• Title, Summary, Keyword: 지반조사

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Locational Analysis and Classification of the Eup-Settlements in the Joseon Dynasty Period from Feng-Shui's Point of View (조선시대 지방도시의 풍수적 입지분석과 경관유형- 경상도 71개 읍치를 대상으로 -)

  • Choi, Won-Suk
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.42 no.4
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    • pp.540-559
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    • 2007
  • The purpose of this paper is to analyse the locations and to interpret the landscapes of the local towns in Joseon Dynasty from Feng-shui's point of view. As a result of analysing the locations of towns in Gyeongsang Province, the towns which have typical Feng-shui landscapes make up to 58% of the total. Historically, the local towns that were established in the early period of the Joseon Dynasty didn't reveal Feng-shui's landscape, but those that were established in the late period of the Joseon Dynasty revealed the Feng-shui's landscape clearly. In this article, I classify the local towns of the Gyeongsang Province into 3 types: 1. Non Feng-shui type These towns are located near the seashore. The main reason that these towns were located at the seashore was defense against an enemy. 2. Semi Feng-shui type. These towns don't have natural location but have a man-made landscape, based on the principles of Feng-shui. 3. Typical Feng-shui type. These towns were typically administrational towns which were located at the center of a local region.

Case Study of Hydrochemical Contamination by Antimony Waste Disposal in Korea (국내 안티몬폐기물에 의한 수질화학적 오염 사례연구)

  • Jeong, Chan-Ho
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.471-482
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to investigate the contamination characteristics of surface water, soil water and groundwater around and in antimony waste landfill site in Wonsung-ri, Yeonki-kun, Chungnam. The waste disposed in the study was excavated and transported to the other site in several years ago. For this study, we collected 35 water samples including groundwater, soil water and surface in the study site and also collected 2 groundwater samples from a comparison site. The data of chemical analysis of soil water samples show the antimony concentration of $48.75{\sim}74.81\;ppb$, which is much higher than groundwater in a comparison site and is highly excess than regulation level for a drinking water of some advanced countries. A relatively high antimony concentration was detected in three stream water samples nearby landfill site and two groundwater samples. Fe and Mn contents in soil water and stream water were measured as maxium 6.5 mg/L and 7.3 mg/L, respectively. Although other heavy metals of water samples in the study site are higher concentration than water sample of comparison site, their absolute levels are lower than regulation level for a drinking water. The chemical data of water samples are plotted widely from Ca - $HCO_3$ type to Ca - ($Cl +SO_4+NO_3$) type. Some groundwater show high contents of potassium and nitrate, which would come from fertilizer and sewage. Conclusively, some heavy metals including antimony have been still remained under the soil surface of the landfill site in the past. These metals have leaked out into nearby stream and groundwater system, and threaten the ecology, crops and the health of residents in this site. Therefore, the government have to prepare the strategy to prevent the diffusion of heavy metals into aquatic environment and have to process the reclamation work for contaminated site. It is also necessary to make a regulation level of the antimony concentration for a drinking water and soil environment in Korea.

Topographical Change Monitoring of the Sandbar and Estimation of Suspended Solid Flux in the Nakdong River Estuary - Focused on Jinudo - (낙동강 하구역 사주지형 변동과 부유사(SS) 수송량 산정 - 진우도를 중심으로 -)

  • Lee, I.C.;Lim, S.P.;Yoon, H.S.;Kim, H.T.
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Marine Environment & Energy
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.70-77
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    • 2008
  • In this study, to establish countermeasure from marine casualties as a basic study fur long-term prediction of topographical change around Jinudo in the Nakdong river estuary, spatio-temporal topographical change monitoring was carried out. Also, in order to estimate the deposition variations concerning SS (Suspended Solid) flux which moved at St.S1 during neap and spring tide, respectively. From the topographical monitoring, it was found that the annual mean ground level and deposition rate were 141 mm and 0.36 mm/day and all parts except the northern part of Jinudo had the active topographical changes and a tendency to annually deposit. From vertical distribution of SS net fluxes, $SS_{LH}$ (latitudinal SS net flux) during spring tide overall flows average 28 $kg/m^2/hr$ (eastward), and $SS_{LV}$ (longitudinal SS net flux) flows average 11.1 $kg/m^2/hr$ (northward). And, $SS_{LH}$ overall flows average 4.8 $kg/m^2/hr$ (eastward), and $SS_{LV}$ flows average 1.5 $kg/m^2/hr$ (northward) during neap tide similar with spring tide. The depth averaged values of the latitudinal and longitudinal SS net fluxes during spring tide were approximately 6 times higher than those during neap tide. As result of, it was considered that topographical change of southern part of Jinudo was affected by resuspension of bottom sediments due to strong current in bottom layer during flood flow.

