• Title, Summary, Keyword: 질적 연구

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Association of instant noodle intake with metabolic factors in Korea: Based on 2013~2014 Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (성인 남녀에서 라면 섭취에 따른 대사적 지표 평가 : 2013~2014 국민건강영양조사 자료를 이용하여)

  • Yeon, Jee-Young;Bae, Yun-Jung
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.49 no.4
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    • pp.247-257
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between instant noodle intake and metabolic factors in Korean adults. Methods: Study subjects were 5,894 (male 2,293, female 3,601) aged 19~64 years who participated in the 2013~2014 KNHANES. Information on frequency and consumption of instant noodles was obtained by the food frequency questionnaires method in KNHANES (Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey), and subjects were classified according to age, sex, and instant noodle consumption (INC). Results: The frequency and consumption of instant noodles was 1.2 times/week and 1.2 servings in subjects. High INC group (${\geq}1$ serving/week) was significantly younger in age compared with the low INC group (< 1 serving/week). However, the high INC group had significantly higher waist circumference, metabolic factors (triglyceride, cholesterol, and HDL-cholesterol), and dietary intake (energy intake, fat, and sodium density) compared with the low INC group. Hyperglycemia showed association with higher risk of highest quartile of INC after adjustments for multiple confounding factors, including age, gender, household income, education, smoking, and alcohol compared with the lowest quartile (OR: 1.4, 95% CI: 1.1-1.8). In female, abdominal obesity showed association with higher risk of highest quartile of INC after adjustments for multiple confounding factors compared with the lowest quartile (OR: 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2-2.2). Conclusion: Consumption of instant noodles was associated with increased prevalence of abdominal obesity and hyperglycemia in women. These findings suggest an association of instant noodle consumption status with metabolic risk.

Study on Structural Factors of Agricultural Product Brand Equity Utilizing Major Brand by Item (품목별 주요 브랜드를 활용한 농산물 브랜드자산의 구성요인에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Don-Woo;Kim, Tae-Kyun;Lin, Qing-Long
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.17 no.11
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    • pp.682-690
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    • 2016
  • In order to present a realistic alternative to agricultural product brands which achieve quantitative growth but minimal qualitative growth, this study attempted to identify the structural factors that affect the agricultural product brand equity and quantitatively analyze the effects of the structural factors on the brand equity. For the quantitative analysis, a survey was conducted among customers with a structured questionnaire. The major results of the analysis are as follows. First, the structural factors of the agriculture product brand equity were theoretically reviewed through many preceding studies in regard to the brand and brand equity. Awareness, quality and loyalty were selected as the structural factors of the agriculture brand equity. Second, when the sub-structural factors of the agriculture product brand equity were analyzed, it was found that awareness includes familiarity, first reminding level, general awareness, sub-awareness, frequency of reference and level of people's logo recollection. Quality includes quality consistence, quality reliability, quality stability, general quality and quality for price. Loyalty includes recommendation, purchase intention, cost premium and repurchase intention. Third, in the analysis of the factors of awareness, quality and loyalty were found to be statistically significant at the 1% level of significance, and it turned out that the higher the awareness, quality and loyalty, the higher the brand equity. Fourth, the factors most influencing the brand equity differed from those obtained using the standardized coefficients. The highest standardized coefficients of the factors on rice and condiment vegetables were those for quality with values of 0.486 and 0.581, respectively, and the highest standardized coefficients of the factors on fruits and fruit vegetables were those for loyalty with values of 0.536 and 0.490, respectively. Finally, it was found to be more effective to develop brand policies using an approach based on awareness, quality and loyalty by item. Also, focusing on enhancing the quality when developing brand policies for rice and vegetables, or focusing on enhancing loyalty when developing brand policies for fruit and vegetables was found to be more efficient using the limited resources.

