The purpose of this study is to identify the relationship between the entrepreneurship of undergraduate students and the entrepreneurial intention focused on the mediating effect of the motivation for participating in the start-up idea contest. The results of the study were as followed; First, it was found that the factors of innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking in the entrepreneurship had significant influence on the entrepreneurial intention. Second, the effect of the factors between the innovativeness in the entrepreneurship and the entrepreneurial intention was significant influence by mediating effect of the motivation for participating in the start-up idea contest. Last, the factors of financial reward, career reward of the motivation were not effected by entrepreneurship and entrepreneurial intention. Based on these findings, students with high entrepreneurship have high entrepreneurial intention. And students were intended to feel a sense of achievement through challenging than getting financial rewards and career rewards. Therefore, it was shown that in order to encourage undergraduate's establish of a new business, the environment to develop innovative ideas and inspiring the confidence of participating in the start-up contest are needed to be invigorated.
The main purpose of this study is to define relevant factors that influence successful start-ups and management innovations of traditional markets from the point of market structures and relations. To do this, we devide an entrepreneurship of merchant into two factors, risk taking and managerial experience and choose product planning and its implementation to see merchandising of traditional markets. In this study we identify that several factors we chose are contributing to generating management performances through market promotional parameters. Also we confirm that image factors of traditional markets is consist of awareness and value of markets, and that these factors shows some sequential and continual patterns in the course of generating performances. In additions, it is identified that four independent factors have positive effects to star-up success; risk taking 0.29(t 2.61), managerial experience 0.04(t 1.79), merchandising implementation 0.374(t 2.61), market value 0.47(t 5.25), market awareness 0.22(t 2.30). This study can help merchants of traditional markets to make and change their market strategies, restructure their businesses and survive in the field. This also provide some ideas and guidances to relevant government agencies in formulating traditional market policies.
In order to determine nutrition education needs and related problems, a study was conducted of children's dietary habits, focusing on parental influence and degree of agreement between parent and child on foods liked, accepted, or disliked, in addition to a general survey of food atiitudes. This study was conducted throughout a two-month period, June to July of 1974. One thousand children of both sexes, from the fifth grade, junior and senior high schools of Seoul city, and their 2,000 matched parents, were surveyed, Teachers distributed questionnaires in the classroom and assisted the children in answering. Questionnaires also were distributed to the parents through their children, after the teachers explained the procedure of study. As to the influence of parents' food preferences, the following conclusiolns can be reached, in light of the results of chi-square tests conducted: 1. Agreement between mother and child on food preference was much higher than that between father and child, regardless of sex or birth order of the child. This observed difference in degree of agreement was greatest for children in the middle birth order, and greater for girls than for boys. 2. Various food attitudes: a. Food preferences: Beef, milk, and mandoo (boiled or steamed, filled dumplings) were extremely well liked by all subjects, regardless of age or sex. Cucumber, lettuce, and spinach also were lied. Most disliked foods were fatty layers of pork and liver. Cooked rice in the too wet or too dry state and pork were low preference items. b. Socioeconomic background and dietary practice: Higher educational background of the wife and higher income level of the family were associated with greater knowledge of nutrition, and interest in family nutrition and in introducing new foods to the family. But use of food as prize or punishment was found, regardless of the mother's educational and economic status. c. Change of food habit: Over 70 percent of subject had changed ad improved their dietary habits, mostly by reason of husbands' and wives' mutual influence after marriage. This study emphasized the great importance of nutrition eudation for mothers, and their prominent role and responsility in guiding the family to better nutrition, whatever the mother's educational background.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
