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The Past and Future of Public Engagement with Science and Technology (참여적 과학기술 거버넌스의 전개와 전망)

  • Kim, Hyomin;Cho, Seung Hee;Song, Sungsoo
    • Journal of Science and Technology Studies
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.99-147
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    • 2016
  • This paper critically reviews the previous discussion over public engagement with science and technology by Science and Technology Studies literatures with a focus on justification and acceptance. Recent studies pointed out that the "participatory turn" after the late 1990s was followed by confusion and disagreement over the meaning and agency of public engagement. Their discussion over the reproduction of the ever-present boundary between science and society along with so-called late modernity and post-normal science and sometimes through the very processes of public engagement draws fresh attention to the old problem: how can lay participation in decision-making be justified, even if we agree that privileging the position of experts in governance of science and technology is no longer justified? So far STS have focused on two conditions for participatory turn-1) uncertainties inherent in experts' ways of knowing and 2) practicability of lay knowledge. This paper first explicated why such discussion has not been logically sufficient nor successful in promoting a wide and well-thought-out acceptance of public engagement. Then the paper made a preliminary attempt to explain what new types of expertise can support the construction and sustainment of participatory governance in science and technology by focusing on one case of lay participation. The particular case discussed by the paper revolves around the actions of a civil organization and an activist who led legal and regulatory changes in wind power development in Jeju Special Self-governing Province. The paper analyzed the types of expertise constructed to be effective and legitimate during the constitution of participatory energy governance and the local society's support for it. The arguments of this paper can be summarized as follows. First, an appropriate basis of the normative claim that science and technology governance should make participatory turn cannot be drawn from the essential characteristics of lay publics-as little as of experts. Second, the type of 'expertise' which can justify participatory governance can only be constructed a posteriori as a result of the practices to re-construct the boundaries between factual statements and value judgment. Third, an intermediary expertise, which this paper defines as a type of expertise in forming human-nonhuman associations and their new pathways for circulations, made significant contribution in laying out the legal and regulatory foundation for revenue sharing in Jeju wind power development. Fourth, experts' conventional ways of knowing need to be supplemented, not supplanted, by lay expertise. Ultimately, the paper calls for the necessity to extend STS discussion over governance toward following the actors. What needs more thorough analysis is such actors' narratives and practices to re-construct the boundaries between the past and present, facts and values, science and society. STS needs a renewed focus on the actual sites of conflicts and decision-making in discussing participatory governance.

Association of instant noodle intake with metabolic factors in Korea: Based on 2013~2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (성인 남녀에서 라면 섭취에 따른 대사적 지표 평가 : 2013~2014 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용하여)

  • Yeon, Jee-Young;Bae, Yun-Jung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.247-257
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between instant noodle intake and metabolic factors in Korean adults. Methods: Study subjects were 5,894 (male 2,293, female 3,601) aged 19~64 years who participated in the 2013~2014 KNHANES. Information on frequency and consumption of instant noodles was obtained by the food frequency questionnaires method in KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), and subjects were classified according to age, sex, and instant noodle consumption (INC). Results: The frequency and consumption of instant noodles was 1.2 times/week and 1.2 servings in subjects. High INC group (${\geq}1$ serving/week) was significantly younger in age compared with the low INC group (< 1 serving/week). However, the high INC group had significantly higher waist circumference, metabolic factors (triglyceride, cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol), and dietary intake (energy intake, fat, and sodium density) compared with the low INC group. Hyperglycemia showed association with higher risk of highest quartile of INC after adjustments for multiple confounding factors, including age, gender, household income, education, smoking, and alcohol compared with the lowest quartile (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8). In female, abdominal obesity showed association with higher risk of highest quartile of INC after adjustments for multiple confounding factors compared with the lowest quartile (OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2). Conclusion: Consumption of instant noodles was associated with increased prevalence of abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia in women. These findings suggest an association of instant noodle consumption status with metabolic risk.