Evaluation on Organ Dose and Image Quality of Lumbar Spine Radiography Using Glass Dosimeter (유리선량계를 이용한 요추검사의 장기선량 및 영상의 평가)

  • Kim, Jae-Kyeom;Kim, Jeong-Koo
    • Journal of radiological science and technology
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    • v.39 no.1
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    • pp.1-11
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    • 2016
  • The purpose of this study was to provide resources for medical exposure reduction through evaluation of organ dose and image resolution for lumbar spine around according to the size of the collimator in DR system. The size of the collimator were varied from $8^{\prime\prime}{\times}17^{\prime\prime}$ to $14^{\prime\prime}{\times}17^{\prime\prime}$ by 1" in AP and lateral projection for the lumbar spine radiography with RANDO phantom. The organ dose measured for liver, stomach, pancreas, kidney and gonad by the glass dosimeter. The image resolution was analyzed using the Image J program. The organ dose of around lumbar spine were reduced as the size of the collimator is decreased in AP projection. There were no significant changes decreasing rate whenever the size of the collimator were reduced 1" in the gonad. The organ dose showed higher on liver and kidney near the surface in lateral projection. There were decreasing rate of less than 5% in liver and kidney, but decreasing rate was 24.34% in the gonad whenever the size of the collimator were reduced 1". Organ dose difference for internal and external of collimator measured $549.8{\mu}Gy$ in the liver and $264.6{\mu}Gy$ in the stomach. There were no significant changes organ dose difference that measured $1,135.1{\mu}Gy$ in the gonad. Image Quality made no difference because SNR and PSNR were over than 30 dB when the collimator size is less than $9^{\prime\prime}{\times}17^{\prime\prime}$ on AP projection and $10^{\prime\prime}{\times}17^{\prime\prime}$ on lateral projection. Therefore, we are considered that the recommendations criterion for control of collimator were suggested in order to reduce unnecessary X-ray exposure and to obtain good image quality because lumbar spine radiography contains a lot of peripheral organs rather than other area radiography.

Effect of Stem Cell-Derived Conditioned Medium on the In Vitro Maturation and Embryonic Development of Parthenogenetic Embryos in Pigs (Stem Cell-Derived Conditioned Medium 첨가가 돼지난자의 체외성숙 및 단위발생란의 초기배 발육에 미치는 영향)

  • Kwon, Dae-Jin;Hwang, In-Sul;Kwak, Tae-Uk;Oh, Keon Bong;Ock, Sun-A;Chung, Hak-Jae;Im, Gi-Sun;Hwang, Seongsoo
    • Reproductive and Developmental Biology
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.89-95
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    • 2015
  • The addition of growth factors and cytokines to in vitro culture (IVC) media could affect embryo development and the quality of the resulting blastocysts. The present study was performed to investigate the effect of porcine induced pluripotent stem cell (piPSC)-culture conditioned medium (CM) on the in vitro maturation (IVM) and development of parthenogentic embryos (parthenotes) in pigs. Cumulus-oocyte complexes (COCs) or activated oocytes were cultured in IVM or IVC medium supplemented with 0 (control), 25, or 50% of stem cell medium (SM) or CM, respectively. The maturation rate of CM-25% group was significantly improved when compared with control group (p<0.05), but that was not different among SM or CM groups. Blastocyst formation rate was significantly higher in CM-25% group (29.2%) than that of control (20.7%), SM-50% (19.6%) and CM-50% (23.66%, p<0.05). Cell number and the apoptotic cell index in blastocysts was significantly lower in SM-25% than in CM-25% group (p<0.05). The embryo quality related genes, OCT4, KLF4, TERT and ZFP42, were significantly increased in CM-25% group compared with control (p<0.05). In conclusion, the addition of 25% of CM to IVM and IVC medium positively influences not only the developmental potential also quality of parthenotes in pig.