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Interpretation of Landscape Elements in Borimsa Temple after 17th Century (17세기 이후 장흥 보림사(長興 寶林寺)의 경관요소 해석)

  • Kim, Kyu-Won;Sim, Woo-Kyung
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.33 no.1
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    • pp.110-118
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    • 2015
  • Borimsa Temple in Jangheung, one of the Goosanseonmoon of Shilla Dynasty, calls for a study in the field of landscape architecture because it has very significant elements in cultural and ecological landscaping aspects. This study examined the changes in landscaping elements of Borimsa Temple since the 17th century in order to newly recognize cultural landscaping value of space composition elements for traditional temple and to verify landscape architectural position. For research method, literatures such as Sajeonggi (事蹟記), Joongchanggi, a surveyed map by Fujishima Gaijiro in 1928 and Joseon Gojeogdobo (朝鮮古蹟圖譜) and modern documents including Borimsa Temple Precision Ground Survey Report and photographic records of National Archives of Korea and provincial governments were examined together with a field survey in order to trace changes in landscape elements such as buildings within the temple site, pond and temple forest. The results are as the following: First, for geographical locations of Borimsa Temple, it is located in an auspicious location and Shipyuknahansang and Cheonbul were placed in a supplementary purpose according to the contents of Bojoseonsatapbi. Compared to Namhwaseonsa Temple in China, it has a similar environmental composition but the fact that buildings were placed on platforms is a distinctive difference. Second, architectural landscape of Borimsa Temple went through the Japanese colonial era and Korean War and still going through changes today. Thus, there shall be some appropriate measures such as to establish an archive of past landscape data. Third, the contents of Borimsa Temple Sajeonggi suggests that the pond of Borimsa Temple had been in a indeterminate form with stones on the outer edge. Its name could have been Yongcheon (湧泉) according to the contents of Joongchanggi. Also, the current landscape, in comparison with past photographs, is a result of changes from surface raise occurred by ground reinforcement within the temple site. Fourth, Jangsaengpyoju (長生標柱) mentioned in Bojoseonsatapbi and Borimsa Temple Sajeonggi was thought to be the dried juniper tree in front of Daewoongbojeon, which can be found in past photographic documents but, it is now assumed to be Seokbihyeong (石碑形) considering the Gukjangsaeng and Hwangjangsaeng of Dogapsa Temple of the similar time period. Moreover, Hongsalmoon mentioned in Joongchanggi was established by King's order after the Manchu war of 1636 in praising of Buddhist monks those who had volunteered to fight for the country. Fifth, it is apparent in Borimsa Temple Joongchanggi that geomancy was a consideration in landscaping process of Borimsa Temple, and the record indicates that pine trees, bo trees and persimmon trees were planted. Sixth, tea tree forest was verified of its historical root that is Seongchailyeo from Unified Shilla through passing down of Jeong Yak-yong's Goojeunggoopo method and relevant documents of Seon Master Choui and Yi Yu-won. Seventh, nutmeg tree forest suggests that nutmegs were used in national ceremonies and for medical uses. The nutmeg tree forest was also verified of its role as Naehwasoorimdae (a forest built to prevent fire from spreading) through aerial photographs and placement of a forest reserve.

Evaluation of Hydrophilic Polymer on the Growth of Plants in the Extensive Green Roofs (저관리형 옥상녹화 식물생육을 위한 Hydrophilic polymer의 효용성)

  • Yang, Ji;Yoon, Yong-Han;Ju, Jin-Hee
    • Korean Journal of Environment and Ecology
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    • v.28 no.3
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    • pp.357-364
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    • 2014
  • This study aimed to determine effects of the use of water-retention additive, hydrophilic polymer, for extensive green roofs on growth of Juniperus chinensis var. sargentii and Euonymus fortunei 'Emerald and Gold' for woody plants, and Carex kobomugi and Carex pumila for herbaceous plants. Five different contents of hydrophilic polymer including 0% (Control), 1.0%, 2.5%, 5.0%, and 10% (polymer: medium (w/w), dry weight basis) were added to each of the container filed with a 100 kg of growth medium. Ten of plants were transplanted in each of square container ($1m(L){\times}1m(W){\times}0.3m$ (H)) built on the roof platforms in randomized complete block design in the $20^{th}$ of May, 2013. In results, excessively high volumetric soil water content, about 97-98%, was found in the substrate under elevated hydrophilic polymer concentration of at least 2.5%, during the entire growing period. The moisture content of the substrate containing 1.0% of hydrophilic polymer was higher about 20% in the range between 70% and 80%, compared tho that of Control substrate in the range between 50% and 60%, for 27 days after transplanting prior to abundant rainfall, indicating that the application of hydrophilic polymer to the extensive green roof substrate is effective to eliminate drought condition by retaining water in the substrate. Euonymus fortunei 'Emerald and Gold' and Carex kobomugi resulting in higher plant growth with 2.5% than those of the other treatment plants. Juniperus chinensis var. sargentii was observed the highest growth under 1.0% hydrophilic polymer treatement, and Carex pumila was founded the best growth with Control respectively. Plants that grown in both the 1.0% and 2.5% hydrophilic polymer survived all, while the plants that grown in the 5.0% and 10% hydrophilic polymer died after 3 months. These results suggest that advantage of the addition of hydrophilic polymer may be greater in drought-tolerant plants, but the mixture proportion of hydrophilic polymer should be determined according to the different features of the plant species being grown.