Study on Structural Factors of Agricultural Product Brand Equity Utilizing Major Brand by Item (품목별 주요 브랜드를 활용한 농산물 브랜드자산의 구성요인에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Don-Woo;Kim, Tae-Kyun;Lin, Qing-Long
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.682-690
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    • 2016
  • In order to present a realistic alternative to agricultural product brands which achieve quantitative growth but minimal qualitative growth, this study attempted to identify the structural factors that affect the agricultural product brand equity and quantitatively analyze the effects of the structural factors on the brand equity. For the quantitative analysis, a survey was conducted among customers with a structured questionnaire. The major results of the analysis are as follows. First, the structural factors of the agriculture product brand equity were theoretically reviewed through many preceding studies in regard to the brand and brand equity. Awareness, quality and loyalty were selected as the structural factors of the agriculture brand equity. Second, when the sub-structural factors of the agriculture product brand equity were analyzed, it was found that awareness includes familiarity, first reminding level, general awareness, sub-awareness, frequency of reference and level of people's logo recollection. Quality includes quality consistence, quality reliability, quality stability, general quality and quality for price. Loyalty includes recommendation, purchase intention, cost premium and repurchase intention. Third, in the analysis of the factors of awareness, quality and loyalty were found to be statistically significant at the 1% level of significance, and it turned out that the higher the awareness, quality and loyalty, the higher the brand equity. Fourth, the factors most influencing the brand equity differed from those obtained using the standardized coefficients. The highest standardized coefficients of the factors on rice and condiment vegetables were those for quality with values of 0.486 and 0.581, respectively, and the highest standardized coefficients of the factors on fruits and fruit vegetables were those for loyalty with values of 0.536 and 0.490, respectively. Finally, it was found to be more effective to develop brand policies using an approach based on awareness, quality and loyalty by item. Also, focusing on enhancing the quality when developing brand policies for rice and vegetables, or focusing on enhancing loyalty when developing brand policies for fruit and vegetables was found to be more efficient using the limited resources.

Evaluation on Organ Dose and Image Quality of Lumbar Spine Radiography Using Glass Dosimeter (유리선량계를 이용한 요추검사의 장기선량 및 영상의 평가)

  • Kim, Jae-Kyeom;Kim, Jeong-Koo
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to provide resources for medical exposure reduction through evaluation of organ dose and image resolution for lumbar spine around according to the size of the collimator in DR system. The size of the collimator were varied from $8^{\prime\prime}{\times}17^{\prime\prime}$ to $14^{\prime\prime}{\times}17^{\prime\prime}$ by 1" in AP and lateral projection for the lumbar spine radiography with RANDO phantom. The organ dose measured for liver, stomach, pancreas, kidney and gonad by the glass dosimeter. The image resolution was analyzed using the Image J program. The organ dose of around lumbar spine were reduced as the size of the collimator is decreased in AP projection. There were no significant changes decreasing rate whenever the size of the collimator were reduced 1" in the gonad. The organ dose showed higher on liver and kidney near the surface in lateral projection. There were decreasing rate of less than 5% in liver and kidney, but decreasing rate was 24.34% in the gonad whenever the size of the collimator were reduced 1". Organ dose difference for internal and external of collimator measured $549.8{\mu}Gy$ in the liver and $264.6{\mu}Gy$ in the stomach. There were no significant changes organ dose difference that measured $1,135.1{\mu}Gy$ in the gonad. Image Quality made no difference because SNR and PSNR were over than 30 dB when the collimator size is less than $9^{\prime\prime}{\times}17^{\prime\prime}$ on AP projection and $10^{\prime\prime}{\times}17^{\prime\prime}$ on lateral projection. Therefore, we are considered that the recommendations criterion for control of collimator were suggested in order to reduce unnecessary X-ray exposure and to obtain good image quality because lumbar spine radiography contains a lot of peripheral organs rather than other area radiography.