A study on consumers' consumption culture of Panax ginseng -Focused on college students' attitude and purchase intent for ginseng, and related products - (소비자의 인삼 소비문화 -대학생 소비자의 인삼에 대한 태도 및 구매의도를 중심으로-)

  • Kim, Siwuel
    • Journal of Ginseng Culture
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    • v.2
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    • pp.71-83
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    • 2020
  • College students are the potential income classes preparing for income activities and are the main consumers of the future that are very important. In order to understand the current state of ginseng-related consumption culture of young consumers, this study wanted to examine university students' attitudes toward ginseng-related products and services in the future, and to find out their purchasing status, satisfaction, and intent to purchase them. In doing so, we looked at the relative influence of the relevant variables that affect the intent of the purchase. As a result, the variables that affect college student consumers' intention to purchase ginseng-related products were shown in the order of their reliability, economy, purchasing experience, subjective interest, monthly income, monthly allowance, pride in ginseng, and age. Of these, most of the variables had positive effects, but the average monthly income, monthly allowance, and age had negative effects. In other words, the higher the reliability, economy, and self-esteem of ginseng, the higher the willingness to buy ginseng, the higher the subjective interest in ginseng, the higher the age, the lower the monthly allowance, and the lower the income, the lower the willingness to buy ginseng. To promote college students' consumption of ginseng products, it is necessary to cut prices for the younger generation, enhance the quality of the products for the younger generation, improve the taste to overcome the negative aspects of rejecting the bitter and bitter taste, and, above all, induce consumers' attention. It is also necessary to expand accessibility through the development of convenient and easy-to-eat products for young people and the expansion of sales outlets. Recently, young consumers are interested in new products they have never experienced before, products that are good to certify because of their unique design or packaging, and retro products that stimulate nostalgia in the past, so they need to promote and provide information related to consumption of ginseng products in this regard. Considering the practicality and convenience of consumers, we propose consideration of personal consumers' taste curation services, which reflect their preference for products that are convenient to carry with them in line with various living environments, and can have synergy with other products.

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The Computer Monitor's Image Evaluated at The Target of The Falsification According to The New Conception of The Falsification Made by Regarding the Reproduced Document as The Document of Document crime (복사문서의 문서간주가 창출한 새로운 변조개념에 의해 문서변조행위대상으로 평가되는 컴퓨터모니터 이미지)

  • Ryu, Seok-Jun
    • Journal of Legislation Research
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    • no.44
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    • pp.725-756
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    • 2013
  • In this paper, the possibility of extension of falsification conception was investigated to discuss the validity of this precedent. Consequently this extension was indispensible according to the article 237-2 of criminal code which regards the reproduced document as the document in the document crime. However, this is against the security of human right. On the contrary, there is not this kind of article in the German criminal code and the German precedents and majority theory are negative to regard it as the criminal document. And also, there is the pont of view that the reproduced document is not the criminal document because it's not the expression itself of document nominee's intention, so the article 237-2 should be demolished in Korea. According to this opinion, the serious reconsideration should be required in the legislation of this article 237-2. Nevertheless, if this extended conception is needed and it's possible, the meaning of the computer monitor's image is not able to be ignored in the conception of falsification. Therefore this should be regarded as the element of the falsification conception. In other words, this can't be evaluated as the object of falsification but the target of falsification, according to the conception extension, though the precedents do not regard it as the document in document crime.

The Study of Zhuzi's Gewuzhizhi Theory (『대학(大學)』해석(解釋)을 통해 본 주자(朱子)의 격물치지론(格物致知論))

