• Title, Summary, Keyword: 지압형 앵커

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The Evaluation of Bearing Resistance of Underreamed Ground Anchor through Realistic Model Experiments (실모형실험을 통한 지압형 앵커의 지압력 평가)

  • Min, Kyongnam;Lee, Jaewon;Lee, Junggwan;Lee, Dongwon;Jung, Chanmuk
    • Journal of the Korean GEO-environmental Society
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    • v.15 no.9
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    • pp.87-92
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    • 2014
  • The Ground anchor is reinforcement to resist pull-out through ground that is used supports structure. The pull-out resistance of anchor is constructed by skin friction resistance from compression borehole wall in expanded wings and bearing pressure from the ground. Especially, underreamed ground anchor is reinforcement that adopts active reinforcement to prevent deformation of ground using bearing resistance generated reaming anchorage. This study is conducted to calculate bearing resistance of underreamed ground anchor. Realistic model tests were fulfilled to determine bearing resistance of anchor, and correlate results of tests to Uniaxial Compressive Strengths (UCS) of ground models that assumed weathered rock condition in 8 case. In a comprehensive series of the tests, the bearing resistances were measured by pull-out tests. The bearing resistances derived from tests have a linear correlation with UCS. We also suggest empirical equation between bearing resistance and UCS of rocks by single linear regression analyses. In test results of this study, the bearing resistances were evaluated approximately 13 times higher than UCS of the grounds, and it is qualitatively similar to numerical values of pull-out force derived from theory.

A Study for the Applicable Bearing-Resistance of Bearing Anchor in the Enlarged-Borehole (지압형 앵커의 지압력 산정에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Min, Kyoung-Nam;Lee, Jae-Won;Lee, Jung-Gwan;Jung, Chan-Muk
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.24 no.2
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    • pp.261-271
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    • 2014
  • An almost permanent anchor (friction type) is resistant to ground deformation due to the friction between the soil and grout at a fixed length from the anchor body. The purpose of this study is to calculate the force of bearing resistance for a bearing anchor in enlarged boreholes. We conducted analytical and numerical analyses, along with laboratory testing, to find the quantities of bearing resistance prior to grouting in EBA (Enlarged Bearing Anchor) construction. The force of bearing resistance from the analytical method was defined as a function of general borehole diameter, expanded borehole diameter, and soil unconfined compressive strength. We also employed the Flac 3D finite difference numerical modeling code to analyze the bearing resistance of the soil conditions. We then created a laboratory experimental model to measure bearing resistance and carried out a pull-out test. The results of these three analyses are presented here, and a regression analysis was performed between bearing resistance and uniaxial compression strength. The laboratory results yield the strongest bearing resistance, with reinforcement 28.5 times greater than the uniaxial compression strength; the analytical and numerical analyses yielded values of 13.3 and 9.9, respectively. This results means that bearing resistance of laboratory test appears to be affected by skin friction resistance. To improve the reliability of these results, a comparison field study is needed to verify which results (analytical, numerical, or laboratory) best represent field observations.

Dynamic Resistance of Anchor using Blasting Test and Numerical analysis for Earthquake (발파실험과 내진해석을 통한 Anchor의 동적 저항성에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Kyung-Jip;Cho, Kook-Hwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Railway
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    • v.20 no.4
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    • pp.500-511
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    • 2017
  • Recently, as earthquakes have occurred in Gyeongju, interest in the stability of structures against vibration from earthquakes has increased. In Korea, the capacity of load resistance is mainly considered in the design of anchors. However, the vibration resistance characteristics of anchors have not been fully elucidated. The traditional type of anchor, which is a frictional resistance anchor, is often reported to fail due to vibration in construction procedures, such as blasting. The expansion type of anchor, on the other hand, could have more resistance to vibration but its capability of demonstrating vibratory resistance has to be investigated. In order to verify the vibratory resistance characteristics of expansion anchors against blasting and earthquake vibration, field tests and numerical analyses for seismic wave were performed. Field blasting test results show that the expansion anchor has better capability against vibratory load than does the frictional type anchor. Numerical analysis to earthquake also show that the expansion type anchor provides more resistance than does the frictional type anchor.