Effect of Stem Cell-Derived Conditioned Medium on the In Vitro Maturation and Embryonic Development of Parthenogenetic Embryos in Pigs (Stem Cell-Derived Conditioned Medium 첨가가 돼지난자의 체외성숙 및 단위발생란의 초기배 발육에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Dae-Jin;Hwang, In-Sul;Kwak, Tae-Uk;Oh, Keon Bong;Ock, Sun-A;Chung, Hak-Jae;Im, Gi-Sun;Hwang, Seongsoo
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.89-95
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    • 2015
  • The addition of growth factors and cytokines to in vitro culture (IVC) media could affect embryo development and the quality of the resulting blastocysts. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of porcine induced pluripotent stem cell (piPSC)-culture conditioned medium (CM) on the in vitro maturation (IVM) and development of parthenogentic embryos (parthenotes) in pigs. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) or activated oocytes were cultured in IVM or IVC medium supplemented with 0 (control), 25, or 50% of stem cell medium (SM) or CM, respectively. The maturation rate of CM-25% group was significantly improved when compared with control group (p<0.05), but that was not different among SM or CM groups. Blastocyst formation rate was significantly higher in CM-25% group (29.2%) than that of control (20.7%), SM-50% (19.6%) and CM-50% (23.66%, p<0.05). Cell number and the apoptotic cell index in blastocysts was significantly lower in SM-25% than in CM-25% group (p<0.05). The embryo quality related genes, OCT4, KLF4, TERT and ZFP42, were significantly increased in CM-25% group compared with control (p<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of 25% of CM to IVM and IVC medium positively influences not only the developmental potential also quality of parthenotes in pig.

A study on consumers' consumption culture of Panax ginseng -Focused on college students' attitude and purchase intent for ginseng, and related products - (소비자의 인삼 소비문화 -대학생 소비자의 인삼에 대한 태도 및 구매의도를 중심으로-)

  • Kim, Siwuel
    • Journal of Ginseng Culture
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    • v.2
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    • pp.71-83
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    • 2020
  • College students are the potential income classes preparing for income activities and are the main consumers of the future that are very important. In order to understand the current state of ginseng-related consumption culture of young consumers, this study wanted to examine university students' attitudes toward ginseng-related products and services in the future, and to find out their purchasing status, satisfaction, and intent to purchase them. In doing so, we looked at the relative influence of the relevant variables that affect the intent of the purchase. As a result, the variables that affect college student consumers' intention to purchase ginseng-related products were shown in the order of their reliability, economy, purchasing experience, subjective interest, monthly income, monthly allowance, pride in ginseng, and age. Of these, most of the variables had positive effects, but the average monthly income, monthly allowance, and age had negative effects. In other words, the higher the reliability, economy, and self-esteem of ginseng, the higher the willingness to buy ginseng, the higher the subjective interest in ginseng, the higher the age, the lower the monthly allowance, and the lower the income, the lower the willingness to buy ginseng. To promote college students' consumption of ginseng products, it is necessary to cut prices for the younger generation, enhance the quality of the products for the younger generation, improve the taste to overcome the negative aspects of rejecting the bitter and bitter taste, and, above all, induce consumers' attention. It is also necessary to expand accessibility through the development of convenient and easy-to-eat products for young people and the expansion of sales outlets. Recently, young consumers are interested in new products they have never experienced before, products that are good to certify because of their unique design or packaging, and retro products that stimulate nostalgia in the past, so they need to promote and provide information related to consumption of ginseng products in this regard. Considering the practicality and convenience of consumers, we propose consideration of personal consumers' taste curation services, which reflect their preference for products that are convenient to carry with them in line with various living environments, and can have synergy with other products.

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The Computer Monitor's Image Evaluated at The Target of The Falsification According to The New Conception of The Falsification Made by Regarding the Reproduced Document as The Document of Document crime (복사문서의 문서간주가 창출한 새로운 변조개념에 의해 문서변조행위대상으로 평가되는 컴퓨터모니터 이미지)

  • Ryu, Seok-Jun
    • Journal of Legislation Research
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    • no.44
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    • pp.725-756
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    • 2013
  • In this paper, the possibility of extension of falsification conception was investigated to discuss the validity of this precedent. Consequently this extension was indispensible according to the article 237-2 of criminal code which regards the reproduced document as the document in the document crime. However, this is against the security of human right. On the contrary, there is not this kind of article in the German criminal code and the German precedents and majority theory are negative to regard it as the criminal document. And also, there is the pont of view that the reproduced document is not the criminal document because it's not the expression itself of document nominee's intention, so the article 237-2 should be demolished in Korea. According to this opinion, the serious reconsideration should be required in the legislation of this article 237-2. Nevertheless, if this extended conception is needed and it's possible, the meaning of the computer monitor's image is not able to be ignored in the conception of falsification. Therefore this should be regarded as the element of the falsification conception. In other words, this can't be evaluated as the object of falsification but the target of falsification, according to the conception extension, though the precedents do not regard it as the document in document crime.