  • Seo, Geun Sik
    • (The)Study of the Eastern Classic
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    • no.33
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    • pp.359-384
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    • 2008
  • Making Daxue("大學") which was originally the 43rd chapter of Liji("禮記") independent, Zhuzi(朱子) had reedited it into Daxuezhangju("大學章句") and in this process, he had added 134 letters thereto. Those 134 letters that added were concerned with gewuzhizhi(格物致知) and Zhuzi(朱子)'s such interpretation had made a great deal of contribution to the later interpretations of Daxue("大學") conducted by those scholars who followed him in a later age. Zhuzi(朱子) had interpreted gewu(格物) as to make a exhaustive study on principles of things or noumena that exist between heaven and earth. If gewu(格物) taking it for granted, denotes thorough investigation of the principles of things, it is considered that qiongli(窮理) is a more appropriate expression. Meanwhile, however, Zhuzi(朱子) argues that the reason for dubbing it gewu(格物), not calling it qiongli(窮理), is to see a thing as it is in itself. This is to emphasize that investigation of things and extension of knowledge gewuzhizhi(格物致知) is shixue(實學), not a xuxue(虛學). Zhizhi(致知) is a step through which my knowledge is being culminating in the most comprehensive and profound fashion. Specifically, Zhizhi(致知) is the phase to seek zhenzhi(眞知) having put together all knowledge gained through gewu(格物). In this true understanding, there is no room for one's own free will to intervene; zhenzhi(眞知) becomes the same as universal knowledge. The things accumulated in quantity through gewuzhizhi(格物致知) are to be changed by means of huoranguantong(豁然貫通). If we put gewuzhizhi(格物致知) as the quests of basic and general subjects, meanwhile, huoranguantong(豁然貫通) corresponds to more profound and sophisticated learning. Huoranguantong(豁然貫通) is a phase in which my principle and the universal principle become unified, and so, this is the phase where the standards in my mind will attain universality. That is to say, this means that the standards in my mind and the universal standards grow into one. Then, what is the ultimate purpose of gewuzhizhi(格物致知)? The ultimate purpose of gewuzhizhi(格物致知) is to reach zhishan(至善). If gewuzhizhi(格物致知) seeks zhishan(至善), those universal standards in my mind that attained through huoranguantong(豁然貫通) shall also be the criteria of that zhishan(至善). Viewing it from this perspective, it can be said that Zhuzi(朱子)'s gewuzhizhi(格物致知) contains both epistemological and logical aspect.

Long-term Results of Taking Anti-oxidant Nutritional Supplement in Intermediate Age-related Macular Degeneration (중기 나이관련황반변성 환자에서 항산화영양제 복용 후 장기 관찰 결과)

  • Bang, Seul Ki;Kim, Eung Suk;Kim, Jong Woo;Shin, Jae Pil;Lee, Ji Eun;Yu, Hyeong Gon;Huh, Kuhl;Yu, Seung-Young
    • Journal of The Korean Ophthalmological Society
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    • v.59 no.12
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    • pp.1152-1159
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: We prospectively investigated clinical changes and long-term outcomes after administration of the drugs recommended by the Age-Related Eye Disease Study-2 to patients with intermediate age-related macular degeneration (AMD). Methods: This prospective multicenter study enrolled 79 eyes of 55 patients taking lutein and zeaxanthin. The primary endpoint was contrast sensitivity; this was checked every 12 months for a total of 36 months after treatment commenced. The secondary endpoints were visual acuity, central macular thickness, and drusen volume; the latter two parameters were assessed using spectral domain optical coherence tomography. Results: The mean patient age was $72.46{\pm}7.16years$. Contrast sensitivity gradually improved at both three and six cycles per degree. The corrected visual acuity was $0.13{\pm}0.14logMAR$ and did not change significantly over the 36 months. Neither the central macular thickness nor drusen volume changed significantly. Conclusions: Contrast sensitivity markedly improved after treatment, improving vision and patient satisfaction. Visual acuity, central retinal thickness, and drusen volume did not deteriorate. Therefore, progression of AMD and visual function deterioration were halted.