An Experimental Study on Pullout Behavior of Shallow Bearing Plate Anchor (얕은 지압형 앵커의 인발거동특성에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • Hong, Seok-Woo;Kim, Hyung-Kong
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.5-18
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    • 2014
  • Depending on the underground load support mechanism, anchors are classified as friction anchors, bearing plate anchors and the recently developed combined friction-bearing plate anchors which combine the characteristics of both the friction and bearing plate type anchors. Even though numerous studies have been performed on bearing plate anchors, there were only few studies performed to observe the failure surface of bearing plate anchors. Furthermore most of the soil materials used on these tests were not real sand but carbon rods. In this study, sand was placed in the soil tank and laboratory tests were performed with bearing plate anchors installed with an embedment depth (H/h) ranging from 1~6. The variation in the pullout capacity and the behaviour of soil with the embedment depth (H/h) were observed. Ground deformation analysis program was also used to analyze soil displacement, zero extension direction, maximum shear strain contours. It was determined from the analysis of the results that at ultimate pullout resistance the deformation was 5 mm and the failure surface occurred in a narrower area when compared with results of the previous researches. It was also observed that the width of the fracture surface gradually becomes wider and expands up to the surface as the deformation increases from 10 mm to 15 mm.

A Study on the Fracture Resistance Characteristics of Post-Installed Anchor (후설치 앵커볼트의 파괴저항 특성에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Doo Hwan;Hwang, Yun Sung;Cha, Young Min;Song, Kwan Kwon;Choi, Kyung Gyp
    • 한국방재학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.156-156
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    • 2011
  • 중량물 혹은 철골구조물 등을 고정시키는데, 건축구조물의 철골기둥, 터빈 제네레이터 기기등을 콘크리트 구조물에 부착시키기 위해 널리 쓰인다. 1990년대 들어 국내 건물의 리모델링, 보수 및 유지관리의 증가에 따라 앵커의 사용량도 현저히 증가하고 있으나 대부분 고가의 외국산제품을 수입하고 있다. 현재 국내외에 주로 시행되는 앵커타입은 마찰형 앵커이나 마찰형 앵커와 달리 지압형 앵커의 경우, 외국에서는 이미 그 유효성에 대한 인식이 널리 퍼져있으며 각국의 지반조건에 적합한 설계법이 개발되었다. 그러나 국내의 경우 이러한 연구가 미진한 실정이며 이에 대한 연구가 절실한 상황이다. 본 연구에서는 중량물앵커(Heavy Duty Anchor)의 인장시험을 실시하여 내력을 규명하고 도출한 결과를 기존 시험연구 결과와 비교분석하여 기 제안된 이론식들과 사업경제성에대해 보다 깊이있고 정확한 적용성을 입증하는데 본 연구를 수행하였다. 시험을 통한 저강도 파괴시험의 결과 구조부재의 접합부에서 각 시험체마다 뽑힘파괴가 발생하였으며, 뽑힘파괴가 발생한 시험체는 앵커강재의 파괴력 또는 콘크리트의 콘파괴를 발생시키기에는 앵커슬리브의 확장력이 작게 작용되었다. 그 결과, 콘파괴 대신 구조부재의 접합부에서 뽑힘파괴가 발생되었으며 이를 통해 설계시, 앵커의 안정성을 증가시키기 위해 구조부재의 접합부를 연성적이며, 부가여력을 충분히 지니도록 설계하는 것이 효과적인 것으로 나타났다. 고강도 파괴시험의 결과 콘파괴가 발생되었음을 알 수 있는데, 본 시험에 사용된 앵커의 경우 정착위치가 구조물의 연단 모서리 거리와 너무 근접하여 앵커의 내력이 감소하게 되어 콘크리트의 콘강도가 발생되기 전에 먼저 파괴되었다. 따라서 설계시, 앵커의 파괴강도를 증가시키기 위해 앵커의 정착위치를 고려한 설치를 통해 앵커체결과정에서 적정 연단거리를 확보하는 것이 효과적인 것으로 나타났다. 앵커볼트 최소간격과 연단거리에 따른 파괴시험결과 앵커볼트의 간격이 허용범위 내에서 넓어질수록 불균등 부반력의 차는 감소하였으며, 최대 부반력도 감소하였다. 따라서 앵커의 파괴저항강도를 증가시키기 위해서는 허용범위 내에서 앵커볼트의 설치간격을 증가시키는 것이 효과적인 것으로 나타났다.

