 국지적인 것에만 끝이는 것이 아니고 전세계의 해양에 곧 연결되는 것이므로 세계각국의 공통관심사로 등장케 되었으며 이것은 특히 폐유가 유류수송 도중에 해양에 투기되는 유류에 의한 해양의 유막성형에서 오는 기상의 변화와 물피해등이 막심함으로 심각화 되고 있다. 각국이 자국의 해안과 해양을 보호하기 위하여 조치를 서두르고 있는 현시점에서 볼 때에는 이는 국제문제화하고 있으며 세계적인 국제적 협력과 협조의 필요성이 강조되는 좋은 예라 하겠다. 토양의 오염에 있어서는 대기나 수질의 오염이 구국적으로 토양과 관련되고 토양으로 환원되는 것이지만 근래에 많이 보급사용되는 농약과 화학비료의 문제는 토양자체의 오염에만 그치는 것이 아니고 농작물을 식품으로 하여 섭취함으로써 발생되는 인체나 기타생물체의 피해를 고려할 때 더욱 중요한 것이며, 또 토질의 저하를 가져오게 하여 농림생산에 미치는 영향이 적지 않을 것이다. 지반강하는 지각 에 주는 인공적 영향의 대표적인 것으로써 지하수나 지하 천연가스를 채취이용하기 위하여 파들어 감으로써 지반이 침하 하는 것이며 건축물에 대한 영향 특히 풍수해시의 재해를 크게 할 우려가 있는 것이다. 공간에 있어서의 환경오염에는 소음, 진동, 광선, 악취 등이 있다. 이들은 특수한 작업환경의 경우를 제외하고는 건강에 직접적인 큰 피해를 준다고 생각할 수 없으나 소음, 진동, 관선, 악취 등은 일반 일상시민생활에 불쾌나 불안을 줌으로써 안정된 생활을 방해하는 요인이 되는 것이다. 공간의 오염물로써 새로운 주목을 끌게된 것은 도시산업폐기물로써 이들은 대기나 물 또는 토지를 오염시킬 뿐만 아니라 공간을 점령함으로써 도시의 미관이나 기능을 손상케 하는 것이다. 즉 노배폐차의 잔해, 냉장고등고형폐기물등의 재생불가능한 것이나 비니루등 합성물질로 된 용기나 포장 등으로 연소분해 되지 않은 내구소비재가 이에 해당하는 것으로 이는 maker의 양식에 호소하여 그 책임 하에 해결되어야 할 문제로 본다. 이렇듯 환경오염은 각양각색으로 그 오염물질의 주요 발생원인 산업장이나 기타 기관에서의 발생요인을 살펴보며는 다음과 같은 것으로 요약할 수 있다. A. 제도적 요인 1. 관리체재의 미비 2. 관리법규의 미비 3. 책임소재의 불명확 B. 자재적 요인 1. 사용자재의 선택부적 2. 개량대책급 연구의 미흡 C. 기술적 요인 1. 시설의 설계불량, 공정의 결함 2. 시설의 점검, 보전의 불충분 3. 도출물의 취급에 대한 검사부족 4. 발생방지 시설의 미설치, 결함 D. 교육적 요인 1. 오염물질 방제지식의 결여 2. 법규의 오해, 미숙지 E. 경제적 요인 1. 자금부족 2. 융자상의 문제 3. 경제성의 문제 F. 정신적 요인 1. 사회적 도의심의 결여(이기주의) 2. 태만 3. 무지, 무관심 등이다. 따라서 환경오염의 방지란 상기한 문제의 해결에 기대하지 않을 수 없으나 이를 해결하기 위하여는 국내적 국제적 상호협조에 의한 사회각층의 총력적 대책이 시급한 것이다. 이와 같은 환경오염이 단속된다 하며는 미구에 인류의 건강은 물론 그 존립마저 기대하기 어려울 것이며, 현재는 점진적으로 급성피해에 대하여는 그 흥미가 집중되어 그 대비책도 많이 논의되고 있지만 미량의 단속접촉에 의한 만성축적에 관한 문제나 이와 같은 환경오염이 앞으로 태어날 신생률에 대한 영향이나 유전정보에 관한 연구는 장차에 대비하는 문제로써 중요한 것이라 생각된다. 기외에 우려되는 점은 오염방지책을 적극 추진함으로써 올 수 있는 파생적인 문제이다. 즉 오염을 방지하기 위하여 생산기업체가 투자를 하게 되며는 그만큼 생산원가가 상승할 것이며 소비가격도 오를 것이다. 반면 이런 시책에 뒤떨어진 후진국의 값싼 생산국은 자연 수입이 억제 당할 것이며, 이렇게되면 후진국은 무역경쟁에서 큰 상처를 입게될 것이고 뿐만 아니라 선진국에 필요한 오염물질의 발생이 높은 생산기기를 자연후진국에 양도하게 될 것임으로 후진국의 환경오염은 배가할 우려가 있는 것이다. 또 해양오염을 방지할 목적에서와 같이 자국의 해안보호를 위하여 마련된 법의 규제는 타국의 선박운항에 많은 제약을 가하게 될 것이며 이것 역시 시설이 미약한 약소후진국의 선박에 크게 영향을 미치게 될 것임으로 교통, 해운, 무역등을 통한 약소후진국의 경제성장에 제동을 거는 것이 될 것이다. 이렇듯 환경오염의 문제는 환경자체에 대해서만 아니라 부산물적으로 특히 후진국에는 의외 문제를 던져주게 되는 것임으로 환경오염에 대해서는 물론, 전술한 바와 같이 인간환경전체의 문제로써 Nixon 대통령이 말한 결의와 창의와 그리고 자금을 가지고 과감하게 대처해 나가야 할 것이다.

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