Study on BMI, Dietary Behavior, and Nutrient Intake Status According to Frequency of Breakfast Intake in Female College Students in Chuncheon Area (춘천지역 일부 여대생의 아침식사 빈도에 따른 BMI, 식행동 및 영양소 섭취상태)

  • Kim, Yoon-Sun;Kim, Bok-Ran
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.46 no.10
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    • pp.1234-1242
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    • 2017
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate BMI, dietary behavior, and nutrient intake status according to frequency of breakfast intake in female college students (n=253) in Chuncheon area. This study was conducted by employing a self-administered questionnaire. Dietary assessment was measured by the 24-h recall method. The subjects were divided into two groups by frequency of breakfast: Five to seven times per week (eating breakfast group, n=139) and none to four times per week (skipping breakfast group, n=114). The living with parents group showed significant high frequency of breakfast intake, whereas the self-boarding group showed significant low frequency of breakfast intake. The body image satisfaction score of the 5~7 times/week group was higher than that of the 0~4 times/week group. The average height and weight of the 5~7 times/week group were $161.0{\pm}0.1cm$ and $52.6{\pm}7.6kg$, respectively, whereas those of the 0~4 times/week group were $160.7{\pm}0.1cm$ and $57.1{\pm}11.8kg$, respectively. The average body mass index (BMI) values of the 5~7 times/week and 0~4 times/week groups were $19.8{\pm}1.9kg/m^2$ and $21.5{\pm}3.4kg/m^2$, respectively. The dietary behavior score of the 5~7 times/week group was higher than that of the 0~4 times/week group. The daily averages for energy, carbohydrate, and protein intakes in the 5~7 times/week group were significantly higher than those of the 0~4 times/week group. Intakes of vitamin A, vitamin $B_1$, vitamin $B_2$, niacin, vitamin $B_6$, P, Zn, and cholesterol in the 5~7 times/week group were significantly higher than those of the 0~4 times/week group. Multiple regression analysis revealed that resident type was the most significant variable associated with breakfast intake frequency. Therefore, strengthening dietary education programs that largely focus on resident type will greatly contribute to prevent skipping breakfast.

Assessment of Nutrient Intakes of Lunch Meals for the Aged Customers at the Elderly Care Facilities Through Measuring Cooking Yield Factor and the Weighed Plate Waste (조리 중량 변화 계수 및 잔반계측법을 이용한 노인복지시설 이용자의 점심식사 영양섭취평가)

  • Chang, Hye-Ja;Yi, Na-Young;Kim, Tae-Hee
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.42 no.7
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    • pp.650-663
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    • 2009
  • The purposes of this study were to investigate one portion size of menus served and to evaluate nutrient intake of lunch at three elderly care facility food services located in Seoul. A weighed plate method was employed to measure plate wastes and consumption of the menus served. Yield factors were calculated from cooking experiments based on standardized recipes, and were used to evaluate nutrient intake. One hundred elderly participated in this study for measuring plate waste and were asked to complete questionnaire. Nutrient analyses for the served and consumed meal were performed using CAN program. The yield factors of rice dishes after cooking are 2.4 regardless of rice dish types, 1.58 for thick soups, 0.60 to 0.70 for meat dishes, and 1.0 to 1.25 branched vegetable. Average consumption quantity of dishes were 235.97 g for rice, 248.53 g for soup, 72.83 g for meat dishes, 39.80 g for vegetables and 28.36 g for Kimchi. On average the food waste rate is 14.0%, indicating the second highest plate waste percentage of Kimchi (26.2%), and meat/fish dish (17.3%). The evaluation results of NAR (Nutrition Adequacy Ratio) showed that iron (0.12), calcium (0.64), riboflavin (0.80), and folic acid (0.97) were less than 1.0 in both male and female elderly groups, indicating significant differences of NAR among three facilities. Compared to the 1/3 Dietary Reference Intake (DRIs) for the elderly groups, nutrient intake analysis demonstrated that calcium (100%) and iron (100%), followed by riboflavin, vitamin A, and Vitamin B6 did not met of the 1/3 EAR (Estimated Average Requirement). For the nutritious meal management, a professional dietitian should be placed at the elderly care center to develop standardized recipes in consideration of yield factors and the elderly's health and nutrition status.