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Application of DEW Anchor with Field Test (현장시험을 통한 DEW 지압형 앵커의 적용성평가)

  • Choe, Gyeong-Jip;Park, U-Yeong;Yu, Seong-Jin;Lee, Seong-Rak
    • Proceedings of the Korean Geotechical Society Conference
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    • pp.745-751
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    • 2009
  • The anchor is used extensively for a cutting slope, an earth retaining wall, an uplift resistance of sub-structures and so on at civil engineering projects and is classified by aim in use, tendon material, and ground/tension fixing type. It can be distinguished extensively into friction type, bearing type, and complex type by ground fixing type. Generally, bond length of friction type anchor has application to 3~10m depending on the friction-resistance characteristics. In this study, 'DEW(double enlargement wedge) bearing type anchor' of new concept is devised. The bond length is about 0.6~0.8m. It can be used on the ground to have the strength characteristics above it of weathered rock. There are merits which are 'period reduction' and 'cost saving' through the minimum of the boring length. In addition, it is so called environmentally friendly Methods because it can reduce the quantity of carbon dioxide through the reducing drilling machine operation time.

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The Study of Pullout-Behavior Characteristics of The Ground Anchor Using Expanded Hole (확공을 이용한 지압형 앵커의 인발거동 특성 연구)

  • Min, Kyong-Nam;Jung, Chan-Mook;Jung, Dae-Ho
    • Proceedings of the KSR Conference
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    • pp.1502-1508
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    • 2011
  • Ground anchor expands the hollow wall of settled part and has the structure which resists the designed tensile load by the bearing pressure generated by the wedge of the anchor body pressing in the expanded part. Such ground anchor has been recognized for stability and economicality since 1960s in technologically advanced nations such as Japan and Europe, and in 1970s, the Japan Society of Soil Engineering has established and announced the anchor concept map. The ground anchor introduced in Korea, however, has the structural problem where the tensile strength is comes only from the ground frictional force due to expansion of the wedge body. In an interval where the ground strength is locally reduced due to fault, discontinuation or such, this is pointed out as a critical weakness where the anchor body of around 1.0m must resist the tensile load. Also, in the installation of concrete block, the concentrated stress of concrete block constructed on the uneven rock surface causes damage, and many such issues in the anchor head have been reported. Thus, in this study, by using the expanded bit for precise expansion of settled part, the ground anchor system was completed so that the bearing pressure of ground anchor can be expressed as much as possible, and the bearing plate was inserted into the ground to resolve the existing issues of concrete block. Through numerical analysis and pullout test executed for verification of site applicability, the pullout-behavior characteristics of anchor was analyzed.

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Monotonic Loading Test for CFT Square Column-to-Beam Partially Restrained Composite Connection (CFT 각형 기둥-보 합성 반강접 접합부의 단조가력 실험)

  • Choi, Sung Mo;Park, Su Hee;Park, Young Wook;Kim, Jin Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society of Steel Construction
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.325-335
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    • 2005
  • This study tackles the development of an improved detail of partially restrained CFT square column-to-beam connection and the evaluation of its mechanical behavior under monotonic loading. The connection is designed to strengthen shearing capacity at the bottom of the connection due to the ultimate behavior of PR-CC by its detail of the bottom connection and simplify the fabrication process. The suggested connection is the welded bottom beam flange connection(M-2) and is compared with the existing PR-CC of bolted seat angle connection(M-1). Two specimens were fabricated in actual size and tested under monotonic loading. Based on the test results, the welded bottom beam flange connection exhibited about 85% of the stiffness of steel beam. It was similar to the bolted seat angle connection and behaved as PR-CC. The specimen of the supposed connection type failed at the shear connection of web but was similar to the bolted seat angle connection until the failure. It obtained sufficient stiffness and capacity through the reinforcingsteel and the capacity and deformational ability equivalent to the full-plastic moment through the anchor inside the steel tube at the web connection. So, it can be said that the suggested connection exhibits sufficient ductile behavior.