Smart Device Usage-Related Factors are Correlated with Self-Regulation Ability in Early Childhood (유아 스마트 기기 사용 관련 요인들과 자기조절 능력 발달과의 상관관계)

  • Cho, Sang Yeun;So, Hye Jin;Lim, Sung Min;Koh, Min Sook;Song, Kil Yun;Moon, Jin-Hwa
    • Journal of the Korean Child Neurology Society
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    • v.26 no.3
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    • pp.135-145
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    • 2018
  • Purpose: To investigate the relationship between the smart devices usage-related factors and self-regulation ability development in early childhood. Methods: Parental questionnaires of 187 children aged 3-6 years were analyzed. The metrics included smart device usage frequency (times/week, scored as uFreq), smart device usage time (hours/day, scored as uTime), parental scale for appropriate smart device usage level (scored as uLevel), the Korean-developmental screening test (K-DST), and the scale for self-regulation ability in young children (scored as SRS, and including four sub-categories: self-appraisal, self-determination, behavior inhibition, and emotionality). The correlations were analyzed by total age group and by each age. Results: In the total age group analysis, uFreq and uTime were negatively correlated with mean SRS ($r_s=-0.366$, -0.330; P<0.001) and sub-category SRS ($r_s=-0.186$ to -0.370; P<0.05). Mean uLevel score was positively correlated with mean SRS ($r_s=0.406$; P<0.001) and most of the mean sub-category SRS ($r_s=0.174$ to 0.362; P<0.05). In 3-year-old children, the mean SRS was strongly negatively correlated with uFreq ($r_s=-0.751$; P<0.001), negatively correlated with uTime ($r_s=-0.518$; P<0.001), and positively correlated with mean uLevel score ($r_s=0.533$; P=0.013). Such correlations seemed to decrease at the age of 4-6 years. Conclusion: Self-regulation ability was significantly correlated with smart devicerelated factors and was the highest in the 3-year-old children. Encouraging appropriate smart device usage will be helpful for self-regulation development of young children.

The Zhouyi and Artificial Intelligence (『주역』과 인공지능)

  • Bang, In
    • Journal of Korean Philosophical Society
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    • v.145
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    • pp.91-117
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    • 2018
  • This paper aims to clarify the similarities and differences between the Zhouyi and artificial intelligence. The divination of the Zhouyi is rooted in the oldest system of human knowledge, while artificial intelligence stands at the cutting edge of modern scientific revolution. At first sight, there does not appear to be any association that links the one to the another. However, they share the same ground as seen from a semiotic standpoint because both of them depend on the semiotic system as a means of obtaining knowledge. At least four aspects can be pointed out in terms of similarities. First, artificial intelligence and the Zhouyi use artificial language that consists of semiotic signs. Secondly, the principle that enables divination and artificial intelligence lies in imitation and representation. Thirdly, artificial intelligence and the Zhouyi carry out inferences based on mathematical algorithms that adopt the binary system. Fourth, artificial intelligence and the Zhouyi use analogy as a means of obtaining knowledge. However, those similarities do not guarantee that the Zhouyi could arrive at the scientific certainty. Nevertheless, it can give us important insight into the essence of our civilization. The Zhouyi uses intellect in order to get new information about the unknown world. However, it is hard to know what kind of intellect is involved in the process of divination. Likewise, we do not know the fundamental character of artificial intelligence. The intellect hidden in the unknown subject is a mystic and fearful existence to us. Just as the divination of the Zhouyi inspires the sense of reverence toward the supernatural subject, we could not but have fear in front of the invisible subject hidden in artificial intelligence. In the past, traditional philosophy acknowledged the existence of intellect only in conscious beings. Nonetheless, it becomes evident that human civilization ushers into a new epoch. As Ray Kurzweil mentioned, the moment of singularity comes when artificial intelligence surpasses human intelligence. In my viewpoint, the term of singularity can be used for denoting the critical point in which the human species enters into the new phase of civilization. To borrow the term of Shao Yong(邵雍) in the Northern Song Dynasty, the past civilization belongs to the Earlier Heaven(先天), the future civilization belongs to the Later Heaven(後天). Once our civilization passes over the critical point, it is impossible to go back into the past. The opening of the Later Heaven foretold by the religious thinkers in the late period of Joseon Dynasty was a prophecy in its own age, but it is becoming a reality in the present.