This study investigates the effect of entrepreneurship on corporate performance highlighting the mediating role of technological innovation and the moderating role of marketing competence. By identifying the role of technological innovation and marketing competence within the relationship between the entrepreneurship and corporate's business performance, this study aims to improve SMBs' competence. Special attention was given to the fact that while there are some technology-based SMBs which have achieved positive outcomes through innovation, there are some other firms which have not been able to deliver expected outcomes despite of their technological competence. The data used in this study came from CEO or chief research executives of SMBs. Results of the data analysis show that the innovative sprit which is an important factor of entrepreneurship has an positive effect on technological performance, financial performance and non-financial performance. However, risk- taking tendency has an positive effect on technological performance but negative effects on financial and non- financial performance of the firms. This study also has examined the mediating effect of technological innovation on the relationship between entrepreneurship and corporate's performance and the result reveals that technological innovation plays a mediating role within the relationship. Specially, innovative spirit plays a full mediating role within the relationship between technological commercialization capacity and financial and non-financial performances of SMEs'. Also, risk taking tendency has a full mediating effect on the positive relationship between strategic planning capability and both financial and non-financial performance. Regarding the moderating role of marketing capability within the relationship between the entrepreneurship and the performance of the firms, results of data analysis shows as follows. Marketing professional capability plays a moderating role between risk taking tendency and performance of the firm and marketing structural capability plays a moderating role between innovative spirit and the performance of the firms. Based on these results, this study confirms that SMEs' business performance is effected by entrepreneurship. Innovative spirit plays a mediating role within the relationship entrepreneurship and business performance. However, Marketing capability has a partial moderating effect on the relationship between the entrepreneurship and the business performance.
This study is to confirm the core factors of innovative capabilities and technological entrepreneurship affecting the performance of technology management and business management of small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs). Through the consideration about the complex natures of technological innovation affecting by multidimensional factors, this study designs the research model that innovative capabilities, the performances of technology and business management are arranged in accordance with the innovation process; input-output-outcome. To meet this research purpose, the hypothesis are set up based on the previous research studies and the research samples are selected from members of the Innovative Business (INNO-BIZ) Association, located in Seoul and Geyonggi province. As a result of regression analysis to the responses gathered from 360 firms, the performance of business management is influenced positively by the technology superiority, market growth and business profitability which are the dominant factors of performance of technology management. In addition, three sub-variables of innovative capabilities such as R&D, strategic planning and learning capability, have positive effects on both the managerial performances. Innovativeness and progressiveness of technological entrepreneurship affect both the performances positively. Moreover, the co-relation between technological entrepreneurship of an innovation leader and innovative capabilities of organizational members are identified. Lastly, technological entrepreneurship has the mediating effect on the path of leading innovative capabilities to the managerial performances. In conclusion, the research results imply that technological innovation-type firms should periodically evaluate the performance of technology management which are the output of technological innovations and the reinvestment for ultimate business success. And improving and developing innovative capabilities and technological entrepreneurship is required to continuously and consistently investing and supporting resources on technological innovations at the firm-and government-level. It is considered that these are the crucial methods for securing the technologically competitive advantage of SMEs with less resources and narrow innovation range.