Division of Soil Properties in Reclaimed Land of the Mangyeong and Dongjin River Basin and Their Agricultural Engineering Management (만경강과 동진강 유역 간척농경지 토양특성 구분과 농공학적 관리 대책)

  • Hwang, Seon-Woong;Kang, Jong-Gook;Lee, Kyung-Do;Lee, Kyung-Bo;Park, Ki-Hun;Chung, Doug-Young
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.45 no.3
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    • pp.444-450
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    • 2012
  • The physical and chemical properties of soil in the Mangyeong and Dongjin river basin had been investigated in order to establish the most optimum soil improvement plan on the reclaimed land. The total soil area by reclamation in Saemangeum basin is 113,971 ha. The classification by the distribution of soil series and soil texture is as following. 13 soil series including Chonnam, Buyong and Chonbuk series are period-unknown areas. Regarding the soil texture, they are fine silty ~ clayey very fine. From 1920s to 1960s, Mangyeong, Gwanghwal and Chonbuk series had coarse silty textured soil. After the 1970s, Mangyeong, Gwanghwal, Munpo, Yeompo, Poseung, Gapo and Hasa series have more sandy soil ~ moderately coarse loamy textured soil. Regarding the chemical properties, the concentrations of EC, Exch. $K^+$, $Mg^{2+}$, $Na^+$ and pH are high regardless of the time of reclamation. On the other hand, organic matter (OM) of top soil were 3.3~16.1 g $kg^{-1}$. The organic matter contents were very low though the soil had been farmed for a long time. Furthermore, the deep soil had almost no organic matter with 5.6~1.1 g $kg^{-1}$. The reason is believed that there had not been any movement of OM and clay because pressure or induced pans had been formed by large agricultural machineries and poor vertical drain. Regarding the forming of illuvial horizon (B layer) which tells the development extent of soil, only in the Hwapo reclaimed area where rice had been cultivated for past 90 years, Fe and Mn from top soil are deposited at underground 20~30 cm with 7~8 cm thickness by the movement of clay. It is believed that it had been possible because the earthiness is silty clay loam soil with relatively high content of clay. The soils are soil with concern of damage from sea water, soil on flimsy ground and sandy soil. Therefore, soil improvement for stable crop production can be expected; if the water table would be lowered by subsurface drainage, the water permeability would be enhanced by gypsum and organic matter, and the sandy soil would be replaced by red soil with high content of clay.

A Study on the Conservation State and Plans for Stone Cultural Properties in the Unjusa Temple, Korea (운주사 석조문화재의 보존상태와 보존방안에 대한 연구)