The Influence Evaluation of $^{201}Tl$ Myocardial Perfusion SPECT Image According to the Elapsed Time Difference after the Whole Body Bone Scan (전신 뼈 스캔 후 경과 시간 차이에 따른 $^{201}Tl$ 심근관류 SPECT 영상의 영향 평가)

  • Kim, Dong-Seok;Yoo, Hee-Jae;Ryu, Jae-Kwang;Yoo, Jae-Sook
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.67-72
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: In Asan Medical Center we perform myocardial perfusion SPECT to evaluate cardiac event risk level for non-cardiac surgery patients. In case of patients with cancer, we check tumor metastasis using whole body bone scan and whole body PET scan and then perform myocardial perfusion SPECT to reduce unnecessary exam. In case of short term in patients, we perform $^{201}Tl$ myocardial perfusion SPECT after whole body bone scan a minimum 16 hours in order to reduce hospitalization period but it is still the actual condition in which the evaluation about the affect of the crosstalk contamination due to the each other dissimilar isotope administration doesn't properly realize. So in our experiments, we try to evaluate crosstalk contamination influence on $^{201}Tl$ myocardial perfusion SPECT using anthropomorphic torso phantom and patient's data. Materials and Methods: From 2009 August to September, we analyzed 87 patients with $^{201}Tl$ myocardial perfusion SPECT. According to $^{201}Tl$ myocardial perfusion SPECT yesterday whole body bone scan possibility of carrying out, a patient was classified. The image data are obtained by using the dual energy window in $^{201}Tl$ myocardial perfusion SPECT. We analyzed $^{201}Tl$ and $^{99m}Tc$ counts ratio in each patients groups obtained image data. We utilized anthropomorphic torso phantom in our experiment and administrated $^{201}Tl$ 14.8 MBq (0.4 mCi) at myocardium and $^{99m}Tc$ 44.4 MBq (1.2 mCi) at extracardiac region. We obtained image by $^{201}Tl$ myocardial perfusion SPECT without gate method application and analyzed spatial resolution using Xeleris ver 2.0551. Results: In case of $^{201}Tl$ window and the counts rate comparison result yesterday whole body bone scan of being counted in $^{99m}Tc$ window, the difference in which a rate to 24 hours exponential-functionally notes in 1:0.114 with Ventri (GE Healthcare, Wisconsin, USA), 1:0.249 after the bone tracer injection in 12 hours in 1:0.411 with 1:0.79 with Infinia (GE healthcare, Wisconsin, USA) according to a reduction a time-out was shown (Ventri p=0.001, Infinia p=0.001). Moreover, the rate of the case in which it doesn't perform the whole body bone scan showed up as the average 1:$0.067{\pm}0.6$ of Ventri, and 1:$0.063{\pm}0.7$ of Infinia. According to the phantom after experiment spatial resolution measurement result, and an addition or no and time-out of $^{99m}Tc$ administrated, it doesn't note any change of FWHM (p=0.134). Conclusion: Through the experiments using anthropomorphic torso phantom and patients data, we found that $^{201}Tl$ myocardium perfusion SPECT image later carried out after the bone tracer injection with 16 hours this confirmed that it doesn't receive notable influence in spatial resolution by $^{99m}Tc$. But this investigation is only aimed to image quality, so it needs more investigation in patient's radiation dose and exam accuracy and precision. The exact guideline presentation about the exam interval should be made of the validation test which is exact and in which it is standardized about the affect of the crosstalk contamination according to the isotope use in which it is different later on.

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