In the development process, small and medium-sized enterprises in China have shown their unique features and regularities which are closely related to China's national condition and economic characteristics. But in 2008, because of the global financial crisis which started in the USA, the rate of Chinese export and the rate of economic growth has evidently slowed. Due to shortage of funds, foreign orders fell, increase the value of RMB, lack of talented factors, Chinese SMEs are facing bankruptcy. In this context, the purpose of this study is to examine the effects of domestic and international market environment, the government assistance for entering overseas market, entrepreneur characteristics, etc. on the global performance. Based on these, a research model and some hypotheses were set up and tested by the multiple regression analysis with total 317 effective survey data. The results of this paper are as follows. First, a positive effect relation on the financial performance was shown for the companies with high domestic and international market environment in the aspect of market environment. According to such analysis result, it was found that the market environment in which SMEs belong to is a very important factor. Second, in the aspect of government export assistance related to overseas, market development showed a positive effect relation on the both financial and non-financial performance. However, the direct financial assistance showed a positive effect relation only on the non-financial performance. Overall, it was found that the government assistance program on entering overseas market is having significant effects on SMEs, but direct financial assistance have not achieved the desired results. Third, the innovative-ness and progressiveness of entrepreneur showed a positive effect relation on the global market performance. However, the risk-taking of entrepreneur only showed a negative effect relation on the non-financial performance. Overall, it was found that the entrepreneurship of SMEs is an important and influential factor. This is a result implying that the propensity of taking too much risk is not desirable based on the uncertainty of the global environment market. To sum up, this study confirmed that the market environment, the government assistance and entrepreneur characteristics, which are the major prerequisites of global performance, have effects on global performance.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
There are various performance factors for SMEs in order to survive in the rapid changing market and it is discussing the importance of entrepreneurs' entrepreneurial orientation based on many researches. Thus, it is worth to analyze factors of seize new opportunity and firm's performance to build sustainable competitive advantages, which provide the directions to SMEs. This study investigates through exploratory research that the important factors of entrepreneurial orientation and the influence factors on firm's performance confirmed by empirical study. This study was conducted to explore the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation of SME CEO, learning orientation and corporate performance was verified following section. First, entrepreneurial orientation (pro-activeness, competitive aggressiveness, risk taking, innovativeness) was to examine the effect of learning orientation; Second, entrepreneurial orientation was to examine the impact on firm's performance; and in the last, validated learning orientation affect factors that are mediated between entrepreneurship orientation and firm's performance through empirical research. The results of this study, each SME have shown that they have a different impact on firm's performance based on a variety of entrepreneurial orientation. This result shows that the need for a separate independent study on entrepreneurial orientation of SMEs. In conclusion, this study implicates that entrepreneurial orientation is important role for firm's performance, entrepreneurs of SMEs are innovative rather than competitive aggressive, and risk taking activities positively affect firm's activity. The conclusions of this study would be utilized to develop the entrepreneurial orientation when necessary for entrepreneurs of SMEs.
Asia-Pacific Journal of Business Venturing and Entrepreneurship
Under the international business circumstance, global supply chain management is considered a vital strategic challenge to small and medium-sized enterprises(SMEs) suffering from deficient resources and capabilities to exploit overseas markets comparing with large corporations. That is because they can expand their business domains into overseas markets by establishing strategic alliances with global supply chain partners. Although a wide range of previous researches have emphasized the cooperative networks in the chain, most are ignoring the importance of developing relational characteristics such as trust and reciprocity with the partners. Besides, verifying the relational factors influencing firms' export performances, some studies proposed different and inconsistent factors. According to the social capital theory, which is the social quality and networks facilitating close cooperation of inter-individual and inter-organization, provides the integrated view to identify the relational characteristics in the aspects of network, trust and reciprocal norm. Meanwhile, a number of researchers shows that global entrepreneurship is the internal and intangible resource necessary to promote SMEs' internationalization. Upon closer examination, however, they cannot explain clearly its influencing mechanism in the inter-firm cooperative relationships. This study is to verify the effect of social capital accumulated within global supply chain on SMEs' qualitative and quantitative export performance. In addition, we shed new light on global entrepreneurship expected to be concerned with the formation of social capital and the enhancement of export performances. For this purpose, the questionnaires, developed through literature review, were collected from 192 Korean SMEs affiliated in Korean Medium Industries Association and Global Chief Executive Officer's Club focusing on their memberships' international business. As a result of multi-regression analysis, the social capital - network, trust and reciprocal norm shared with global supply chain partner - as well as global entrepreneurship - innovativeness, proactiveness and risk-taking - have positive effect on SMEs' export performances. Also global entrepreneurship affects positively social capital which has mediating effect partially in the relationship between global entrepreneurship and performances. These results means that there is a structural process - global entrepreneurship(input), social capital(output), and export performances(outcome). In other words, a firm should consistently invest in and develop the social capital with global supply chain partners in order to achieve common goals, establish strategic collaborations and obtain long-term export performances. Furthermore, it is required to foster the global entrepreneurship in an organization so as to build up the social capital. More detailed practical issues and discussion are made in the conclusion.
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