  • Sa-Duk, Kim;Chan-Hee, Lee;Seok-Won, Choi;Eun-Jeong, Shin
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.37
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    • pp.285-307
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    • 2004
  • Synthesize and examine petrological characteristic and geochemical characteristic by weathering formation of rock and progress of weathering laying stress on stone cultural properties of Unjusa temple of Chonnam Hwasun county site in this research. Examine closely weathering element that influence mechanical, chemical, mineralogical and physical weathering of rocks that accomplish stone cultural properties and these do quantification, wish to utilize by a basic knowledge for conservation scientific research of stone cultural properties by these result. Enforced component analysis of rock and mineralogical survey about 18 samples (pyroclastic tuff; 7, ash tuff; 4, granite ; 4, granitic gneiss; 3) all to search petrological characteristic and geochemical characteristic by weathering of Unjusa temple precinct stone cultural properties and recorded deterioration degree about each stone cultural properties observing naked eye. Major rock that constitution Unjusa temple one great geological features has strike of N30-40W and dip of 10-20NE being pyroclastic tuff. This pyroclastic tuff is ranging very extensively laying center on Unjusa temple and stone cultural properties of precinct is modeled by this pyroclastic tuff. Stone cultural propertieses of present Unjusa temple precinct are accomplishing structural imbalance with serious crack, and because weathering of rock with serious biological pollution is gone fairly, rubble break away and weathering and deterioration phenomenon such as fall off of a particle of mineral are appearing extremely. Also, a piece of iron and cement mortar of stone cultural properties everywhere are forming precipitate of reddish brown and light gray being oxidized. About these stone cultural properties, most stone cultural propertieses show SD(severe damage) to MD(moderate damage) as result that record Deterioration degree. X-ray diffraction analysis result samples of each rock are consisted of mineral of quartz, orthoclase,plagioclase, calcite, magnetite etc. Quartz and feldspar alterated extremely in a microscopic analysis, and biotite that show crystalline form of anhedral shows state that become chloritization that is secondary weathering mineral being weathered. Also, see that show iron precipitate of reddish brown to crack zone of tuff everywhere preview rock that weathering is gone deep. Tuffs that accomplish stone cultural properties of study area is illustrated to field of Subalkaline and Peraluminous, $SiO_2$(wt.%) extent of samples pyroclastic tuff 70.08-73.69, ash tuff extent of 70.26-78.42 show. In calculate Chemical Index of Alteration(CIA) and Weathering Potential Index(WPI) about major elements extent of CIA pyroclastic tuff 55.05-60.75, ash tuff 52.10-58.70, granite 49.49-51.06 granitic gneiss shows value of 53.25-67.14 and these have high value gneiss and tuffs. WPI previews that is see as thing which is illustrated being approximated in 0 lines and 0 lines low samples of tuffs and gneiss is receiving esaily weathering process as appear in CIA. As clay mineral of smectite, zeolite that is secondary weathering produce of rock as result that pick powdering of rock and clothing material of stone cultural properties observed by scanning electron micrographs (SEM). And roots of lichen and spore of hyphae that is weathering element are observed together. This rock deep organism being coating to add mechanical weathering process of stone cultural properties do, and is assumed that change the clay mineral is gone fairly in stone cultural properties with these. As the weathering of rocks is under a serious condition, the damage by the natural environment such as rain, wind, trees and the ground is accelerated. As a counter-measure, the first necessary thing is to build the ground environment about protecting water invasion by making the drainage and checking the surrounding environment. The second thing are building hardening and extirpation process that strengthens the rock, dealing biologically by reducing lichens, and sticking crevice part restoration using synthetic resin. Moreover, it is assumed to be desirable to build the protection facility that can block wind, sunlight, and rain which are the cause of the weathering, and that goes well with the surrounding environment.

Soil Surface Fixation by Direct Sowing of Zoysia japonica with Soil Improvement on the Dredged Soil Slope (해저준설토 사면에서 개량제 처리에 의한 한국들잔디 직파 지표고정 공법에 관한 연구)

  • Jeong, Yong-Ho;Lee, Im-Kyun;Seo, Kyung-Won;Lim, Joo-Hoon;Kim, Jung-Ho;Shin, Moon-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.14 no.4
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    • pp.1-10
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to compare the growth of Zoysia japonica depending on different soil treatments in Saemangeum sea dike, which is filled with dredged soil. Zoysia japonica was planted using sod-pitching method on the control plot. On plots which were treated with forest soil and soil improvement, Zoysia japonica seeds were sprayed mechanically. Sixteen months after planting, coverage rate, leaf length, leaf width, and root length were measured and analyzed. Also, three Zoysia japonica samples per plot were collected to analyze nutrient contents. Coverage rate was 100% in B treatment plot(dredged soil+$40kg/m^3$ soil improvement+forest soil), in C treatment plots (dredged soil+$60kg/m^3$ soil improvement+forest soil), and D treatment plots (dredged soil+$60kg/m^3$ soil improvement), while only 43% of the soil surface was covered with Zoysia japonica on control plots. The width of the leaf on C treatment plots (3.79mm) was the highest followed by D treatment (3.49mm), B treatment (2.40mm) and control plots (1.97mm). Leaf and root length of D treatment was 30.18cm and 13.18cm, which were highest among different treatments. The leaf length of D treatment was highest followed by C, B, and A treatments. The root length of D treatment was highest followed by C, A, and B treatments. The nitrogen and phosphate contents of the above ground part of Zoysia japonica were highest in C treatment, followed by D, B, and A treatments. The nitrogen and phosphate contents of the underground part of Zoysia japonica were highest in D treatment, followed by C, A, and B treatments. C and D treatments showed the best results in every aspect of grass growth. The results of this study could be used to identify the cost effective way to improve soil quality for soil surface fixation on reclaimed areas using grass species.